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tent to which they are evaded where such legal requirement does not exist, is probably not generally appreciated. The committee bave had before them statistics of one such country, which show that in 8 per cent. of the collisions reported the master of one of the vessels left the other to take care of herself and her people, and get away without being known. In these instances there was loss of life upon some of the vessels so abandoned, some went down, and all suffered damage. It would seem, then, that any effective measure which might prevent such a practice, or make it less frequent, would not only be in the interest of humanity, but also aid in securing justice in regard to the rights of property. The committee, therefore, are of the opinion that in case of collision between two vessels, the master or person in charge of each vessel should be required, so far as he can without danger to his own vessel, crew, or passengers, to stay by the other vessel until he has ascertained that she has no need of further assistance, and to render to the other vessel, her master, crew, and passengers, such assistance as may be practicable and necessary in order to save them from any danger caused by the collision; and also to give to the master or person in charge of the other vessel, the name of his own vessel, and of her port of registry, or of the port or place to which she belongs, and the name of the ports and places from which and to which she is bound.
“So far as the committee can learn, the laws of those countries which have taken action upon the subject are to the above effect, substantially agreeing in defining the duties of masters, although the infraction of the law is differently dealt with in the different countries.
“In expressing the foregoing opinion the committee are unanimous, but a minority think the Conference should indicate what, in their opinion, the penalty of failure to comply with the duties prescribed should be. The majority, however, do not deem this necessary, believ. ing that the consequences of disobedience to their laws can and will be properly taken care of by the several governments, without suggestion from the Conference.
“For the information of the Conference, the enactments of Great Britain upon the subject, which prescribe severer penalties for disregard of the duties imposed than those of any other nation, are appended to this report. (See Appendix A.)
(1) Apparatus for life-saving to be carried on board ship. (Lifeboats, life-preservers, life-rafts, pumps, and fire-extinguishing apparatus.)
" The government of Chili has made the most liberal provision that the committee have knowledge of for the safety of life on shipboard, requiring her vessels to be furnished with boats sufficient in number and capacity to afford the greatest security possible to everybody on board in case of disaster. (See Appendix B.) The committee, however, do not regard the universal application of this provision as practicable under existing conditions. They believe that the basis upon which an agreement between the several nations is most likely to be established is to be found in the · Rules of the Board of Trade of Great Britain, under the • Merchant Shipping (Life-Saving Appliances) Act of 1888, which are to go into effect on March 31, 1890. These rules provide for almost all cases that may arise under the vicissitudes of navigation, while they are sufficiently elastic to admit of adjustment to the various conditions existing in the countries interested, without violating their spirit. (See Appendix C.)
6. The committee also recommend the extension of the principle of these rules to all smaller craft as far as practicable, and that each ves
sel of this class should carry at least one life-buoy of approved pattern and material, and for every person on board an efficient life-belt or jacket.
“The means of extinguishing fire on vessels has become to a consid. erable extent a matter relating to their construction, and the observation of members of the committee is tbat in most vessels recently built great care is taken to make due provision in this respect, it being for the interest of the owners to do so. Most of the maritime nations have also enacted laws which provide for a suitable equipment of pumps and other devices. Perhaps, therefore, there is now no great necessity for action upon the subject by the Conference. However this may be, it would be impracticable for the committee to prescribe any definite system, as it would involve a careful classification of vessels and a thorough study of a variety of apparatus, the necessary information and data for which it would be impossible to procure, properly consider, and report upon in season to be of avail to the Conference.
"(c) The use of oil and the necessary apparatus for its use.'
“There has been placed before the committee much matter relating to this subject, consisting chiefly of reports from vessels that have used oil for calming dangerous seas, accounts of trials and experiments made under various conditions, deductions drawn from such reports and experiments, and directions for the application of oil under various conditions and circumstances.
“An examination of this material and the information the committee already possessed, have led to the conclusion that there need be no longer any doubt that the proper application of oil is efficacious on the open sea, but that there are conditions under which the action of breaking waves is not thereby much, if at all, modified. Its effect on the surf
. over bars at the mouths of rivers and those lying off beaches is especially doubtful. A circular letter relative to the Use of oil at sea,' issued by the Board of Trade of Great Britain, says: 'In a surf, or waves breaking on a bar, where a mass of liquid is in actual motion in shallow water, the effect of the oil is uncertain, as nothing cau prevent the larger waves from breaking under such circumstances; but even here it is of some service. Other official documents declare that in an exhaustive series of experiments no effect whatever was produced upon the surf breaking over the outlying bars of beaches.
". The committee are of the opinion that all sea-going vessels should be supplied with a proper quantity of animal or vegetable oil (which seems to be more effective than mineral) and with suitable appliances for its distribution. For ordinary voyages the quantity need not be large. The best means of vistributing it that bave been brought to the atten. tion of the committee appear to be those specified by Vice-Admiral Cloué, published in a circular issued by the French Government. (See Appendix D.) “.(d) Uniform inspections as to (b) and (c.)'
"If the maritime nations should agree upon uniform requirements in respect to life-saving apparatus to be carried on board ship, and to the use of oil and the necessary apparatus for its use, uniform inspections might perhaps be advantageous; but it would be impossible to formu. late an adequate system for this purpose without knowing definitely what these requirements might be, and even then it would be doubtful, considering the great diversity of administrative methods and machinery in different countries, whether any practicable system could be de. vised that would be acceptable to all.
“2. Saving of life and property from shipwreck by operations from shore.
“ The committee have had before them a number of valuable papers de. scribing the organization and methods of institutions for the saving of life from shipwreck, and indicating the extent and results of their work. These will be found in Appendices E and F. An examination of them clearly shows that these institutions are all managed by men whose hearts are in their work, and who may be trusted to use every means known to them for perfecting the apparatus and methods employed for the rescue of unfortunates cast upon their shores. The organization of the service in each country must necessarily vary according to the condition and temper of the people and the character and babits of the coast population from which the men constituting the effective life-saving force must be drawn. It is, therefore, deemed impracticable to formuJate any definite rules which would be applicable to all alike. It appears desirable, however, that the officers of every organization should study the features of the others, in order that they may adopt such improvements as seem suitable for their own. Some of the establishments ap. pear to have been brought to a high degree of excellence.
“It seems desirable that careful attention should be given to the frequent drilling and exercising of life saving crews. It is also deemed important that a watch or patrol sbould, wherever practicable, be established upon dangerous coasts at night, and during thick weather by day, not only for the early discovery of wrecks, but in order to warn off vessels that may be incautiously standing into danger. Coast-guards are established in various countries for the prevention of smuggling, and where this is the case they can be utilized to give timely notice and assistance to life-saving crews, or even to constitute such crews, as is already done in some countries.
“With regard to special varieties of life-boats and other appliances, the committee believe that the matter can be safely trusted to the judgment and discretion of the officers in charge of the life-saving institutions of the several countries. The requirements vary so greatly upon different coasts that boats and appliances effective in one place are often ill-adapted or useless in another. Besides, the preferences of the men employed have to be considered; they usually having greater confidence in particular models because they are accustomed to them. Confidence in the appliances a crew is required to use is, in general, an admitted essential to success. No one can judge of these matters so well as the officers whose duty it is to study the local conditions, and who are thoroughly acquainted with the predjudices and habitudes of the men.
" It is desirable that officers of life-saving institutions should generally communicate freely with each other with reference to any improvements that may occur to them, either in apparatus, methods, or organization, with a view both to the diffusion of information concerning such matters, and to establishing an international comity with regard to a beneficent work.
“With reference to subsection (d), Uniform means of transmitting information between stranded vessels and the shore, the committee would say that co-operation between mariners upon a wrecked vessel and those who wish to assist them upon shore is of the highest importance. The most earnest attempts at aid may be rendered nugatory if the shipwrecked are not aware of what is required of them. In order to secure this co-operation various means have been devised in maritime countries, such as attaching tally-boards to the lines of the beach apparatus, the publication of instructions in the official log-books distributed to vessels, the issuing of pamphlets or cards of such instructions, or the very excellent method of pisting, in the forecastle, or some convenient place in a vessel, a durable placard showing by illustrations the manner in which life saving lines are to be secured on board and giving necessary instructions relative thereto.
“All these measures are good, but the instructions have not been as generally distributed amoug vessels of all nationalities as they should be, and with a view to the universal diffusion of this information it is recommended that a uniform system of issuing and distributing such instructions be adopted by the several maritime nations.
6 The committee are also of the opinion that the instructions generally issued do not adequately provide for co-operation between the ship and the shore, and that they sbould be supplemented by a few simple sig. nals for the purpose of direct communication. The ivternational code can often be used in the day-time, but a still simpler system should be provided for the few signals required. It is believed that the signals absolutely necessary can be reduced to very few, and that the adoption and publication of such a system would be of great benefit in the emergencies of shipwreck.
“ If it be determined to establish an international code of night-sig. nals, such as is referred to in General Division 8 of the programme(* Night-Signals for Communicating Information at Sea')—the signals needed for communicating at night between wrecked vessels and the shore ought to be incorporated therein. If it should prove impracticable to adopt a system of vight-siguals for the international code, it may yet be worti considering whether the few signals needed for use at wrecks ought not to be adopted. Such a system is recommended by
. the committee, and will be found described in detail in the fourth resolutiou at the close of this report. Every signal there mentioned has been found necessary in emergencies that have actually arisen in service.
“3. Official inquiries into causes and circumstances of shipwrecks and other casualties.
“For countries which have not already provided by legislative enactments for official inquiries into the causes and circumstances of ship wrecks or other accidents to vessels that are of serious importance, the adoption of such laws is recommended, as it is believed that they are the most effective means by which masters and officers of vessels can be impressed with a proper sense of the serious responsibility that rests upon them, and that they therefore constitute one of the most important safeguards for life and property afloat that it is possible to devise. They would also add to the efficiency of laws designed to prevent the sending out of unseaworthy and overloaded vessels where such laws exist, and where they do not, would, to a certain extent, operate in their stead. They would, moreover, give information which might be of great value in showing the general causes and distribution of wrecks, and indirectly indicate the methods by which casualties might be averted or lessened.
6. The committee have formulated the foregoing recommendations into the following propositions, which are submitted for the consideration of the Conference:
61. * In every case of collision between two vessels, it shall be the duty * NOTE.-This proposition is stated in the form and language of the “ New Section" proposed November 26, 1889, to be added to the "Rules of the Road;" the consideration of which the Conference have voted to postpone, pending the presentation of this report.
of the master or person in charge of each vessel, if, and so far as he can do so without danger to his own vessel, crew, and passengers (if any), to stay by the other vessel until he has ascertained that she has no need of further assistance, and to render to the other vessel, her master, crew, and passengers (if any), such assistance as may be practicable, and as may be necessary in order to save them from any danger caused by the collision; and also to give to the master or person in charge of the other vessel, the name of his own vessel, and of her port of registry, or of the port or place to which she belongs, and also the names of the ports and places from which and to which she is bound.
“ 2. Resolved, That the Conference approve of the principle of the • Rules made by the Board of Trade of Great Britain under the Merchant Shipping (Life-Saving Appliances) Act, 1888,' relating to boats and appliances to be carried on board ship for saving life; and recommend that the several governments adopt measures to secure compliance with this principle in regard to such boats and appliances for vessels of 150 tous and upwards, gross tonnage.
“It is also recommended that the principle of these Rules be extended to all smaller craft, as far as practicable; and that each vessel of this class should carry at least one life-buoy of approved pattern and material, and for every person on board an efficient lite-belt or jacket.
“3. Resolved, That the Conference recommend that the several governments require all their sea-going vessels to carry a sufficient quantity of animal or vegetable oil, for the purpose of calming the sea in rough weather, together with suitable means for applying it.
“4. Resolved, That ibe Conference recommend that all institutions for saving life from wrecked vessels prepare uniform instructions to mariners with reference to their co-operation with those attempting their rescue from the shore, and that said instructions include the fol. lowing signals:
“Upon the discovery of a wreck by night the life-saving force will burn a red pyrotechnic light or a red rocket to signify •You are seen ; assistance will be given as soon as possible.'
“A red flag waved on shore by day, or a red light, red rocket, or red roman candle displayed by night, will signify—“Haul away.'
"A white flag waved on shore by day, or a white light slowly swung back and forth, or a white rocket or white roman candle fired by night will signify-Slack away.'
“ Treo flags, a white and a red, waved at the same time on shore by day, or twoo lights, a white and a red, slowly sioung at the same time, or a blue pyrotechnic light burned by night, will signify: Do not attempt to land in your own boats; it is impossible.'
- A man on shore beckoning, by day, or two torches burning near together, by night, will signify: “This is the best place to land.'
“ Any of these signals may be answered from the vessel as follows : In the day.time-by waving a flag, a handkerchief, a hat, or even the hand; at night-by firing a rocket, a blue light or a gun, or by showing a light over the ship's gunwale for a short time and then concealing it.'
" And it is recommended that the several governments take measures to keep all their sea-going vessels supplied with copies of such instructions.
65. Resolved, That the Conference recommend that the several na. tions provide by legislative enactments for official inquiry into the causes and circumstances of all shipwrecks and other serious casualties happening to their vessels.