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Mr. Mackinnon on Latin and Greek Medals.
publication, will be that part of antiquity to us the necessity and use of cultivating relating to the inscriptions on medals. that study which affords not only the The several languages which compose greatest entertainment, but is at the these inscriptions are according to the same time a source of the most useful several countries in which they were information. The most ancient inedals coined: but those which I shall chiefly are those of Greece; for the Greeks, consider, are the Latin and Greek in- long before the foundation of Rome, scriptions. The Latin was always the coined money, and that with so much reigning language in every country wbere art, that the inost flourishing state of the the Romans were masters, and after it Roman republic could scarcely equal became a dead language by the destruc- their perfection. The Greeks had medals tion of the Roman monarchy, it was still both of their kings and cities: the niost preserved for all public monuments and antient were those of the former, while considerable pieces of money, in all the figures of the latter have a design, a states of the Christian empire; while posture, a force, and a delicacy, exGreek inscriptions were most universally pressing the very muscles and veins, used for medals, the Roipans having als which infinitely surpass those of the ways a respect for that language, so Roman. The larger Greek character much so, that they gloried in a right pro- bas preserved itself the same upon all nunciation and understanding of it, and medals, without any appearance of althus they allowed those cities of the teration or change in the form of the East, in which there existed any number letters, though there was in the use and of Greeks, lo preserve the Greek lan. pronunciation. There is only the letter guage upon their medals, which accounts 3 that could not continue longer than for the several cities of Sicily and Italy, Domitian's time; for after that period those also of Provence, and Magna we always find it changed into Cor , if Græcia, using the Greek tongue upon it is either in the beginning, middle, or their medals. We might indeed mention end of a word: Z and z is marked by=; as a third class of medals, those having r by r; r by C; 2 by w; and w by ew. Arabick inscriptions. But these not There is a mixture of Latin and Greek being so ancient as the two former, nor not only in the lower, but also in the the language so generally understood, colonies of the higher empire: the Latin investigation on their part cannot be so S.R.F. is put for the Greek C.P.e. Again, interesting as those having the Grecian E is often put for M, as in the word and Roman characters. Thus, upon re- ARENAISN; 0 tor se, as HPOC; H in the ferring back to the first ages, we shall form of a pure aspiration, as HIMEPAILN; find that the Greek and Latin inscrip- z for £, as ZMYPNAIAN;. and i for Z, as tions then appeared in all their beauty, Erc; or even zaerc for ZZETC; A for si both on-account of the purity of theic at the end of people's names, as APOAexpression and the exactness of their ANNIATAN KTANNIATAN for Tan. Many character; and by tracing them down other proofs of this sort might now be to the present period, we shall also ob- brought forward, to shew that one letter serve, that as by degrees empires them- is frequently put for another. Though selves declined, at the same time began this change took place, the character reto decline both their languages and cha- tained its beauty till after the reign of racters Thus, in prosecuting these Gallienus, who fourished A. D. 260 ; studies, we shall discover that history especially upon the medals coined in itself is indebted to the information af Egypt, where the Greek was the least forded by inscriptions; for without the cultivated. After the reign of Constanassistance of those we should never have tine the Great to Michael Rhangabes, known that the son of Antoninus, by which was a period of almost 500 years, Faustina, was called Marcus Annius the Latin tongue alone appeared on Galerius Antoninus, had we not had a medals. Though these medals were Greek medal of that Princess, QEA coined for the most part at ConstantinoPATCTEINA, and on the reverse, M. ple, there may indeed be seen some ANMOCCAAPIOC ANTONINOC ATTOKPATR. Greek characters on the reverses : but POC ANTONINOT rioc. Nor should we these were only the marks of the different cver have known that there i ad been a Mint-masters, or Monogrammes, as we tyrant named Pacatianus, is his medal often see ok for Phocas, and ak for Leo had not informed us; or that Barbia Isauricus. In the medals of Michael Orbiana had been the wife of Alexander Rhangabes, the word Boorheug is found, Severus. These things evidently prove wbich ihe former emperors would never
111 take upon them. It was from this period force of an active and vigorous mind, then that the character began to be al- which disdained the trammels of traditered, as well as the language, which, tional prejudice, he made such importill the time of the Paleologi, is nothing tant and original discoveries as cannot but a mixture of Latin and Greek. but put him on a level with the com(To be continued.)
paratively small number of eminent cha
racters, who have hitherto distinguished MR. EDITOR,
themselves in the world, as genuine and IN answer to an enquiry made by a inventive philosophers. correspondent in your last, (for Dec.) · After removing from the grammar: Whether there exist any law to punish school of Duns, where he enjoyed the the voluntary swearing a false oath I-I singular advantage of being placed under beg leave to quote the following from the immediate eve and patronage of Mr. Blackstone's Commentaries, vol. iv. p. Croickshank,-be ablest scholar of 137. “ The law takes no notice of any whom Scotland had then to boast,-he perjury, but such as is committed in became a teacher of languages in the some court of justice having power to inetropolis of the North, where he soon administer an oath; or before some ma. attracted the notice, and acquired the gistrate, or proper officer invested with friendship, of the celebrated Cullen; by a similar authority, in some proceedings whom he was some years employed as relative to a civil suit or a criminal prose- amanuensis, and from whom he received cution: for it esteems all other oaths particular marks of favour and conhunnecessary at least, and therefore will dence. It has been long and truly obnot punish the breach of them; for which served, that the direction which genius reason, it is much to be questioned, how takes in life is frequently determined by far any magistrate is justifiable in taking accident, rather than propelled by naa voluntary affidavit in an extrajudicial ture. Such, at any rate, appears to manner, as is now too frequent upon have been the case with respect to Dr. every petty occasion; since it is more Brown, as is exemplified by himself in than possible, that by such idle oaths the masterly preface to his Elementa a man may frequently in foro conscientiæ Medicine ;-n composition, the latinity incur the guilt, and at the same time of which, in point of purity and strength, evade the temporal penalties of perjury." is unrivalled by that of any
proWhen, however, the guilt involves in it duction which has appeared since the a civil injury, it is doubtless punishable days of Lommius. in a judicial manner.
Happening, for a time, to labour unLondon, Jan, 1815. H. M.
der a severe fit of the gout, in which he
was unsuccessfully attended by Dr. Cuf MR. EDITOR,
len, he employed the occasional intervals Dr. John Brown, author of the Ele- from pain during his involuntary conmenta Medicina, and founder of what is finement, in the rigid examination of the commonly called the Brunonian Doe- system of medicine on which Dr. Cullen trine, was a memorable example of ne- proceeded, which was at that time the glected and oppressed genius. The na- prevalent and admired doctrine taaght tural powers of his mind were sufficient at the University of Edinburgh, and from to have raised him to eminence, in any which any deviation would have been department of intellectual distinction. regarded as little less than a species of He was a native of the village of Duns - heresy. After long and deliberate reathe birth-place of the celebrated school- soning with himself, he came to the conman and metaphysician, Duns Scotus, clusion, That the practice in general and in the earlier part of his life, no less adoption was founded in delusion and assiduous in the pursuit of knowledge error. than eminently successful in the acqui- This disposed him to pursue a plan of sition of it; insomuch that, at a very his own, widely different from that enjuvenile period, he obtained a profound joined him by, bis preceptor, which and comprehensive acquaintance with proving highly beneficial as to himself, the classical literature and general sci- and, consequently, of much importance ence of his time.
in as far as it regarded general doctrine, If there was any sphere of action, to he was thence induced to apply his fa which nature seenied in a peculiar man- culties to the intense pursuit of medical ner to have directed his genius, it was knowledge. unquestionably the study and improves His abilities were so powerful, and his ment of Medicine; in which, by the system so simple and luminous, that,
Biographical Sketch of Dr. John Brown. [March 1, among the ingenious and independent- subduction of which would be suddenly minded students at the University, he folloned by death. Of those stimuli was shortly followed by a numerous constantly exerting their action on the train of animirtis and proselytes. The animal economy, he atnrms and proves patural conrepence was, that the pio- that the operation of all is the same in fessors as well as the private practitioner, hind, und only different in degree. In of the place, had good reason to become a word, that the effect of them univeralarmed, foreseeing, as they did, in the sally is stimulant, or exciting; and that universal adoption of the Brunonian ibere is not a substance in nature whose doctrine, the detection and downtall of operation is of an opposite, or, as it has their own erroneous system and prace been falsely called, a sedative kind. The tice. Accordingly, the torrent of pre- operation of poisons themselves, and that judice against him and his followers at of certain deleterious gases and miasmalength rai so bigll, that the simple cir, ta, he contends, forms no exception to cumstance of a student being koown to this general law. He has shewn that have attended husk'cturis, became gene- the usual stimuli, or supports of life, rally understund to be sutlicient ground from the very nature of the animal ecofor his exclusion from a medical di- nomy, according to the degree or intenploma.
sity of their application during life, in The consequence of this professional the end are necessarily sooner or later resentment, as he was without powerful productive of death, connection or outficient interesi iu witb- The above is a very imperfect view of stand it, was that he ultimately, and this doctrine; but to enter farther into when too late, became convinced of the its exposition here, would much exceed necessity oi' petreating from Edinburgh the limits allowed by your miscellany. 1o London, in bopes that his system Suflice it to say, thai, if it he faulty in would obtain more liberal encourage- aiming at a degree of sin plification of ment, and himself and numerous family which the subjeci bas hilberio been unensure better protection among the more susceptible, and which, most likely, will generous acų unbiassed inhabitants of never be attainable; and it, in cases of the south...
daily occurrince, its fallibility at the paAud here, while we feel anxious to tent's ben-side must be admited by its conmemorate the talents and ingenuity warmesi advocates, it must still be conof this extraordinary man, we are con- fessed that, before the appearance of this pelled to lament that is genius was not splendid system, not a single phenowesecouded ly those prudential maxims of non in the animal economy had been salife which alone could have procured it tisfactorily explained. It must be alsplendor and effect,
lowed, that, it much remains still to be The result of his discovery was the cleared up, the veil, under which the exdemonstration, thas inost of the diseases planation of numerous interesting facts to which the animal economy is liable, relative to the human frame had from its especially ihes of the chronic kind, wbich creation lain concealed, has at length forai the bulk of buman diseases, owe been removed : and that, before the distheir origin to no other cause than debi- covery of this new light, nothing like an
or a deficiency of what he termed uniform principle had existed in any Excite:nini; while the others, which are system of medicine, pointing out the incomparatively few in number, and con, çimate connection of every part of the stitute the opposite forin, or that ofacute animal economy with every other part of diseases, depend on ercess of excitement. it, and the dependence of the whole on a He satisfactorily lemonstrated that the single cause, namely, the ercitability first, or usthenic form of diseasc, is to be lo fue, it cannot be denied that, before cured b, stimulant means; and that the the discovery of this comprehensive syslast, or șthenie torin', as he appropriately tem, nothing like the reasoning or lanstyled it is tin be removed by those of a gyaye of logic was 1 discoverable in the debilitating nature;, in other word, works of any of the preceding systema-, that the morbrio causcs of the one form ties; and that, bowever liable at times of discases ire the curative means of the the doctrine may be to ful in the avertother, and rice versa. Among the ge- ing of the hand of death, if its precepts neral positions of his doctrine', the lead- were practically follo ved in the conduct in one is that life is a forced state; that of life, it would tend more to the ameis to say, that it is every moment depen. lioration of morals than any express sysdent for its support on a variety of exter- tem of morality which lias ever yet been 44! agents, which he calls stimuli, the gilered to the world.
· Mr. Sepping's Improvement in Ship-vuilding.
Dr. Brown, in his lectures, which for- conclude; he was a mani,--to use the merly, in Exhimburgh, used to be delivered words of the immortal Shakspeare, in extemporaneous Latin, and latterly, in whose skill was alınot as great as his London; in unprepared loglish, illus- honesty: had it stretched so far, it would trated bis system and practice with equal have made Nature immortal, and Death learning, acumen, and philosophical pro- should have had play for lack of work, fundity.
Would, FOR THE KING'S SAKE, he had TH 2 same kind of sensation which was been living! I think it would be THE at fisi excited at the University of Erlin- DEATH OF THE KING'S DISEASE."-All's burgh, on the ap earance of the Ele- well that ends we!! menta Medicinæ, occasioning a vebement London, Jun. 1, 1815.
PHILOPATER. schism and uproar between the older and younger practitioners, has been pro- MR. EDITOR, ductive of similar effects and outrages IN turning over the New Monthly among the medical men in the different Magazine for May, 1814, I read (in parts of civilized Europe in which it has pave 356) that "Mr. Sepping described been diffused. But the original terent, an improvement, which he himself had having at length every where subsided, made, which adds to the stroogth and has left no other trace behind ir than a duration of ships, &c.; (according to well marked line, by wbich every rational the old mode of building, the different practitioner may regulate his conduct in timbeis en made to act on each other the treatinent of diseases with a degree at right anzles; according to the new of precision and certainty heretofore they act who quely;)"- and as in an artiunknown.
cle in the New Review, (understood to A fit of apoplexy proved fatal to him be written by the under-secretary of the at his house in Golden-square, London, Admiralty,) it is stated—“Mr. Sepping, on the morning of ihe 7th of October, the ingenious builder, of Chathan-yard, 1788. He left to bewail his loss a wife may be said to have established a new and eight children; four sons and the era in naval architecture :"-it were delike number of daughters. His oldest sirable that Mr. Sepp He's method should son, whom he called after Cullen, and be described for general information, in whose name is not unknown in the lite- order that we might be able to judge rary world, is at present on the ball pay between it and the principles of the dialist of surgeons in the royal navy, ti gonal trussing of M. G. uberi, mentioned which he has belonged between eight by M. Bouquer in 1740; and of crossand nine years. His second, who is bus planting the sides and decks, to prevent name-son, is surgeon in the army, of con- logging, as suggested by Mr. M'Conosiderable standing. The third son, Ford, Chie in 1805; and the transverse fraines, called aiter a foriner pupil of bis father, proposed by Mr. Boswell; as well as to Dr. Ford, is a purser in the navy, in ascertain whether the mode of blling in which he has continued for many years, the frame, and coating it all with bot And the youngest, Edward Stephens, pitclı, is diferent in principle from the named after Dr. Edward Stephens, well mode pursued in building a mortar vesknown by bis ingenious experiments on sel a few years ago, which prove), when the gastric juice, and who was formerly a opened, to be in a state of great rottenwarm espouser of the Brunonian doc- ness' in less than five years. trine, is a captain in the royal marines, If it should be proved that Mr. SepOnly two of the four daughters are at ping is really the inventor of a mode tog present living, Elizabeth and llenrietta; which old timber can be effectually suha the former called after one of tne daugh- stituted for new, and 140 oak-trees saved ters, and the latter after the late Dr, in the building of a single 74-gun slip; Henry Cullen, eldest son, of Dr. Callen. it is presumed that the promoting of Mr.
In private life his sociable and com- Sepping from a master--hipwright to be panionable qualities were but too well a surveyor of the navy, would be a very calculated to procure bim that recep- inadequate reward for so great a national tion, which frequently leads the soun lest object.
• INVESTIGATOT. judgment and the best of hearts from the proper boundaries of econ my and For the New Monthly Magazine. discretion. He was not less remarkable, A POPULAR VIEW OF THE ORGANS OF REfor the unsullied integrity of bis character and the simplicity of bis manners, Quadrupeds and Whales.--The lungs than for the p:ofundity of his learning of quadrupeds, like those of man, are and she originality of his genius. To divided into jobes, lobules, and minute
SPIRATION IN ANIMALS.
[March 1, which the small branches of soft, red, and comb-like filaments, atthe pulmonary arteries are spread. The tached above by means of a cartilage to lungs of such of these animals as pass the two rough or dentated bones of the the greater portion of their lives under palate, and below connected together the surface of tbe water, have a firnier by a cartilage in the skin of the throat. texture than the others, and are not The surface of the gills in some species divided into lobes, but are elongated of fishes is surprisingly great: that of and Aattened. The pleura of whales is the gills of a skate was calculated by of an elastic substance, and their larynx Dr. Monro to be equal to fifteen square is pushed up into their nostrils.
feet, or to the surface of the whole huBirds.-İn birds the lungs are of a man body. It is to be remarked that connected uniform substance, not redu. the most active fish have generally the cible into lobes or lobules, as in the largest surface of gills. Fishes in breathmammalia, though they contain nume- ing draw water into the mouth, at the rous minute air-cells. They are situated same time closing the apertures of the on each side of the dorsal spine. A gills with the large external membrane considerable portion of the thorax, as or cover with which they are supplied ; well as of the abdomen, is occupied by they then force the water through the inembraneous air cells, with which the gills, by which the air contained in it is Jungs communicate. There are others separated and permitted to operate upon situated amongst the muscles; and again the blood; the meinbranes of the gills others in the interior of the bones; the are then opened, and the water ejected greater part of which have a regular through the apertures. communication with the lungs, and are Crustaceous Animals, as crabs and of essential service to these animals in lobsters, have a kind of gills on each rendering their bodies lighter than they side of the body under the thorax, and otherwise would be, and thus aiding a little above the upper joints of the legs. their flight through the air. Birds have These gills are known by the common no diaphragm; neither are the muscular people in many parts of England by the portions of the lungs sufficient for respi. name of dead mens' flesh; and are conration : this, consequently, is performed sidered to be greatly injurious, if not hy a lid-like motion of the whole thorax; poisonous, to people eating them. which, being alternately raised and de- Insects. The structure of insects is pressed, creates an alternate enlarge- extremely curious. They have no disment and diminution of the abdominal coverable blood-vessels, and even the cavity. The barrels of the quills of birds highest magnifying powers exbibit noalso contain air, and can be filled and thing but ramifications of air-vessels. emptied at pleasure.
None of them breathe through the mouth, In Reptiles and Serpents, the cells of as in the warm-blooded tribes of anithe lungs are peculiarly large. They are mals; but in place of this, they are formerely membranous bags; more cellular nished usually along each side of the and vascular at their upper than their body, with several openings or tubes, lower extremity, which seems to serve which are denominated tracheæ, or spias a reservoir for air. Toads, frogs, racula These communicate with a la. lizards, &c. perform respiration by means teral spiral vessel, which ramifies over of their bag-like jaws, drawing the air and cominunicates with almost every through their nostrils, and swallowing it part of their body. The trachea are in the same manner as other animals do much larger and more numerous in the their food. In the turtles, however, the larva or caterpillar state of such insects structure is more complicated; since as undergo a metamorphosis, than after they appear to possess organs of inspira- they attain their perfect form. The tion and expiration, and their lungs are stigmata through which these communi. uniform in texture throughout; but the cate with the air, are particularly convesicles are very large. The tadpoles, spicuous along the sides of several of the or immatured offspring of toads, frogs, larger kinds of caterpillars. Some speand such lizards as breed in the water, cies of beetles, which reside principally are furnished with a kind of organ on under the surface of the water, have the. each side of the head, which somewhat tracheæ covered by their elytra or wingresembles the gills of a fish.
cases : in order to respire, they rise to Fishes.---The organs which supply the the surface of the water, open their place of lungs in fishes are denominated elytra a little, and inclose a bubble of gills. These are situated on the sides of air underneath, which they force through the head, and consist of several rows of the stigmata by compression in descend