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2. He said, that he would rather adore a temporal King than the wooden Cross aforesaid.

That he would rather honour the Bodies of Saints, than the true Cross of Christ on which Cbrift hung, fuppofing, that the crue Cross was before him.

Thar a Deacon and every Priest is more obliged to preach the Word of God, than to say Matins and other canonical Hours.

5. He also said, that he had many Days omitted Matins and the other canonical Hours, when he was in Health, because of different Occupa. tions, viz. hearing Confeffions, and Study, and, that on those Days be celebrated Mass; and said further, that a Priest in such wife occupied in Confeffions, Prayers, or Study, is not obliged to Jay Matins and other canonical Hours.

6. That if any one in foreign Parts vowed to take a Journey to the Tomb of St Thomas of Canterbury or elsewhere for obtaining any temporal Benefit, suppose, the Recovery of their Health, or the saving of their temporal Goods, or any thing of this kind, he is not obliged 10 perform that Vow, but to distribute the Expences of it in Alms to the Poor.

7.- That he had very often changed such Vows by the facerdotal Authority without tbe Authority of the Diocesan.

8. - That after the pronouncing the facramental Words of the Body of Christ, the Bread remains of the fame Nature which it was before, with the Body of Christ, and does not cease to be Bread.

- That he would rather adore a Man truly confessed and contrite, than the Cross on which Christ hung.

10. That he would and was obliged rather to adore a Man truly confessed and contrite, than any Angel of God.

These Errors and Hereges, as they were called, Sawire (i) abjured in Latin before the Bishop, and in English before the Clergy and People at Lynn, and did Penance.

On his being dismissed here he went to London, where he became parochial Chaplain of St Sythe the Virgin. But he had not been long here, when he was (k) complained of to the Convocation, towards the latter End of 1400, as a Relapse, and eight of the foregoing Articles exhibited againk him, the fifth and seventh being omitted. On which he was declared a Relapse, and fentenced to be degraded and delivered over to the secular Arm, and was accordingly the first who felt the Severity of the bloody and cruel Act pafled this very Year 1400, whereby it was enacted, “That any person relapfing should be barnt • for che Terror of others. But the Acts of the Convocation inform us, that the honourable Men the Lord Henry Percy Eari of Northumberland, Thomas Herpyngham the King's Chamberlain, and Thomas Northbury Steward of the Houshold, were sent on the Part of the King and fome of the Peers and Nobles of England, to intimate to the Archbishop and Bishops, &c. their Sense of the Danger of the Errors and Herefies which now so much abounded, and to fupplicate the Convocation to

provide (i) Atts and Monuments Vol. I. p.671, &c. Edit. 1632.

(*) Ic is of this which Mr Fox gives an Account in (he fira Volume of his A&s, and accordingly b: recites but ergor Asricice.


provide some Remedy against (/) them. This is widely different from T. Crosby's ignorant Account, That the Clergy suspecting Sawtre's Deo • fign, which, he says, must have been to get the established Religion • reformed, or a Toleration for such as dissented, got the matter wholly

to be referred to them in Convocation ; who foon condemned him as • an obftinate Heretick, and procured a Decree from the King for his burning.

That the Lollards were not against Infant Baptism, is plain enough from their Pecision to the Parliament, printed by Dr Peter Allix, in which they thus expressed themselves ---- Thow jieying of Children or [Ene before] they ben christened ben ful finful. So Walter Brute of Hereford, a learned and zealous Follower of Dr Wiclif, represented the Lollards, whom he files faithful Parents, as wishing with all their Hearts to have their Children baptized.

Mr Fox has been likewise reflected on by the same ignorant and dishoneft Writer, as 'not fairly ftating the Lollards Principles about Bap• tism, and taking no notice in his History of many among the Martyrs • as opposers of Infant Baptism, because he himself was a Padobaptif.'. And this Reflection is not confined to Mr Fox, but extended to all the English Church Historians, for want of a little more Knowledge and Candor. But Mr Fox informs us, that 'as touching their Articles which they, the « Lollards, did maintaine and defend, he found in the Regifters such Society and Agreement of Doctrine to be among them, that almost in • their Assertions and Articles there was no Difference, the Doctrine of

one was the Doctrine of all the other: That although it is to be • thought concerning these Articles, that many of them either were falsly obje&ted against them, or not truly reported of the Notaries, ac

cording as the common Manner is of these Adversaries, where the • Matter is good there to make Herefie, and of a little Occasion to • ftir up great Matter of Slander as they did before by the Articles of (m) John Wiclif and John Hus and others moe foc in like Manner, e

ic (1) This Act, it seems, was put in execution in the Kingdom of Scorland, tho' at that Time independent of England and governed by its own Laws. Thuis John de For. dun in his Scorichronicon p. 1163, 1298 edit. Oxon. tells us, that James Resby an English Presbyter of Wichif's School, and Paul Crower a Durcb Man, were both burnt chere to Ashes for Heresy' by the Order of Laurence de Lundons, Inquiltor of Heretical Pravity, unless it was the Law of Scoeland to punish Herely in this cruel Manner. Burning in England, before the passing this Act, was the Punishment of Ap stacy. Bp Stilling ficer's Ecclefi

. Cases. Fordun mentions none burnt in Scotland for Heresy till 1404, Four Years after the passing of this Act.

(m) Among the Articles of Dr Wiclif condemned by Archbp Arundel, and said to be taken out of his Book called Trialogus, the 4ch was this, that thry who define or determine, that the little Children of the Faithful dying withone Sacramental Baptism shall not be saved, are in this fools and presumptuous: When the Doctor's own Words were, that they are Fools, &c. who of their own knowledge or Aut harity

determine any thing in that Matter : Or whether Infants in the Case of his putting Thall be saved or damned if they die unbaptized. Life of Wictif p. 390, 391. The Council of Trent anathematized those who said Baptism was free, that is, not necessary to Salvation; and by the Cacechism is it declared, that the Law of Baytilm is so . prescribed to all Men by the Lord, that unless they are born again unto God by • the Grace of Bapeism, they are begotten by their Parents, whecher they are Be• lievers or Infide's, unto everlasting Misery and Death.' The Church of England. bras determined, That it is certain by God's Word, that Children which are baprized, dying before they commit attual Sin, are undoubtedly saved; but is quice filene con.


it seemeth, they did in the Articles of these Men, either mistaking that which they faid, or misunderstanding that which they meant,

especially in these two Articles concerning Baprifme and paying of Tithes. For whereas they speaking again the ceremonial and fuperfts

ous Traditions then used in Baptisme as Salt, Oyl, Spittke, Taper, Light, Crisomes, exorcising of the Water, with such other, accounted them

as no material Thing in the holy Institution of Baptisme, or not effential to it, the Notaries, slanderously depraving this their Affertion, to make it more odious to the Ears of the People, so gave out the

Article, as though they should hold, that the Sacrament of Paprisme ufed in the Church by Water is but a slight MATTER and of imall • Effect, or a needless Ceremony. Againe, in speaking against the . Christening which the Midwives used in private Houles, againft the

Opinion of such as think such Children th be damned which depart, or die before they come to their Baptisme, they are failly reported, as though they should say, that Chrifiian People be sufficiently baptized in the (2) Blood of Chrift, and need no Water; and, chat Infant: be suffi



cerning their Seate if they die unbaptized. Mr Fox transcribed from a Register of Hereford the following Words oi Walter Brute of that Place A D. 1393.

• 1 greatly " marvel at thac Saying in the Decrees, that lietle Children that are not baptized “shall be tormented with eternal Fire, al ho' they were born of faithful Parents ( who wishest them with all their Hearts to have been basized. How shall the

Infane be damned that is born of faithful Parents that do not despise but rather desire to have their Children baptized ?' Walden represented the opinion of W;cliff's Followers to be, that the ecclefiaftical Baptifin is useless to little Odes, fince

they are suficiently' clean and holy being born of holy and christian Parents; for ( which they constant y quoted the Apostle Paul's I. Epist'e to the Corinthians,

(hap. VII. Now are your Children holy. This he calls an Error hitherto unknown. Doctrinale Antiquit. Fidei & c. But if this was their Error, they would have baptized none which is contrary to Fact.

(n) By this seems to be meant, that the invisible and heavenly Thing of Baptism is the Birod of Chrift: That as Water washeth away the Filth of the Body, so the Blood of Christ cleanseth us from the Guilt and Pollution of Sin. Mr Cellier, from Harpsfield, e ls us, “ that whereas we are assured by our Saviour, that scepi a Man be burn of Water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God, Wiclif was so fingular as to affirm, that by these Words we are not to understand matcrial Water, but only the Water which flowed from our Saviour's Side in Con

jun&tion with the Baptism of the Spirit.' Dr Wiclis's own Words are, Dialog. Lib. IV. Cap. 12, Et fic ulterius quantum ad fidem Scripturæ Foannis III. Nifi quis rentsis fuerit &c. probabiliter dici poteft, quod Chriftus loquieur de Aqua quæ fuxit de suo Latere, et de Baptismo tertio, quia cercum videtur, quod Homo martyrisacus pro Cbrifta, licet non irroretur Aqua baptismatis noviter, 'eit falvandus. "Ideo videtur probabile ad illum sensum negacivum Christi inrelligere, fi ilicet, quod Nemo patefi introire in Regnum Cælorur, nisi baptifmate Aquæ effluxæ de Latere Chrifti, et Baptismate Flaminis bapt letur; cum Trinitas non poffet falvare Laplos ad Beatitudinem acceptando, nil Persona secunda et tertia purgent. Et ita Chriftus Subtilitate et Brevitate Miraculi, docuit primum Baptismum in iltis verbis evangeli. çis obfervari. Non enim licet Fidelibus, fupponendo Baptismum Flaminis, Biptis. mun Fluminis omnino relinquere, fed neceffe eít, data Opportunitate Circumftantiæ, ipsum accip-re. He had observed befo-e of these Words of Christ to Nicodemus, thać ex tanta Autoritate Fidei Sc.ipturæ funt fi.teles generaliter baptitati. If I understand arighe Dr Willie's Words, his Opinion wa, chat to such as fuffered Martirdom without being bapeized, their want of Water Baptism was supplied by the Water which issued out of Christ's Side on the Croisin Conjun&ion with the Baptism of the Spirit. And this might be a Singularity for ought I know. But this teens fomewhat different from the learned and ingenious Mr Collier's Reprelentation of the Doctor, that he thought, that by the Word Water, John III, Ś he did not underHand marsrial Water, but only the Water which flowed from our Saviour's Side, C.

• ciently baptized if their Parents be baptized before them.' Or, as it is exprefled in the Register of W. Gray Bishop of Ely 1457. • That • a Child born of Parents baptized has no need of Baptism, nor ought • to be baptized; since the Baptism of the Parents is fufficient for them.' By which they seem only to have meant, that their Baptism was not fo absolutely necessary, that they should be thus irregularly baptized by Midwives, they being the Seed of the Faithful, and Heirs of the Promises, and consequently would not be damned, but rather had a Title to Salvation, tho they could not be duly and lawfully baptized.

Dr Wiclif's Words concerning the Baptism of Infants and the Manner of mini fring Baptism are plain and easy to be understood by any one of common Sense and Understanding. We think, says hé, « without any doubting, that Infants rightly baptized with water are • baptized with the third Baptism, that of the Spirit, since they have • the baptismal Grace,' the Forgiveness of Sin, or are called to a State of Salvation : * It matters not whether they are so baptize), are (0) • dipped or plunged once or thrice, or bave Water poured on their • Heads, but we are to do according to the Custom of the place where • we live.' He plainly afferts, that whosoever is rightly bap:ized, • Baptism blots out whatever Sin ic finds in the Person baptized; but • if the Baptism of the Spirit be wanting, however there be the Bap• tism of the Church and of Blood or of Martyrdom, Baptism does • not profit to the Salvation of the Soul.?. But, to thew, that there is no Remedy provided against Obitinacy, it is till urged, by one who seems to have never seen Dr Wiclif's Dialogues, nor to be able to read them, 1. that by Dr Wiclif's own Books, the Faet of his approving Infant Baptism &c. seems doubtful. 2. That it is not easy to know what Dr Wiclif's Opinions were: When it was long since observed by the learned Dr Peter Allix in his Remarks upon the Ecclesiastical Hir. cory of the antient Churches of the Albigenses, that it was no difficult Matter for Dr Tho. James to justify Dr Wiclif against the • horrid (p) Calum nies of Walden by consulting his Manuscript Works • which are to be found in several Libraries in England.' Had Fuller and Collier acted thus ingenuously and not taken hi: Opinions from + Walden and Harpsfield they would have given a truer Account of them. 3. That Thomas Walden and Joseph Vicecomes have declared Wiclis an Anabaptift

. And, that John for William Wodford opposed 18 of his 'Errors, one of which ftruck at Infant Baptism. But I can't find that Walden declared Wiclif an Anabaptift ; Vicecomes indeed doe, and so he calls (9) Luther, Calvin and Beza to his own Shame and Reproach. The Article opposed by William Wodford he represents not as striking at Infant Baptism but at the absolute Neceflity of Baptism to Salvation :


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() Wi-lif uses the Word irroretur, bedewed, for Baptism.
IÓ He thus reckoned the threefold Baptism: 1 of Water, 2 of Blood, 3 of the Spirit.
Mentitur Waldenfis de Wiclefo. Episc. Andrews,

- Joannem Wicle vum Lib. 4. Trialog. Cap. 2. Martinum Luthernm lib. adversus Cochleism ec de adoratione Sacramenti ad Waldenses. Thomam Monetarinna apud Bullinger am adv. A nabaptistas. Lib. 1. Cap. 1. Calvinum lib 4. Inftitut. Cap. 16. et defens, 2 contra Westphalium et Bezam de cæna Domini cont. Westphalisen Cap. 36. Omnes porienta et monftra Christianæ Reipublicæ. fephi Vicecomisss Observationes Ecclefiafticæ imprellæ Mediolani. A. D. q..DCXV. Lib. II. Cap. I.

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Or the Opinion, that Parvuli fine Baptismo facramentali decedentes pro perpetuo perire -Non funt de numero falvandorum, eff de fide Ecclefiæ, quod tales Infantes æternaliter erunt damnati. Laitly, it is urged, that Dr Wiclif might, after he had wrote his Books of Dialogues, be of another Mind in the Point of Infant Baptism, and write against it in some of his Books which were burnt. But in the four tb of thele Books, he mentions the Court, or Council of the Earthquake, as he calls it, held by Archbp Courtney at the preaching Friers in London in May 1382, and he died in December 1384. Can any one in his Senses suppose, that the Dr should so late in Life alter his Opini ons, much less write against them? To which, I add, that his Books, and very probably, all he ever wrote, are fill preserved in Print and M. S. in our publick Libraries &c.

But, as a yet furcher Proof, if there needed any, that Dr Wiclif and his Followers were not Anabaptists, it is certain, that the Englijb Puritans, who highly reverences Di Wiclif's Memory and his Writings, strenuously opposed Anabaptism. Thus the learned Thomas Cartwright told Dr Whitgift. It is more, said he, than I thought could have

happened unto you once to admitte into your Minde, this Opinion of Anabaptisme of your Brethren, which have alwayes had it in as

great Deteftation as yourselfe, preached against it as much as yourselfe, o hated of the Followers and Favourers of it as much as yourselfe.' For it seems, it was then the known Character of this Sect as well as it is pow, to revile the Ministers of the Word, and much more bitterly to invey against them, if they wichstood their Errors, than against the Papifts. See a Book entituled, An Antidote against Anabaptism, &c. by

John Reading, B. D. p. 8, 9. Edit. 1654. Vanity of childin Baptism
Part I, II. by A. Riter. cum multis aliis quos nunc perfcribere longum eft.

ot ©
Some Account of JOHN SMITH, the first English

Anabaptift Teacher at Leyden in Holland.

Felix quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum.
NE of both these Names was educated in the University of


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Hildersham, having taken the Degree of Master of Arts. But, favour-
ing the People then called Puritans, in 1584, when the great Subscrip-
tion, as it was called, was urged, he refused to subscribe but with this
Addition (a) so far forth as they, the Articles, are agreeable to the Word
of God. In 1585, he preached ad Clerum at St Mary's, and attempt-
ed to vindicate the Do&rine then newly broached by the Puritans, of
keeping the Christian Sabbath according to the Law and Practice of
the Jews.
He likewise fell in with the Opinion of the Puritan Ana-,

(a) Written on the back of a Leaf of a Copy of the 39 Articles printed by Christo-
pher Barker 1586 : I Thomas Raw do here lubi ribe to this Booke of Articles of Re-
ligion according to the Equity of a Statute made Anno Eliz. reg. 13.
At Leeck, Marck 8. 193

By me Thomas Row. Ego Ro. Adie ante Admillionem meam ad Officium Lectoris divinarum Precum in Ecclelia parochiali de Colledwich,' his Articulis voleas fubfcripfi ultimo Die Martii

Roberius Adie.


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