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with deserved approbation, that amidst quently multiplied, or so extensively festivity of unlimited extent, and al- prolonged, in the person of a single most universal participation, not a individual ; and we hope it will still single breach of decorum, nor infrac- be many years, ere bis friends and tion of the peace, occurred during the fellow-townsmen have to lament their whole period; whilst every sanction final but honourable resignation. which religious service could lend to the occasion, was appropriately sought by attendance upon DIVINE WORSHIP, NORTH-WEST LAND EXPEDITION. with every external accompaniment of honour and solemnity, to give it effect. Captain FRANKLIN, the intrepid conAny thing like a detail of what has ductor of this expedition, which was already been so fully before the pub- fitted out by the British government lic, would be scarcely less wearisome in the summer of 1819, has arrived in to our readers, than foreign to the ob- England. In 1820, having received ject of the present memoir : neverthe- liberal succours from the North-west less, we could not but allude thus Company's settlements in America, it pointedly to an occurrence, with advanced to the shores of the Great which the merits of Mr. Grimshaw's Bear Lake, and encamped for the public character are so especially winter. Early in the year, having associated.

followed the course of the Coppermine Mr. Grimshaw bas, during forty-two River to its termination in the Northern years, been the Acting Cursitor for Ocean, Franklin and his companions, the county palatine of Lancaster; and in two canoes, proceeded to examine has eight times executed the duties of the coast in an easterly direction, toUnder-sheriff. He has been upwards | wards Hudson's Bay. This they skirtof forty years Clerk to the Magistrates ed for about 500 miles, observing that, of Amounderness Hundred ; and, with as far as the eye could reach, the sea his partner, Mr. Richard Palmer, was was perfectly free from ice ; but being in 1815 appointed Clerk to the Com- overtaken by winter, though in the missioners of the Preston Police. month of August, accompanied with

There are many circumstances con- dense fogs and snow, and being desnected with the private character of titute of necessary clothing, they were this respected gentleman, to which, obliged to retrace their steps through were we guided merely by the dictates the trackless wilds which lie between of esteem, we should be most happy the Copper River, and the Great Bear to give publicity. But as they are Lake. Misery and misfortune were derived from local connection, and now superadded to the natural perils might involve the feelings of many of the undertaking. Their provisions very worthy individuals, we forbear, were exhausted-sea-weed, and the however reluctantly, to rest Mr. Grim- pulverized bones of the meat they had shaw's claim to distinction upon this consumed, the bark of trees, and the best and most honourable of all foun- tattered remnant of their shoes, dations. His domestic happiness, scarcely sustained nature. In this however, has been chequered by some perishing condition, they succeeded bitter visitations. His eldest son, a in taking an elk. They were about to young man of bigb promise, fell in slaughter it, in the grateful anticipaCanada, during the campaign of 1815. tion of a bountiful meal, when, by a He held his Majesty's commission in desperate effort, it broke from them, the 76th regiment of foot. Two others and escaped. An instance of more of his sons were drowned by the up- intense disappointment, and consesetting of a boat in the river Ribble, quent despair, can scarcely be adduabout nine months since, as mention- ced. Nine of the Canadians perished, ed in a recent number of our Maga- with Lieutenant Hood of the navy. zine. For these, and other worldly Franklin, and the rest, arrived at a calamities, Mr. Grimshaw will find post of the Hudson's Bay Company, the surest consolation in the retro- after incredible exertion and sufferspect of an upright life, and in the ing. conviction of having conscientiously There is something exceedingly medischarged the duties of his private lancholy in the circumstances attendstation. Instances are rare in which ing Hood's death. He had been left civic distinctions have been so fre- with a medical gentleman, the natural

1165 Ingenious Machinery.-- American Antiquities. 1166 ist attached to the expedition, to take Tandragee, in the office of William care of a sick Canadian, who, from Loftic, Esq. The same individual has famine and sufferings, was almost fran- lately invented a loom on a new plan, tic. The former baving left the tent which it is conceived will be of infor a moment, the savage took up a calculable service to the linen trade, loaded musket, and shot the unfortu- and therefore it deserves to be particunate lieutenant dead upon the spot. larly noticed. It has these peculiar The doctor returning, found the Cana- recommendations: a child of about dian so wild and ungovernable, that twelve years old can work it with in self-defence he immediately de- very little toil : it is extremely easy stroyed him.--The above expedition on the yarn; and the cloth made on it furnishes another refutation of the fa- is quite superior to any of the same, vourite theory, that man, in a state of set with the same quantity and quality nature, can best contend with toil and of yarn. As a proof of this, the first deprivation. The nine Canadians, web woven in it was sold in Tanthough inured to the rigour of the cli- dragee, on Wednesday, the 8th inst. mate, and familiar with bardship, and produced 3d. per yard more than sunk beneath the difficulties which the same quantity and quality of yarn, surrounded the undertaking ; whilst made into another web, in one of the the Europeans, by the moral energy best common looms.". which civilization adds to physical There is a peculiar interest attached power, weathered and ultimately sur to the circumstance above mentioned, vived them all. Captain Franklin is of weaving a shirt entire and complete said to have expressed a thorough in the loom, as it may be considered conviction, that the first intelligence an illustration of the fact recorded by of Captain Parry and his comrades, St. John (chap. xix. ver. 23.) respectwill be received from Asiatic Rus- ing the upper garment of our Lord, sia.

which he informs us was “ without seam, woven from the top through

out.” This, Dr. Adam Clarke, in his INGENIOUS MACHINERY.

commentary on that passage, tells us,

some persons bave seriously doubted MR. EDITOR

to be true, or even possible. Thomas SIR,-In such a nation as ours, where Hall has demonstrated the possibility the value of machinery, in connection of it, and thereby confirmed the truth with manufactures, is wisely and just- of St. John's assertion. In this point ly esteemed, every successful exertion of view, the ingenuity of the artist is of mechanical genius, for the diminu- doubly interesting to the Chuistian; tion of labour, and the improvement and hence I anticipate your ready of those manufactures, which, by the insertion of this article in your exsuperiority of British skill and Bri- cellent miscellany. tish industry, have already exalted us

Your's, &c. as a commercial nation to the highest

S. TUCKER. rank of honour and opulence, must Belfast, November 7th, 1822. excite a lively interest in the public mind; and when brought into proper notice, cannot fail of receiving its just and merited reward. From a full conviction of the truth of this obser- MR. EDITOR. vation, I transmit you the following Sir,- The newspapers have lately article, which has recently appeared contained accounts of singular discoin one of our newspapers, the truth of veries in various parts of North Amewhich I believe is unquestionable. rica, strongly indicating, that many

About three years ago, a very ages ago it was inhabited by a race ingenious performance was executed of people, far superior in knowledge by a man named Thomas Hall, in and the arts, to those found there at the Townland of Corlust, near Tan- the period of the Columbian discodragee: He wove a shirt ready-made, very. Among other discoveries, it in the loom, without a seam, and com- appears, that a pavement has been plete in all its parts, including wrist found considerably below the present bands, collar, and gussets ; wbich was surface of the soil, in which is a flagexhibited for a considerable time at stone, containing an engraving of a


man and a woman, standing one on

GLEANINGS FROM LITERATURE, each side of a tree; the woman holding a fruit in her hand, which she is

SCIENCE, &c. in the act of presenting to the man. This appears to be a representation of Heliotrope. -Professor Gauss, of Gottingen, our first parents' transgression in Pa- having remarked, while making some trigonoradise, and is a singular and interest- the sun upon a window was visible at the dising fact.

tance of seven miles, was induced to make To this, permit me to add the fol- some experiments, by which he ascertained, lowing extract of a letter from my own

that a small mirror, not more than two or three brother, who thus writes from Phila- inches in diameter, is sufficient to reflect the delphia :-“There is found in a newly discovery is of great importance in measuring

son ten German miles, or even more. This setiled country, a wonderful thing large triangles, the method now adopted being indeed, which to me is very mysteri- to fix, at night, several Argand lamps, with ous ;—the ruins of an old fort: it ap- reflectors, at the place which is intended to be pears to be very old indeed, much observed from a great distance. In conseolder than the use of gunpowder. A quence of what he had observed, the professor

constructed an instrument, which he has named large artificial mount seems to have the Heliotrope; this has not only been found to been raised by the assailants (of whom answer its intended parpose exceedingly well, very many lost their lives, as has been in making trigonometrical observations, but it supposed,) to pour in their destructive obviates the inconvenience of making the opeweapons upon the besieged. This

rations by night. mount is composed principally of the inventor of a penographic writing-instrument,)

Improved Life-Preservers.-Mr. Scheffer, (the bodies of the warriors, whose bones has recently applied his ingenuity to the forinare still to be dug up in all parts of it. ing of a Life-Preserver of a new material. They measure just about 12 feet in gene- The shape of this apparatus is that of a hollow ral, from head to foot, which proves to surrounds the upper part of the body of the

circular and cylindrical belt or ring, which demonstration the existence of giants wearer, and keeps itself in its place without to be no fiction. They were acquaint- the use of straps, so that it may be slipped on ed with the art of making earthen- in an instant. It is formed of several thickware, let them have sprung from what nesses of animal membrane cemented together, country they might, for the mode of and is entirely without seam; it is made air-tight, their burials was to lay the corpse ed. It has a pipe and stop-cock, by which it

and water-proof, by being varnished and paintupon a stone, and extend the arms,

can be inflated with air in the short space of over which were laid pieces of this one minute; and it will then support the ware, made exactly to the shape of weight of two persons in the water, in cases the parts intended to be covered.” of emergency. When emptied by pressing Contemplating these, and other mo- and portability, and it is capable of being

out the air, it is remarkable for its lightness numents, of the power and providence packed in a very small space indeed. When of God, displayed in the vast conti- intended to be worn by females, it is made to nent, of which he has seen a great open in front, so that it may be slipped over part, he closes his observations with their shoulders, when it springs close again by the following pious exclamation, which its own elasticity, to surround the body and I transcribe merely to shew that his support it in the water.

Shower Baths.-An important improvement mind, being under a religious influ- has been lately effected in these useful apence, he would not be likely to report pendages to the bealth and comfort of the coma falsehood :-"O how mysterious are munity, by Mr. Feetham, of Ladgate-bill, thy works, O Lord! and how fear which consists in affording the means of fully and wonderfully are we made!”

adjusting the shower of water to the feelings

of the party using the bath; so that it may be I am, dear Sir,

increased or diminished at pleasure, and the Your's, very truly, violent shock generally occasioned by shower

S. TUCKER. baths rendered completely optional.-By this Belfast, 7th November, 1822.

important regulation, this shower-bath may be used by persons of the tenderest age, or most

delicate habits and constitutions, either as a * He does not particularly describe the part medical or pleasure bath. of the country where this curiosity has been Caterpillars. The French Economical Jourfound, which he probably thought not neces- nal says, that the following is an infallible sary; but my knowledge of my brother's strict method of guarding cabbages from the depreveracity and genuine piety, induces me to dation of caterpillars :-Sow a belt of bempplace the fullest confidence in his statements, seed round the borders of the ground where in which he could have no interest in deceiv- the cabbages are planted, and although the ing me; and of this it appears he has been an neighbourhood be infested with caterpillars, eye-witness.

the space inclosed by the hemp will be per.



Gleanings from Literature, Science, &c. 1170 fectly free, and not one of these vermin will The Manufacture of Wine improved by Chalk. approach.

-Count Alexander Czacki, after an experiPapyri of Herculaneum.-Sir H. Davy's ex- ence of four years, recommends the addition of periments on the papyri have closed without a little chalk to the must of grapes, when it is producing any marked result. Iodine and somewhat sour; for the acidity being due to chlorine separated the rolls without injuring citric and tartaric acids, there is thus formed the ink, which is of charcoal, on which these a precipitate of citrate and tartrate of lime, agents have no action; but the papyrus itself while the must becomes sweeter, and yields a containing much undecompounded vegetable much finer wine. Too much chalk may, render matter, baffled the investigation. Of the ori- the wine insipid, since it is proper to leave a ginal 1696 MSS. 431 have been submitted to little excess of acid in the must. Even acid experiment, or given to foreign governments wine may be benefited by the addition of chalk. by the King of Naples; about 100 of those Oyster shells, we believe, have been frewhich remain appear to be in a state to encou- quently used with this view; and calcined rage the expectation of their being restored oyster shells are a cleaner carbonate of lime even by the chemical means already known. than common chalk. In general, the writing is only on one side, and Newly-invented Steam Carriage. The structhe MSS. are rolled round sticks, like the tare is altogether in length twenty-seven feet, webs of our silk-mercers. The stick is inva- of wbich seven are occupied by the boiler and riably carbonized, and resembles a bit of char- apparatus for motion. The steam is formed coal. Sir H. D. suggests, from the nature of in heated tubes, one inch and a balf to three the ink on these MSS. and the silence of inches in diameter, and no more water is introPliny, that up to this period the Romans duced to them at a time, than what is immedinever used galls and iron as a writing ink, and ately wanted. The apparatus for the steam probably that this invention was contemporary from the safety valves, &c. is ingeniously suswith the use of parchment, of which the ear-pended, so as to be unhurt by the motion of liest MSS. at present known are the Codices the wheels. The whole is so contracted, Rescripti, discovered at Rome and Milan,

by that the horizontal position will be preserved, M. Mai, including the books of Cicero de Re- severe shocks avoided, and the outer wheels publica, sapposed to be of the second or third enabled to make, in turning the carriage, a centuries.

larger segment than the inner. The carriage Sugar for Preserving Fish.—Dr. M‘Culloch, may be made to stop or retrograde at the wish of Edinburgh, has ascertained that the anti- of ihe conductor, who sits in front, and, by septic quality of sugar is sufficient to preserve means of a bevel pinion, directs the vehicle. tash in the most excellent condition. He There are two rates of velocity, by means of states, that this substance is so active, that pinions of different diameters. The weight of fish may be preserved in a dry state, and per- the carriage, including apparatus, water, and fectly fresh, by means of sugar alone, and even fuel, will be only a ton and a half. It will with a very small quantity of it. He has thus carry three tons of merchandise and passenkept salmon, whitings, and cod, for an indefi- gers. With this load it is expected to go at nite length of time; and by this simple means the rate of five miles an hour, or one hundred fresh fish may be kept in that state some days, miles in twenty hours, on ordinary roads. so as to be as good when boiled, as if but just Damascus Steel. One of the most skilful cut. caught. In the preparation, it is barely ne- lers at Paris has acquired the art of fabricating cessary to open the fish, and to apply the sugar the steel called Damascas, very superior to to the muscular part, placing it in a horizontal that of Persia and Syria; and be now employs position for two or three days, that this sub- it in making instruments of surgery, which are stance may penetrate. After this, it may be far more valuable than those of English castdried; and it is only farther necessary to wipe steel. The extreme bardness and great elastiand ventilate it occasionally, to prevent moul- city of the Damascus, render it particularly diness. A table-spoonful of brown sugar is important in the fabrication of instruments sufficient this manner for a salmon of five or that require a very fine edge, such as razors, six pounds' weight; and if salt is desired, a lancets, &c. which so soon lose their edge, tea-spoonful or more may be added; saltpetre especially when used to pierce or cut very may be used instead, in the same proportion, strongly resisting bodies. Several French if it is desired to make the fish hard.

journals have spoken highly of instruments Machinery for preparing Dough without Yeast. made of this steel. -A machine has lately been introduced at Detection of Poisons.—Blue sugar-loaf paper Lausanne for the fermentation of dough for has been recommended as a test of discovery bread, consisting simply of a deal, box, one between oxalic acid and Epsom salts ; it is foot in breadth and height, and two in length. reddened by the former, but not affected by It has supports, on which it is turned by a the latter. A simpler test, however, consists handle like the cylinder used for roasting cof- / in wetting the tip of the finger, applying it first fee. One side of the box opens with a hinge to the supposed salt, and then to the tongueto admit the dough. The time requisite to if oxalic acid, it tastes very sour; if Epsom produce the fermentation depends on the tem- salts, very bitter and saline. perature of the air, the quickness of the turn- Employment of Iodine for the Relief of Cancer. ing, and other cireamstances. But when the -Iodine, in the form of alcoholic solution, operation is performed, it is known by the properly dilated with simple sirop, it has been sbrill bissing of the air making its escape, asserted, has been used with success in one which generally happens in half an hour. The of the Paris hospitals, in allaying the pain and dough by these means is always well raised. increase of a cancerous tamor in the breast. The labour is slight, for such a machine as Signals for a great distance.-Schumacher, a bere described may be turned by a child. captain of artillery, has invented a rocket, which may become of great use to astronomers Of Dr. Chalmers's Christian and Civic Ecoand geographers. They are of a much greater nomy of Large Towns, Nos. XIII. and XIV. force than the Congreve rockets, and ascend will be published together on the 1st of Januto a prodigious height. When at their great. ary, 1823. The article, On the Facilities for est elevation, they explode, and produce in the the Extinction of Pauperism in England, will air a volume of light, so strong and brilliant, occupy both Numbers. No. XIV. will conas to be distinctly visible at a distance of thirty tain Dr. Chalmers's First Essay on the Causes leagues.

and Cure of Pauperism in England. These Cure of Ring Worm.--Mr. T. J. Graham, of Numbers will be published quarterly. Cheltenbam, recommends the lime-water which Treatises on the Life, Walk, and Triamph has been used for purifying gas, as a very effi- of Faith. By the Rev. W. Romaine, A. M. cacious remedy in the above troublesome dis. With an Introductory Essay, by Thomas ease. The bead is to be well cleansed morning Chalmers, D.D. 2 vols. 12mo. and evening with soap and water, and after Genuine Religion the Best Friend of the wards washed with the lime-water from the People. By the Rev. Archibald Bonar. gas works. This lime-water is a very hetero- 18mo. geneous compound, so that it is impossible to The Constitution of the Character of Jesus say which of its ingredients is effectual. It Christ. In Two Parts. Part I. The Consticontains lime, ammonia, sulphuretted hydro- tation of the Character of Jesus Christ shewa gen, volatile oil, and probably several other to differ from the Opinions of Socinians, compounds of a more complex nature.

Arians, Trinitarians, and Swedenborgians. A New Velocipede-has lately been exhi- Part II. On the Moral Character of Jesus, the bited in the Metropolis, which promises to be Office of Christ, and the Holy Spirit. The of positive atility. The machine consists of argument of this Work rests chiefly upon a three wheels; one behind, about three feet in fact, bitherto overlooked ; viz. that the Aposdiameter, over which the inventor sits; and tles, for twenty-five years at least, laboured two lower ones before. It is worked by the under the Jewish prejudice, that the Messiah hands, with two short bandles, (without, appa- was a mere man; but afterwards, baving their rently, any great exertion,) which set two attention excited more particularly to the subwheels in motion; these operate upon two ject, they discovered bis Divinity. 8vo. levers, which set the machine going at the rate The 2d edition, folio, of the Holy Catholic of six miles or more an hour, and the inventor Bible,enriched with many beautiful Engravings, has travelled sixty miles a day with it in fine is nearly ready for publication, under the sancweather. There are two iron stirrups, in which tion of the Right Rev. Dr. Gibson. he places bis feet, which keep him steady on J. Wesley Clarke, Esq. has a second bis seat.-The inventor is a shoe-maker, a edition in the Press, of his Geographical native of Newark-on-Trent, in Nottingham- | Dictionary, which he has been enabled consisbire.

derably to improve.

Mr. Isaac Holmes, of Liverpool, announces,

for the lst of January, his Impartial Account of Literary Notices.

the United States, drawn from actual observa

tion during a residence there of four years. 'The Hopes of Matrimony, a Poem, by John The third part of Green's Universal Herbal, Holland, Author of Sheffield Park, &c. arranged on the Linpean System, and adapted

Plurality of Worlds, or Letters, Notes, and to scientific, as well as the most usefal practiMemoranda, Philosophical and Critical, occa- cal purposes, elucidated by namerous plates, sioned by A Series of Discourses on the accurately coloured to nature, will shortly be Christian Revelation, viewed in connection presented to the public. 2d edition. with the Modern Astronomy, by Thomas Chal- A suitable companion to this work will be mers, D.D. By Andrew Maxwell.

found in the Farmer's Directory, by Leonard The Ancient Principles of the True and Towne, which comprebends a complete sysSacred Philosophy, as lately explained by John tem of Agricultural Economy, including the Hutchinson, Esq. translated with Additional best experimental information on all subjects Notes, and a Preliminary Dissertation on the connected with Farming, Grazing, and PlantCharacter and Writings of Moses. By An- ing, and illustrated with many appropriate drew Maxwell.

Engravings. Memoir of the most remarkable and inte- Å seventh edition is printed of the Rev. resting parts of the Life of the late William James Wood's Dictionary of the Bible, newly Cowper, Esq. of the Inner Temple, detailing revised by the author, and combining the particularly the exercises of bis mind in regard most valuable information from Brown, Calto Religion; written by himself. To wbich is met, and other eminent writers. added, a Collection of Hymns, by the same

Jast Pablished, a superior edition, octavo, Author.

of Watts' Psalms and Hymns, printed in a The Classical Collector's Vade Mecam, be- bold and elegant type, with copious Indexing an introduction to the best editions of the es, &c. and many additional Hymns. Greek and Roman Classics.

Among the various articles of this descripDivine Grace exbibited in a brief Memoir of tion, which we received for insertion in the Henrietta E. Dickenson.

46th number of the Imperial Magazine, was A few Plain Answers to the Question, the following, which, from a want of room, " Why do you receive the Testimony of Ba- we were obliged to omit. We, however, doo ron Swedenborg ?”

ticed in col. 1064, the subject, which the pabA Scientific Demonstration that Matter is lication here announced is intended to emnot Eternal, &c. in a Letter to R. Carlile, by brace. James Humphrey.

Preparing for publication, Truth against

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