페이지 이미지
PDF
ePub

GENERAL ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.

Some sentences consist of two parts, the subject or nom. case, and verb; and others, consist of three parts, the subject, the verb or copula,* and a predicate or an object; and many have adjuncts in connection with these parts.

Examples.

"God is omnipotent."

"The sun shines."

The sun in

his strength, rules the day. The sun rules the day, by divine appointment.

Analyze these sentences, after the following

Models of Analyzing Sentences.

God is the subject; is, is the verb or copula, and omnipotent is the predicate.

Second sentence thus.

verb.t

Sun is the subject, and shines, is the

Third sentence thus. Sun is the subject, rules is the verb, and day is the object, and, in his strength, is an adjunct of Sun. Fourth sentence, in the same way—by divine appointment, is an adjunct of the whole sentence.

NOTE. The third member of a sentence should be called the object, when it is the object of a transitive verb; but in other circumstances, it should be called the predicate, being a noun or an adjective.

The phrases connected with sentences, are adjuncts.

The learner should be well drilled in the general analysis of sentences. He should resolve compound sentences into their several simple ones, and then analyze each.

The particular analysis of sentences, is the parsing of all the words in them.

*The copula is the verb, or affirming word, which connects the subject with the predicate or object.

† In this kind of sentences the copula and predicate, are both comprised in the verb.

GOVERNMENT OF VERBS.

RULE I.

The nominative case governs the verb, which asserts its action or being, in person and number; as, he learns; the boys learn; thou learnest.

Question. What is the foundation and reason of this rule?

The pupil writes.

play. The girls read.

See p. 50.

Exercises.

Thou writest. You write. The boys The bird sings. The lambs skip. Parse the nominative word in each exercise, according to former models.

REMARK. Every nominative case, except the nom. independent, and absolute, must have a verb expressed or implied.

General Directions.

These directions should be strictly followed by the learner. 1. Go through the rules carefully, omitting the notes, until the review, and then take both rules and notes, thoroughly.

2. Give the general analysis of each sentence, before parsing the words prescribed.

3. Parse only the words that come under the rule or note with which you are engaged, omitting all other parts of the sentence, for the time being.

4. Parse those words in the examples, and then correct the incorrect sentences, and parse in the same way.

5. Go through all the examples and exercises, and review until you are thoroughly familiar with the rule or note, and its

use.

6. Never quit a rule or note, until you understand well, the reason of its use.

7. After sufficient exercise on the rule or note with which you are engaged; review the exercises, and parse all words that come under the rules; or rules and notes through which you have passed; omitting all others for the time being.

8. After going through, and reviewing as above, review again. and parse all the words in the exercises.

Composition.

Select three subjects, and write in your book, three simple sentences on each, after the following

Model.

Man is mortal.

Man is liable to many accidents.
Man is subject to death.

Foundation of Note.

It is sometimes necessary to make an assertion respecting an independent action or proposition; as, James departed, is a short sentence.

NOTE.

"To see is pleasant." Hence the following,

A verb in the infinitive mode; a sentence, or a clause, may be the subject of a verb; as,

lot of man."

"To die is the inevitable

Why is this note necessary? See above.

Exercises.

“To be blind is calamitous." To live in peace should be the aim of every one. "To attack vices in the abstract, without touching persons, may be safe fighting indeed, but it is fighting with shadows." Pope.

"To throw the fire-brand of war among the nations at this period, would be treason." Channing, on War.

His being at enmity with Cæsar was the cause of perpetual discord..

"I deny that men's coming to the use of reason, is the time of their discovery." Locke, 1, 2.

"To show how the understanding proceeds herein, is the design of the following discourse." Locke, 1, 4.

"To fear no eye and to suspect no tongue, is the great prerogative of innocence." Rambler.

Tell what is the subject of the verb in each of the foregoing examples and exercises, and then

Review, and parse, all the words that come under any of the rules, and this note.

Compose five sentences, with a verb in the infinitive, for the subject, and then several with a clause or sentence, as the subject.

RULE II.

A verb must agree with its subject-nominative in person and number; as, thou art; the man labors; Jane studies; they study; thou studiest.

Why must a verb agree with its nominative? See p. 51.

NOTE. To find the nom. to any verb, ask a question with the verb, by prefixing who or what; as, John reads. Who reads? and the answer will always be the nominative.

Correct the following exercises, and parse the words that come under Rule II.

Incorrect Construction.

Smith's Gram.

"A variety of pleasing objects charm the eye." "A part only of the individuals are meant." "Good order, and not mean savings, produce honest profit." What avails the best sentiments, if persons do not live according to them.

"In the deportment of Philip, a degree of awkwardness and dignity were blended."

66

He need not proceed in such haste."

"In him were happily blended true dignity, with softness of manners."

No longer fame the drooping hearts inspire.

"The side A, with the side B and C, compose the triangle." So much both of ability and merit are seldom found.

A judicious arrangement of studies facilitate improvement. To these precepts are subjoined a copious selection of rules and maxims.

There remains two points to be considered.

Review these exercises, and parse the words that come under the first and second rules. Then

Write several exercises, as under Rule I. and

Write exercises under all the rules and notes, as you proceed.

REMARK. Every verb, limited by person and number, must have a nominative case, expressed or understood; except those specified in the following ninth note.

Foundation of the Notes under Rule II.

(Except the 6th, 9th and 10th.)

When the word or words, which are in the nominative case to any verb, convey unity of idea, the verb must be in the singular; but if they convey plurality of idea, the verb must be in the plural form. Hence the following seven notes.

NOTE I.

When a verb is governed by the infinitive mode, or a clause, it must be in the third person singular; as, "to ride is more pleasant than to waik." "To learn is desirable.” "To read with propriety is a pleasing and important attainment."

Question. On what principle is this note founded. See above.

Incorrect Construction.

To live soberly, righteously, and godly, are required of all

men.

"To do unto others as we would that they, in similar circumstances, should do unto us, constitute the great principle of virtue."

To give rules for the management of the voice in reading, by which the necessary pauses, emphasis, and tones may be discovered and put in practice, are not possible.

To maintain a steady and unbroken mind amidst all the shocks of the world, mark a great and noble spirit.

Parse, as before directed, then review the exercises and parse all the words that come under all the rules, and the foregoing notes, and write exercises under this note, and

Continue this practice thoroughly throughout Syntax.

NOTE II.

Two or more infinitives, or clauses, connected by and, being the subject of a verb, require the verb to be in the plural; as, to eat and to play constitute the chief employment of some. "To be prosperous, and to be happy, require attention to our affairs."

« 이전계속 »