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and Behlul Ayub, joined me in like manner at the same place. Other two of these bodies, the one from Khutlan, under the command of Wali, the brother of Khosrou; Wali tits the other from Ranch uk, Nukderi, and Kakshal, with the Aimaks that had settled in "ut w' *n Kundez, advanced by the route of Anderab and Seirab, with an intention of passing death. • by the straits of Penjhir. The Aimaks reached Seirab first; and as Wali was advancing in their rear, they took possession of the road, engaged and defeated him. Wali himself, after his discomfiture, fled for refuge to the Uzbeks; but his head was struck off in the public market' of Samarkand by the orders of Sheibani Khan; all the rest of his servants and officers, being discomfited, plundered, and destitute, came and joined me, along with the Aimaks, at this same stage. Syed Yusef Beg Ughlakchi also came along with the Aimaks to this place.

Marching thence, we halted in the auleng, or meadow, of Ak-Serai,2 which is situated close upon Karabagh: Khosrou Shah's men, who had long been inured to the practice of violence, and to disregard of discipline, now began to oppress the people of the country. At last an active retainer of Sidim Ali Derban having carried off a jar of oil from some person by force, I ordered him to be brought out and beaten with sticks. He expired under the punishment. This example put an end to such practices.

We here held a consultation whether or not it was advisable to proceed against Kabul. Syed Yusef Beg and others were of opinion that, as the winter was at hand, we should proceed to Lamghan, and there act as circumstances might require. Baki Cheghaniani and several others were for marching directly on Kabul; and that plan being finally adopted, we marched off from our station, and stopped at the Kuruk (or Park) of Ama. I was here joined by my mother the Khanum, and the rest of the Khosrou household that had been left behind at Kebmerd. They had endured great hardships stVJh,"' in their march to meet me. The incidents were as follows :—I had sent Shirim

peued from

Kehmerd. Taghai to conduct Khosrou Shah on the route to Khorasan, and directed him afterwards to bring on my household. By the time, however, that they reached Dehaneh, Shirim Taghai found that he was not his own master, and Khosrou Shah took the resolution of accompanying him to Kehmerd. Ahmed Kasim, the sister's son of Khosrou Shah, was then in Kehmerd. Khosrou Shah prevailed upon Ahmed Kasim to behave very ill to the families left in the place. Many of the Moghul retainers of Baki Cheghaniani were in Kehmerd along with these families. They privately, in concert with Shirim Taghai, prepared to seize both Khosrou Shah and Ahmed Kasim, who, however, taking the alarm, fled away by the road which leads by the skirts of the valley of Ajer, and took*the route of Khorasan. The effect of this firmness of the Moghuls having been to rid themselves of these enemies, the guard which was with the families being now freed from any danger from Khosrou Shah, left Ajer. By the time they reached Kehmerd, however, the Sighanchi clan were up in arms, seized the passes on the road, and plundered a number of the families, and of the lls and Uluses (or wandering clans), who had followed the fortunes of Baki Beg. The son of Kul Bayezld Turk, who was young, was made a prisoner by them. He came to Kabul three or four years after. The families which had been plundered and dispersed,

1 Charsu. - White-house. It is about twelve or fourteen miles north-west from Kabul. came on by way of the pass of Kipchak, the same by which I had come, and joined me in the Kiiruk of Ama.


Leaving this station, the second march brought us to the Auleng (or pasture grounds) Baber reof Chalak, where we halted. Having held a consultation, in which the siege of Kabul Jjsjj^j was determined on, we marched forward. I, with the main body, halted between Haider Taki's garden and the tomb of Kul Bayezid, the cup-bearer. Jehangir Mirza, with the right wing, took his station at my great Char-bagh.1 Nasir Mirza, with the left wing, took post in an auleng (or meadow) behind the tomb of Kutluk Kedem. I repeatedly sent persons to confer with Mokim; they sometimes brought back insincereexcuses, sometimes conciliatory answers. But his real object, all the while, was to gain time; for, when I took Shirkeh prisoner, he had dispatched expresses to his father and elder brother, and he now attempted to create delays, in hopes of getting succour from them.

One day I ordered that the whole host, main body, right wing, and left, after arraying themselves in complete armour, and clothing their horses in mail, should advance close up to the city, display their arms, and inflict a little chastisement on the town's people. Jehangir Mirza, with the right wing, marched forward towards the Kucheh Bagh.2 As there was a river in front of the main body, I proceeded by the tomb of Kutluk Kedem, and stationed myself on an eminence in front of a rising ground. The advanced body spread themselves out above Kutluk Kedem's bridge: at that time, however, there was no bridge there. Our troops galloped insultingly close up to the Carrier's :l gate. The men who had advanced out of the town, being few in number, could not stand their ground, but took to flight, and sought shelter in the city. A number of the town's people of Kabul had gone out on the glacis of the citadel, on the side of an eminence, in order to witness the sight. As they fled, a great dust arose, and many of them were thrown down. Between the gate and the bridge, on a rising ground, and in the high road, pits had been dug, in which pointed stakes had been fixed, and then the whole covered over with grass. Sultan Kuli Chenak, and several other cavaliers, fell into these pits as they pushed on at full speed. On the right wing, one or two cavaliers exchanged a few sabre blows with a part of the garrison who sallied out on the side of the Kucheh Bagh, but soon returned, as they had no orders to engage.

The men in the town were now greatly alarmed and dejected, when Mokim, through Mokim sursome of the Begs, offered to submit, and agreed to surrender Kabul; on which he was introduced by the mediation of Baki Beg Cheghaniani, and tendered his allegiance. I did all that I could to dispel his apprehensions, and received him with affability and kindness. It was arranged that he should next day march out with all his soldiers, adherents, effects, and property, and surrender the fortress. As the retainers of Rhos- rou Shah had not, for a long period, been subjected to discipline, but, on the contrary, had indulged in all kind of injustice and rapine, I appointed Jehangir Mirza, and

. 1 That is, the ground which Baber afterwards laid out as a grand garden or Char-bagh. s Suburb Garden. The Kucheh Bagh is still a garden about four miles from Kabul, on the northwest, and divided from it by a low kotal or pass. There is still a bridge on the way. 3 Derwazeh Chermgeran.

Nasir Mirza, with some of the principal Begs, and my most trusty servants, to guard the family of Mokim, as well as Mokim himself and his dependents, while they left Kabul with their goods and property; and I appointed Tibah' as his place of residence. Next morning the Mirzas and Begs who had gone to the gate, observing an uproar and mobbing of people, dispatched a man to inform me of the circumstance: adding, "Until you come, we shall not be able to put a stop to the commotion." I mounted, and having repaired to the spot, allayed the tumult, but not until I had ordered three or four of the rioters to be shot with arrows, and one or two to be cut to pieces. Mokim and his train then set out, and reached Tibah in quiet and safety.

In the latter end of the month of the latter Rabia," by the blessing of Almighty God, I gained possession of Kabul and Ghazni, with the country and provinces dependent on them, without battle or contest. Description The country of Kabul is situate in the fourth climate, in the midst of the inhabited andOhazni. part of the world. On the east it has the Lamghanat, Pershawer, Hashnaghar, and some of the countries of Hind. On the west it has the mountain districts, in which are situated Karnud and Ghur. This mountainous tract is at present occupied and inhabited by the Hazara and Nukderi tribes. On the north are the countries of Kundez and Arab, from which it is separated by the mountain of Hindu-Kush. On the south are Fermul and Naghz,3 and Banu and Afghanistan.4 It is a narrow country, but stretching to a considerable extent. Its length is in the direction of east and west. < ity of It is surrounded on all sides by hills. The walls of the town extend up a hill. To the south-west of the town there is a small hill, which is called Shah-Kabul/' from the circumstance of a King of Kabul's having built a palace on its summit. This bill begins at the defile of Deveren, and reaches all the way to that of Deh-Yakub. It may be about a farsang 6 in circumference. The skirts of this hill are entirely covered with gardens. In the time of my paternal uncle Ulugh Beg Mirza, Weis Atkeh con

1 Tibah is about three miles south of Akserai, and to the left of the road from that place to Kabul.

2 About the beginning of October 1504.

1 This word is sometimes written Naghz, sometimes Naghr, but generally Naghr.
4 Baber confines the term Afghanistan to the countries inhabited by the Afghan tribes. These were

chiefly the hill tracts to the south of the road from Kabul to Pershawer. Kabul, Ghazni, the low country
of Lamghan, and in general all the plains and lower grounds, with the towns, were inhabited by Tajiks,
or men of a different race. Forster, vol. II. p. 79, describes Kabul " as a walled town of about a mile
and a half in circumference, and situated on the eastern side of a range of two united hills, describing
generally the figure of a semi-circle." "Iialausir," he adds (p. 80), "the name of the Shah's palace,
where also the household servants, guards, and the slaves are lodged, stands on a rising ground in the
eastern quarter of the city, and exhibits but a slender testimony of the dignity of its master."—" Kabul
stands near the foot of two conjoined hills, whose length has nearly an east and west direction. Towards
the base of the eastern, stands, on a flat projection, a fortified palace, which was formerly the habitation
of the governors of the city; but it has been converted by Timur Shah into a state prison, where the
brothers of this prince, and other branches of his family, are kept in confinement. Above this building
is seen a small tower on a peak, whence the ground rises to a considerable height, and is united by a
neck of lower land to the other hill. From the peak a stone wall extends over the summit of the two
hills, and is terminated at the bottom of the westernmost by an ordinary redoubt." P. 83, 84.

'There is a hill south of Kabul, on which Kabul (Cain, the son of Adam), the founder of the city, is said to be buried; but the only hill south-west is that where Baber himself is interred. It is now known by no name but that of Baber Badshah, and is the great holiday resort of the people of the city.

6 Nearly four miles.

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ducted a stream of water along the bottom of it; and all the gardens about the hill are
cultivated by means of this stream. Lower down the river there is a place called
Kelkeneh,1 in a retired, hidden situation. Much debauchery has gone on at that place.
The verse of Khwajeh Hafez may be parodied and applied to it—

O for the happy times, when, free and uncontroll'd,
We lived in Kilkeneh with no very good fame.

Southward from the town, and to the east of Shah-Kabul, there is a lake2 nearly a farsang in circumference. Three springs of water issue from Shah-Kabul, and flow towards the city; two of them are in the vicinity of Kelkeneh. One of these runs by the tomb of Khwajeh Shems, and the other by the Kedemgah3 (place of the footsteps) of Khwajeh Khezer. These two places are the favourite resorts of the people of Kabul. The third fountain is opposite to Khwajeh Abd-al-Simd, and bears the name of Khwajeh Roushenai. There is a small ridge which runs out from the hill of ShahKabul, and is called Akabein ;1 and there is besides another small hill, on which stands the citadel of Kabul. The fortified town lies on .the north of the citadel. The citadel is of surprising height, and enjoys an excellent climate, overlooking the large lake, the three aulengs (or meadows) called Siahrseng, Sung-Korghan, and Chdldk, which stretch below it. These aulengs present a very beautiful prospect when the plains are green. In the spring, the north-wind blows incessantly; they call it bade-perwdn (the pleasant breeze).5 In the north part of the citadel there are houses with windows, which enjoy a delightful atmosphere. Miilla Muhammed Taleb Maamai composed the following distich in praise of the citadel of Kabul, under the character of Badia-ez-zeman Mirza:

(Persian) Drink wine in the citadel of Kabul, and send round the cup without stopping:
For it is at once a mountain and a sea, a town and a desert.

The people of Hindustan call every country beyond their own Khorasan, in the same manner as the Arabs term all except Arabia, Ajem. On the road between Hindustan and Khorasan, there are two great marts; the one Kabul, the other Kandahar. Caravans, from Ferghana, Turkestan, Samarkand, Balkh, Bokhara, Hissar, and Badakhshan, all resort to Kabul; while those from Khorasan repair to Kandahar. This Its trade. country lies between Hindustan and Khorasan. It is an excellent and profitable market for commodities. Were the merchants to carry their goods as far as Khita or Rum,' they would scarcely get the same profit on them. Every year, seven, eight, or ten thousand horses arrive in Kabul. From Hindustan, every year, fifteen or twenty

1 Kelkeneh, or Gulguneh, for it may be either, cannot now be discovered.

2 This lake is now called Kheirabad. It is about three miles round.

1 The spot on which a Musulman saint lived, or on which he is supposed to have stood while he performed any celebrated act, becomes his kedemgah, the place of his footsteps, and is visited and circumambulated by the pious Mahommedan with great veneration.

4 The hill called Akabein seems to be that now called Ashikan Arifan, which connects with Baber Badshah. The Bala Hissar, or citadel, is on the same ridge, farther east, and south-east of the town.

J May it not mean the breeze of Perwan, from the town of that name which lies north from Kabul?

'Khita is Northern China, and its dependent provinces. Rum is Turkey, particularly the provinces about Trebizond.

thousand pieces of cloth are brought by caravans. The commodities of Hindustan are slaves, white clothes, sugar-candy, refined and common sugar, drugs, and spices. There are many merchants that are not satisfied with getting thirty or forty for ten.1 The productions of Khorasan, Rum, Irak, and Chin,3 may all be found in Kabul, Climate of which is the very emporium of Hindustan. Its warm and cold districts are close by each other. From Kabul you may in a single day go to a place where snow never falls, and in the space of two astronomical hours, you may reach a spot where snow lies always, except now and then when the summer happens to be peculiarly hot. In the districts dependant on Kabul, there is great abundance of the fruits both of hot and cold climates, and they are found in its immediate vicinity. The fruits of the cold Produce, districts in Kabul are grapes, pomegranates, apricots, peaches, pears, apples, quinces, jujubes, damsons, almonds, and walnuts; all of which are found in great abundance. I caused the sour-cherry-tree3 to be brought here and planted; it produced excellent fruit, and continues thriving. The fruits it possesses peculiar to a warm climate, are the orange, citron,* the amluk, and sugar-cane, which are brought from the Lamghanat. 'I caused the sugar-cane to be brought, and planted it here. They bring the Jelghuzek5 from Nijrow. They have numbers of bee-hives, but honey is brought only from the hill-country on the west. The rawashG of Kabul is of excellent quality; its quinces and damask plums are excellent, as well as its badrengs.' There is a species of grape which they call the water-grape, that is very delicious; its wines are strong and intoxicating. That produced on the skirt of the mountain of Khwajeh KhanSaaid is celebrated for its potency, though I describe it only from what I have heard;

The drinker knows the flavour of the wine; how should the sober know it?

Kabul is not fertile in grain; a return of four or five to one is reckoned favourable. The melons too are not good, but those raised from seed brought from Khorasan are tolerable. The climate is extremely delightful, and in this respect there is no such place in the known world. In the nights of summer you cannot sleep without a postin (or lamb-skin-cloak.) Though the snow falls very deep in the winter, yet the cold is never excessively intense. Samarkand and Tabriz are celebrated for their fine climate, but the cold there is extreme beyond measure.

In the neighbourhood of Kabul there are four fine aulengs or meadows.8 On the north-east is the auleng of Sung-Korghan, at the distance of about two kos. It is a fine plain, and the grass agrees well with horses; there are few mosquitoes in it. To the north-west lies the auleng of Chalk, about one kos from Kabul. It is extensive; but in the summer the musquitoes greatly annoy the horses. On the west is the au

The Au.



1 Three or four hundred per cent. 2 Chin is all China.

3 Alubala. • « A berry like the karinda.

5 The jelghuzek is the seed of a kind of pine, the cones of which are as big as-a man's two fists.

fi The rash is described as a root something like beet-root, but much larger—white and red in colour, with large leaves, that rise little from the ground. It has a pleasant mixture of sweet and acid. It may be the rhubarb, raweid.

'The badreng is a large green fruit, in shape somewhat like a citron. The name is also applied to a large sort of cucumber.

s Auleng or Uleng, is a plain or meadow.

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