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es, pres. having, perf. had; compound, having h In the next place I will present to you the conjug regular, neuter verb, Be, which is an auxiliary whe ed before the perfect participle of another verb, l her situation, it is a principal verb.
TO BE. INDICATIVE MOOD.
Sing. I am, thou art, he, she, or it is.
Plur. We were, ye or you were, they were.
Sing. I have been, thou hast been, he hath or has been Plur. We have been, ye or you have been, they have been. Sing. I had been, thou hadst been, he had been.
Plur. We had been, ye or you had been, they had been
Sing. I shall or will be, thou shalt or wilt be, he shall or wil Plur. We shall or will be, you shall or will be, they shall or Sing. I shall have been, thou wilt have been, he will have Plur. We shall have been, you will have been, they will have SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Sing. If I be, if thou be, if he be.
Plur. If we be, if ye or you be, if they be.
Sing. If I were, if thou wert, if he were.
Plur. If we were, if ye or you were, if they were.
euter verb to be, and all passive verbs, have two perfect tense of this mood, as well as in the pres e, the following rule may serve to direct you i se of each form. When the sentence implies d ion, &c. and the neuter verb be, or the passive ve h a reference to present or future time, aud is or preceded by another verb in the imperfect o I mood, the conjunctive form of the imperfect tense
"She might go, were she so disposed." But when there is no reference to present or future time, and the verb is neither fol. lowed nor preceded by another in the potential imperfect, the indicative form of the imperfect tense must be used; as, “If he was ill, he did not make it known;" "Whether he was absent or present, is a matter of no consequence." The general rule for using the conjunctive form of the verb, is presented on page See, also, page 135.
The perfect, pluperfect, and first future tenses of the subjunctive mood, are conjugated in a manner similar to the correspondent tenses of the indicative. The second future is conjugated thus:
Second Sing. If I shall have been, if thou shalt have been, if he shall, &c. Fut. T.Plur. If we shall have been, if you shall have been, if they, &c. IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Plur. Bo, or be ye or you, or do ye or you be.
Sing. I may, can, or must be, thou mayst, canst, or must be, he may, can, or must be.
Plur. We may, can, or must be, ye or you may, can, or must be,
Pres. Tense. To be.
Perf. Tense. To have been.
Pres. Being. Perf. Been. Compound, Having been.
This verb to be, though very irregular in its conjugation, is by far the most important verb in our language, for it is more fre quently used than any other; many rules of syntax depend on constructions associated with it, and, without its aid, no passive verb can be conjugated. You ought, therefore, to make your self perfectly familiar with all its changes, before you proceed any farther.
II. PASSIVE VERBS.
The cases of nouns are a fruitful theme for investigation and discussion. In the progress of these lectures, this subject has frequently engaged our attention; and, now, in introducing to your notice the passive verb, it will, perhaps, be found both interesting and profitable to present one more view of the nominative case
Every sentence, you recollect, must have one finite verb, or more than one, and one nominative, either expressed or implied, for, without them, no sentence can exist.
The nominative is the actor or subject concerning which the verb makes an affirmation. There are three kinds of nominauves, active, passive, and neuter.
The nominative to an active verb, is active, because it produ ces an action, and the nominative to a passive verb, is passive, be cause it receives or endures the action expressed by the verb; for, A Passive Verb denotes action received or endured by the person or thing which is the nom inative; as, "The boy is beaten by his father."
You perceive, that the nominative boy, in this example, is not represented as the actor, but as the object of the action expressed by the verb is beaten; that is, the boy receives or endures the action performed by his father; therefore boy is a passive nominative. And you observe, too, that the verb is beaten denotes the action received or endured by the nominative; therefore is beaten is a passive verb.
If I say, John kicked the horse, John is an active nominative, because he performed or produced the action; but if I say, John was kicked by the horse, John is a passive nominative, because he received or endured the action.
The nominative to a neuter verb, is neuter, because it does not produce an action nor receive one; as, John sits in the chair. John is here connected with the neuter verb sits, which expresses simply the state of being of its nominative, therefore John is a neuter nominative.
I will now illustrate the active, passive, and neuter nominatives by a few examples.
I. Of ACTIVE NOMINATIVES; as, "The boy beats the dog; The lady sings; The ball rolls; The.man walks.”
II. Of PASSIVE NOMINATIVES; as, "The boy is beaten; The lady is loved; The ball is rolled; The man was killed."
III. Of NEUTER NOMINATIVES; as, "The boy remains idle The lady is beautiful; The ball lies on the ground; The man lives in town.”
You may now proceed to the conjugation of passive verbs. Passive Verbs are called regular when they end in ed; as, was loved; was conquered.
All Passive Verbs are formed by adding the perfect participle of an active-transitive verb, to the neuter verb to be.
If you place a perfect participle of an active-transitive verb after this neuter verb be, in any mood or tense, you will have a passive verb in the same mood and tense that the verb be would be in if the participle were not used; as, I am slighted; I was slighted; He will be slighted; If I be slighted; I may, can, or must be slighted, &c. Hence you perceive, that when you shall have learned the conjugation of the verb be, you will be able to conjugate any passive verb in the English language.
The regular passive verb to be loved, which is formed by adding the perfect participle loved to the neuter verb to be, is conjugated in the following manner :
TO BE LOVED. INDICATIVE MOOD. Pres. S Sing, I am loved, thou art loved, he is loved. Tense. Plur. We are loved, ye or you are loved, they are loved. Imperf. Sing. I was loved, thou wast loved, he was loved. Tense. Plur. We were loved, ye or you were loved, they were loved. Perfect Sing. I have been loved, thou hast been loved, he has been loved. Tense. Plur. We have been loved, you have been loved, they have, &c. Pluper. Sing. I had been loved, thou hadst been loved, he had been, &c. Tense. Plur. We had been loved, you had been loved, they had been, &c. First Sing. I shall or will be loved, thou shalt or wilt be loved, he, &c. Future. Plur. We shall or will be loved, you shall or will be loved, they, &c. Second Sing. I shall have been loved, thou wilt have been loved, he, &c. Future.Plur. We shall have been loved, you will have been loved, &c. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Pres. S Sing. If I be loved, if thou be loved, if he be loved.
Plur. If we be loved, if ye or you be loved, if they be loved. Imperf. Sing. If I were loved, if thou wert loved, if he were loved. Tense. Plur. If we were loved, if you were loved, if they were loved. This mood has six tenses:-See conjugation of the verb to be. IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. I may, can, or must be loved, thou mayst, canst, or must, &c. Plur. We may, can, or must be loved, you may, can, or must, &c. Imperf. S Sing. I might, could, would, or should be loved, thou mightst, &c. Plur. We might, could, would, or should he loved, ye or you, &c. Perfect Sing. I may, can, or must have been loved, thou mayst, canst, &c. Tense. Plur. We may, can, or must have been loved, you may, can, &c Sing. I might, could, would, or should have been loved, thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, or shouldst have been loved, &c. Plur. We might, could, would, or should have been loved, you might, could, would, or should have been loved, they, &e. INFINITIVE MOOD.
Pres. Tense. To be loved.
Perf. Tense. To have been loved,
Sing. Be thou loved, or do thou be loved.
Plur. Be ye or you loved, or do ye be loved.
Present, Being loved. Perfect or Passive, Loved.
NOTE. This conjugation of the passive verb to be loved, is called the passive voice of the regular active-transitive verb to love.
Now conjugate the following passive verbs; that is, speak them in the first pers. sing. and plur. of each tense, through all the moods, and speak the participles; "to be loved, to be rejected, to be slighted, to be conquered, to be seen, to be beaten, to be sought, to be taken."
NOTE 1. When the perfect participle of an intransitive verb is joined to the neuter verb to be, the combination is not a passive verb, but a neuter verb in a passive form; as, "He is gone; The birds are flown; The boy is grown; My friend is arrived." The following mode of construction is not to be preferred; "He has gone; The birds have flown; The boy has grown; My friend has arrived."
2. Active and neuter verbs may be conjugated by adding their present participle to the auxiliary verb to be, through all its variations; as, instead of, I teach, thou teachest, he teaches, &c., we may say, I am teaching, thou art teaching, he is teaching, &c.; and, instead of, I taught, &c.; I was teaching, &c. This mode of conjugation expresses the continuation of an action or state of being; and has, on some occasions, a peculiar propriety, and contributes to the harmony and precision of language. When the present participle of an active verb is joined with the neuter verb to be, the two words united, are, by some grammarians, denominated an active verb, either transitive or intransitive, as the case may be; as, "I am writing a letter; He is walking" and when the present participle of a neuter verb is thus employed, they term the combination a neuter verb; as, "I am sitting; He is standing." Others, in constructions like these, parse each word separately. Either mode may be adopted.
III. DEFECTIVE VERBS. DEFECTIVE VERBS are those which are used only in some of the moods and tenses.
The principal of them are these.
Perfect or Passive Participle
NOTE. Must and ought are not varied. Ought and quoth are never used as auxiliaries. Ought is always followed by a verb in the infinitive mood, which verb determines its tense. Ought is in the present tense when the infinitive following it is in the present; as, "He ought to do it ;" and ought is in the imperfect tense when followed by the perfect of the infinitive; as, "He ought to have done it."
Before you proceed to the analysis of the following examples, you may read over the last three lectures carefully and attentively; and as soon as you become acquainted with all that has been presented, you will understand nearly all the principles and regular constructions of our language. In parsing a verb,