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whatever task may be allotted to you. To correct the spirit of discontent, let us consider how little we deserve. To die for one's country, is glorious. How can we become wise? To seek God is wisdom. What is true greatness? Active benevolence. A good man is a great man.
NOTE 1. Man, foilowing great, and what, in the last two examples, are nom after is: RULE 21. To seek God, and to die for one's country, are members of sentences, each put as the nom. case to is respectively: RULE 24. The verb to correct is the infinitive mood absolute: NOTE under RULE 23. May be allotted is a passive verb, agreeing with which, the relative part of whatever. That, the first part of whatever, is an adj. pronoun, agreeing with task; and task is governed by study. Hear, following let, and repeat, following hear, are in the infinitive mood without the sign to, according to RULE 25. To recite is governed by prepare: RULE 23. is told, is a passive verb, agreeing with which, the relative part of whatever; and you, following, is governed by to understood: NOTE 1, under RULE 32.
2. In parsing a pronoun, if the noun for which it stands is not expressed, you must say it represents some person or thing understood.
OF THE AUXILIARY, PASSIVE, and defecTIVE VERBS.
1. AUXILIARY VERBS
Before you attend to the following additional remarks on the Auxiliary Verbs, you will do well to read again what is said respecting them in lecture XI. page 140. The short account there given, and their application in conjugating verbs, have already made them quite familiar to you; and you have undoubtedly observed, that, without their help, we cannot conjugate any verb in any of the tenses, except the present and imperfect of the indicative and subjunctive moods, and the present of the imperative and infinitive. In the formation of all the other tenses, they are brought into requisition.
Most of the auxiliary verbs are defective in conjugation; that is, they are used only in some of the moods and tenses; and when unconnected with principal verbs, they are conjugated in the following manner :
Sing. I may, thou mayst, he may.
Plur. We may, ye or you may, they may.
Sing. I might, thou mightst, he might.
Plur. We might, ye or you might, they might.
Sing. I shall, thou shalt, he shall.
Plur. We shall, ye or you shall, they shall.
Sing. I do, thou dost or doest, he doth or does.
Sing. I am, thou art, he is.
Plur. We are, ye or you are, they are.
Sing. I have, thou hast, he hath or has.
Plur. We had, ye or you had, they had.
Do, be, have, and will, are sometimes used as principal verbs: and when employed as such, do, be, and have, may be conjugated, by the help of other auxiliaries, through all the moods and tenses.
Do. The different tenses of do, in the several moods, are thus formed: Indicative mood, pres. tense, first pers. sing. I do; imperfect tense, I did; perf. I have done; pluperfect, 1 had done; first future, I shall or will do; sec. fut. I shall have done. Subjunctive mood, pres. tense, If I do; imperf. if I did; and so on. Imperative mood, do thou. Potential, pres
may, can, or must do, &c. Infinitive, present, to do; perf. to have done. Participles, pres. doing; perf. done; compound, ing done.
HAVE. Have is in great demand. No verb can be conjugated through all the moods and tenses without it. Have, when used as a principal verb, is doubled in some of the past tenses, and becomes an auxiliary to itself; thus, Indic. mood, pres. tense, first pers. sing. I have; imp. tense, I had; perf. I have had; pluperf. I had had; first fut. I shall or will have; sec. fut. I shall have had. Subjunctive, present, if I have; imperf. if I had; perf. if I have had; pluperf. if I had had; first fut. if I shall or will have; sec. fut. if I shall have had. Imper. mood, have thou. Potential, present, I may, can, or must have; imperf. I might, could, would, or should have; perf. I may, can, or must have had; pluperf. I might, could, would, or should have had. Infinitive, present, to have; perf. to have had. Participles, pres. having, perf. had; compound, having had.
BE. In the next place I will present to you the conjugation of the irregular, neuter verb, Be, which is an auxiliary whenever it is placed before the perfect participle of another verb, but in every other situation, it is a principal verb.
TO BE. INDICATIVE MOOD.
Sing. I am, thou art, he, she, or it is. Tease. Plur. We are, ye or you are, they arc. imperf. Sing. I was, thou wast, he was. Tense.
Sing. I have been, thou hast been, he hath or has been
Plur. We were, ye or you were, they were.
Plur. We shall or will be, you shall or will be, they shall or will be
Sing. I shall have been, thou wilt have been, he will have been. Fut. T.Plur. We shall have been, you will have been, they will have been. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
(Sing. If I be, if thou be, if he be.
Plur. If we be, if ye or you be, if they be.
Imperf. Sing. If I were, if thou wert, if he were.
Plur. If we were, if ye or you were, if they were.
The neuter verb to be, and all passive verbs, have two forms in the imperfect tense of this mood, as well as in the present; therefore, the following rule may serve to direct you in the proper use of each form. When the sentence implies doubt, supposition, &c. and the neuter verb be, or the passive verb, is used with a reference to present or future time, aud is either followed or preceded by another verb in the imperfect of the potential mood, the conjunctive form of the imperfect tense must be employed; as, "If he were here, we should rejoice together;"
"She might go, were she so disposed." But when there is no reference to present or future time, and the verb is neither followed not preceded by another in the potential imperfect, the indicative form of the imperfect tense must be used; as, "If he was ill, he did not make it known;"" Whether he was absent or present, is a matter of no consequence." The general rulé for using the conjunctive form of the verb, is presented on page 145. See, also, page 135.
The perfect, pluperfect, and first future tenses of the subjunctive mood, are conjugated in a manner similar to the correspondent tenses of the indicative. The second future is conjugated thus:
Second Sing. If I shall have been, if thou shalt have been, if he shall, &c, Fut. T.Plur. If we shall have been, if you shall have been, if they, &c. IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. Be, or be thou, or do thou be.
Plur. Be, or be ye or you, or do ye or you be.
Sing. I may, can, or must be, thou mayst, canst, or must be, he may, can, or must be.
Plur. We may, can, or must be, ye or you may, can, or must be, they may, can, or must be. Imperf. S Sing. I might, could, would, or should be, thou mightst, &c. Tense. Plur. We might, could, would, or should be, you might, &c.
Sing. I may, can, or must have been, thou mayst, canst, &c. Tense. Plur. We may, can, or must have been, you may, can, or must, &c. Pluper. Sing. I might, could, would, or should have been, thou, &c. Plur. We might, could, would, or should have been, you, &c. INFINITIVE MOOD.
Pres. Tense. To be.
Perf. Tense. To have been.
Pres. Being. Perf. Been. Compound, Having been.
This verb to be, though very irregular in its conjugation, is by far the most important verb in our language, for it is more fre quently used than any other; many rules of syntax depend on constructions associated with it, and, without its aid, no passive verb can be conjugated. You ought, therefore, to make yourself perfectly familiar with all its changes, before you proceed any farther.
II. PASSIVE VERBS.
The cases of nouns are a fruitful theme for investigation and discussion. In the progress of these lectures, this subject has frequently engaged our attention; and, now, in introducing to your notice the passive verb, it will, perhaps, be found both interesting and profitable to present one more view of the nominative case
Every sentence, you recollect, must have one finite verb, or more than one, and one nominative, either expressed or implied, for, without them, no sentence can exist.
The nominative is the actor or subject concerning which the verb makes an affirmation. There are three kinds of nominauves, active, passive, and neuter.
The nominative to an active verb, is active, because it produ ces an action, and the nominative to a passive verb, is passive, be cause it receives or endures the action expressed by the verb; for, A Passive Verb denotes action received or endured by the person or thing which is the nom inative; as, "The boy is beaten by his father."
You perceive, that the nominative boy, in this example, is not represented as the actor, but as the object of the action expressed by the verb is beaten; that is, the boy receives or endures the action performed by his father; therefore boy is a passive nominative. And you observe, too, that the verb is beaten denotes the action received or endured by the nominative; therefore is beaten is a passive verb.
If I say, John kicked the horse, John is an active nominative, because he performed or produced the action; but if I say, John was kicked by the horse, John is a passive nominative, because he received or endured the action.
The nominative to a neuter verb, is neuter, because it does not produce an action nor receive one; as, John sits in the chair. John is here connected with the neuter verb sits, which expresses simply the state of being of its nominative, therefore John is a neuter nominative.
I will now illustrate the active, passive, and neuter nominatives by a few examples.
I. Of ACTIVE NOMINATIVES; as, "The boy beats the dog ; The lady sings; The ball rolls; The.man walks."
II. Of PASSIVE NOMINATIVES; as, "The boy is beaten; The lady is loved; The ball is rolled; The man was killed."
III. Of NEUTER NOMINATIVES; as, "The boy remains idle; The lady is beautiful; The ball lies on the ground; The man lives in town."
You may now proceed to the conjugation of passive verbs. Passive Verbs are called regular when they end in ed; as, was loved; was conquered.
All Passive Verbs are formed by adding the perfect participle of an active-transitive verb, to the neuter verb to be.