페이지 이미지

pees per viss; it was of an inferior quality, and HARE, M.D.--Dissolve, in an iron kettle, one part mixed with sesamum oil; an adulteration which is of pearlash in about eight parts of water, add one often practised.

part of shell, or seed lac, and heat the whole to The extensive use to which this varnish is ap- ebullition. When the lac is dissolved, cool the soplied, indicates that it must be a very cheap com- lution, and impregnate it with chlorine till the lac modity. Almost every article of household furni. is all precipitated. ture destined to contain either solid or liquid food The precipitate is white, but its colour deepens is lacquered by means of it. At a village close to by washing and consolidation; dissolved in alcohol, Pagam on the Irawaddi, called Gnaunee, where lac, bleached by the process above mentioned, yields this sort of manufacture is carried on very exten- a varnish which is as free from colour as any copal sively and to great perfection, I endeavoured to varnish. obtain some information relating to the precise Chlorine, or oxymuriatic acid, may be formed mode of lacquering; but I could learn nothing fur- by mixing intimately eight parts of common salt, ther than this, that the article to be varnished and three of the black oxyde of manganese, in powmust first be prepared with a coating of pounded

der. This mixture is to be put into a retort; four calcined bones; after which the varnish is laid on parts of sulphuric acid, diluted with an equal weight thinly, either in its pure state or variously coloured of water, and afterwards allowed to cool, is to be by means of red or other pigments. I was told that poured upon the salt and manganese, when the gas the most essential as well as difficult part of the will immediately be liberated, and the operation operation consists in the process of drying, which must be quickened by a moderate heat. If the mix. must be effected in a very slow and gradual man ture be made without the sulphuric acid, and this ner; for which purpose the articles are placed in be added in small portions, the heat generated by damp and cool subterraneous vaults, where they this means will be sufficient 10 disengage the gas, are kept for several months until the varnish has without the aid of a lamp. A tube leading from the become perfectly dry. Another object for which mouth of the retort, must be passed into the resinthe drug is extensively employed, is as a size or ous solution, when the gas will be absorbed, and glue in the process of gilding; nothing more being the lac precipitated. required than to besmear the surface thinly with On the preparation and use of a Mastic Varnish, the varnish, and then immediately to apply the gold particularly suitable for paintings in oil. By JOSHUA leaf. If it is considered how very extensively that Shaw, Esq.-Amateurs and collectors of paintings art is practised by the Burma nation, it being among are frequently at a loss for a varnish properly pretheir most frequent acts of devotion and piety to pared and suited for the purpose of restoring and contribute to the gilding of their numerous reli- preserving the colours in works of art. I submit gious edifices and idols, it will be evident that a the following observations on the preparation of a great quantity of the drug must be consumed for very good one, and the best mode of applying it to that purpose alone. Finally, the beautiful Pali the surface of pictures painted in oil. writing of the religious order of the Burmas on Experience has shown that, for this purpose, ivory, palm-leaves, or metal, is entirely done with mastic varnish is in general preferable to any other, this varnish, in its native and pure state."

especially in the hands of inexperienced persons, A full account of Varnishes will be found in our and, with but few exceptions, even in those of the article JAPANNING, written for this work by Mr adept. This varnish is generally prepared by disJohn Farey, Vol. XI. p. 53, 54. See CAOUTCHOUC, solving the mastic in spirits of turpentine, over a Vol. V. p. 291, and CHEMISTRY, Vol. V.

sand heat, in a well glazed earthen, or in a copper vessel, occasionally shaking or stirring it about un.

til entirely dissolved, which will take place before On Japanning and Varnishing.-It has been a it arrives at a boiling heat; after which it is strain. great desideratum among artists to render shellaced through a piece of calico, in preference to linen, colourless, as, with the exception of its dark brown as it is less apt to give off lint, which is very trouhue, it possesses all the properties essential to a blesome when it gets into the varnish: it is then good spirit varnish, in a higher degree than either put into a bottle, well corked, and placed for two or of the other resins. A premium of a gold medal, three weeks where the light of the sun can strike it, or thirty guineas, “ for a varnish made from shell, which will cause a large precipitation of mucilaginor seed lac, equally hard, and as fit for use in the ous matter, and render it as transparent as water. arts, as that at present prepared from the above It is now to be decanted off into a clean bottle, and substances, but deprived of its colouring matter," put by for use. This is the mode of preparing that has long been, and is still offered, by the Society, commonly sold in the shops; but to insure a var. in London, for the encouragement of Arts, Manu- nish that can be depended upon, the following obfactures, and Commerce. These ends are perfectly servations must be attended to. Let all the mastic attained by the process given by Dr. Hare, which be bruised by a muller on a painter's grinding stone, leaves nothing to desire, excepting on the score of which will immediately detect the soft or oily tears, economy. Were the oxymuriate of potash to be which must be rejected; as when dissolved in the manufactured in the large way, the two processes, mass they prevenë the varnish from drying hard, that of making the salt, and of bleaching the resin, leaving a greasy or tacky surface. The next point might be very advantageously combined.

of importance is, to procure, if possible, turpentine Method of bleaching shell, or seed lac. By R. which has been distilled a second time; but where VOL. XVIII. PART I.

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this is not to be had, the best kind sold in the shops liquid ammonia, swells, and is converted into a gemust be taken; but it must be perfectly clear and latinous mass, which is entirely soluble in alcohol. colourless, otherwise good varnish cannot be ob. To effect this solution, which makes a very beautitained: it must not be furnished through an oily ful varnish, liquid ammonia is to be added, by demeasure, (which is but too commonly the practice) grees, to pulverized copal, till the swelling ceases, but poured out of the carboy without shaking or and it becomes a clear and consistent mass. It is disturbing it. If any doubts are entertained as to then heated to 35o cent., and introduced in small its purity, put about two tablespoonfuls into a com portions at a time, to alcohol of 8, baving a temmon white saucer, and let it evaporate in the sun, perature of about 5° cent., shaking it well after which will be effected in two or three hours; and if each addition. A solution is thus obtained, which, it leave a greasy residuum or a soft sticky mucus after depositing an insignificant portion of sediment it must be rejected; that only is good which entirely is absolutely colourless, and as clear as water. disappears. Thus prepared with good spirits of

Journ. de Con. Usuelles, Oct. 1828. turpentine, and with mastic bruised and picked, the two ingredients may be put into a clean bottle, when the resin may be dissolved without heat, by VAUCLUSE, the name of a department in the half an hour's shaking in the hand; it must then be south-east of France, contains about 336,963 hecstrained, and afterwards treated as before recom tares, or nearly 1400 square miles. The northmended.

eastern part is traversed by branches of the Alps, The French sometimes prepare this gum in spi- some of which, as Monts Ventoux, Lure, &c. have rits of wine (pure alcohol), but it is subject to chill a considerable height. A broad valley along the on the picture, and produces, in a time, a kind of Rhone occupies the west of it. The rivers are the white scale over it, which injures its lustre. Rhone, the Durance, and the Sorgens, which is

When it is prepared after the manner recom formed by the celebrated fountain of Vaucluse, mended, six ounces of pounded gum are mixed with which issues from an immense cavern encircled fourteen ounces of pure spirit of turpentine, which with rocks and mountains.* The soil in the low may, if found too thick, be diluted with more tur grounds is rich, but the pasturage is poor. Silk, pentine. It should be laid on with a soft, flat, cam linen, and leather are the principal manufactures. el's hair brush, as it is called, but which, however, The department is divided into four arrondisseis made of the hair obtained from the squirrel's ments, that of Avignon, the capital, Orange, Cartail. The varnish should always be laid on with as pentras, and Apt. The population in 1822, was much despatch as possible, keeping it alive, as the 224,431, and in 1827, 233,048. artists term it, and floating after the brush. It may VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. See BOTANY, be proper to observe, that no kind of varnish should Vol. IV. Part II. p. 42–68. be applied to any painting, without first cleaning it; VELASQUEZ DE Silva Don Diego, a celebratnor to a newly painted picture until it is perfectly cd painter, was born at Seville in 1594, and died in hard, to effect which requires five or six months. 1660. See our article PAINTING, Vol. XV. Before varnishing, be careful to remove all grease VENDEE, LA, a department in the west of from the surface by a coat of whiting, (not lime) France, contains 675,458 hectares, or about 2600 dissolved in water, and laid on so that it covers and square miles. Its surface, which is almost entirely entirely obscures the picture; this should be allowed level, is divided into three parts, called wood, to dry, and to remain on for one or two hours, when marsh, and plain. The part called the wood is ferit must be entirely removed by a sponge and some tile in corn, wine, and pasture. The marsh near clean rain water; then perform the operation of var the coast has been made highly productive. The nishing in a still room, free from lint and dust. plain is fertile. The rivers are the two Sevres, the

It will sometimes happen that a picture, where the Vendee, and the Autise. It is also intersected with surface is smooth, will look too bright and glaring, canals and ditches. Corn, cattle, salt, wool and which is both disagreeable to the eye, and injurious hides, are the principal exports. It is divided into to the effect of the picture: to remedy this defect, three arrondissements, Bourbon Vendée, the capi. after the varnish is quite dry, say in ten or fifteen tal, Sables d'Olonne, and Fontenay. Population days, sponge the picture all over with pure rain in 1822, 316,587, and in 1827, 522,826. A notice water, for about one or two minutes; and having of the civil war in La Vendée is given under FRANCE, squeezed the sponge, and made the picture as dry Vol. IX. as the sponge will leave it, pass lightly a clean silk VENEZUELA. See Caracoas, Vol. V. 318— handkerchief over it, with great rapidity, until it 331. becomes perfectly dry; when a clear, steady, Jucid VENEERING, OR FINEERING, is the art of in. appearance will pervade the whole picture. Breath laying common wood with thin slices of fine and ing occasionally on the picture to damp it, will as rare woods. This art has been brought to great sist the operation, while chafing it with the hand perfection by our celebrated engineer M. Brunel. kerchief. - Franklin Journal.

He at first contrived a machine by which the thin

slices of wood were cut from the mass, without Copal Varnish. By J. J. Berzelius.--Copal re any loss, and rolled up into scrolls. The London duced to coarse powder, and watered with caustic cabinet-makers did not consider the slices thus cut

See France, Vol. IX.

as sufficiently strong, in consequence of the effect city with rain water. In front are two lions sculpproduced by being rolled up. This, however, was a tured in beautiful red marble from the island of Zea, mistake, for the glue got into the numerous crev: and placed here in commemoration of a plot to deices or minute joints of the wood, and held it stroy the Republic. The conspirators met in this much firmer than if it had been applied only to a square, and a woman running hastily to the winsurface. We have seen very handsome veneered dow to see what was going on, overturned a flowerfurniture with which the veneers were cut by this pot which struck the ringleader Tripolo on the head machine of Brunel's.

and killed him on the spot. Regarding this as an M. Brunel then constructed two great circular act of divine vengeance the conspirators fled. saws eight feet in diameter, by which he sawed the Opposite the church of St. Mark are three lofty veneers to a great degree of thinness, and has thus flag-staffs raised on finely wrought bronze vases. given a new degree of perfection to the art of ve They were placed there to commemorate the conneering.

quest of the Morea, Epirus and Candia, and the VENICE, city in the north-east of Italy, is built fags of these countries were in the days of the reon from 60 to 138 small islands near the northern public hoisted upon them during the public festiextremity of the Adriatic Sea or Gulf of Venice. vals. The Piazetta is an open space extending The town is separated from the main land by a from St. Marks to the sea. On the east side of it marshy lake five Italian miles broad, and from three is the ducal palace, or that of the doge, an extento six feet deep. The city is said to be a little sive Gothic building, with many splendid apartmore than two miles long, one and a half broad, and ments and fine paintings. The offices of police are six in circumference. It is divided into two nearly in this building, and the Austrian main-guard is equal parts by a great canal about 1200 yards longstationed in that part of it called the Broglio. Opand 100 feet wide, which winds through it, and is posite to the ducal palace is the public library, an crossed by the celebrated bridge of the Rialto, of a elegant building of one story, elevated upon an arsingle arch. Many other canals intersect the city, cade, and ornamented with white marble statues on and these are crossed by from 450 to 500 bridges, the parapet. Behind this building is the Zecca or most of which are of stone. The inhabitants are mint, which fronts the water. The two grand conveyed through the city in gondolas, and by columns at the end of the Piazetta, next the sea, means of small boats. Merchandize is deposited are of Egyptian granite, and were brought from at the very doors of the warehouse. The quarter Greece about 1206. A third fell into the water and north of the great canal is divided into three, name was lost. On one column stands a winged lion in ly, the Sestiere de Castello, the Sestiere de San bronze, and on the other a bronze statue of St. Marco, and the Sestiere de Canareggio. The quar Theodore standing upon a crocodile. The lion ter to the south of ihe great canal is divided into the was removed by the French and placed upon the Sestiere de St. Paolo, de St. Croce, and de Dorso Hotel des Invalides at Paris, but it was restored to Duro.

Venice at the general peace.. In the time of the The streets in Venice are in general only from four republic criminals were executed between these pil. to six feet wide, with the exception of that of Mer lars. ceiria, which contains shops of every kind, and The church of St. Mark, once only the church of which is from 12 to 20 feet wide. The only square the palace, is now the principal one in the city. It in Venice is the Piazzi de San Marco, an irregular was begun in 829, but being burnt down was requadrangle, 280 feet long and 100 broad, and con built in 976. The interior is entirely covered with taining several handsome buildings. The south Mosaic pictures in stained glass on a gold ground, range of buildings called the Procuratie Nuovo, was which are reckoned inferior only to those of St. begun in the year 1587, and occupied by the Procu- Peter's at Rome.

Peter's at Rome. The altars and columns are of ratore di San Marco, officers next in dignity to the the richest marble, and likewise the tesselated pavedoge. It is now the residence of the Austrian gov ment. The centre front consists of 10 arches, five ernor, and contains some of the public offices. The above and five below, the lower ones being supportwest side was built by the French after the revolu- ed by two rows of columns, 292 in number, some tion, and contains the grand entrance of state and being of porphyry, others of verd antique, and the ball room, erected on the site of the church of St. rest of fine marble, all of them trophies of the VeGenevieve, which Bonaparte ordered to be pulled netian conquests. The upper centre arch is ter. down for that purpose. The north side of the minated by a colossal statue of St. Mark, and above square, called the Procuratie Vecchie, is older than the lower one are placed the celebrated Grecian the rest, and is inhabited by private individuals. A horses of Corinthian brass, said to be the work of continued arcade runs round three sides of the Lysippus. These horses are supposed to have square, containing coffee-houses and all kinds of stood successively on the triumphal arches of Au. shops. The principal entrance to the square is on gustus, Domitian, Trajan, and Constantine, the latthe north side under the Clock Tower. This tower ter of whom removed them, with the chariot of the has a fine astronomical clock, and is terminated sun, and placed them in the Hippodrome. In 1206, with a bell and two colossal bronze figures, which when the Venetians took the city, they carried them strike the hours and quarters. The east side of the to Venice, where they stood above the grand en. square is terminated by the celebrated church of trance to St. Mark 600 years. The French took St. Mark, and a small square called the Place of them to Paris in 1797, and placed them on the triFlowers. The pavement of this square is elevated umphal arch in the place de Carousel; but they in the centre to protect a well for supplying the were returned to their rightful owners in 1815.

The Campienello, or bell tower, stands opposite to giore, the New Quay and the garden of the Counte the church. It is 300 feet high. The ascent to ess de Savorgnan. the bells is by inclined planes, and from the gallery The history of Venice has been sufficiently nothere is one of the grandest views in Venice. At ticed in that of the other states of Europe. It is the base of the Campienello is the Logetta, a small, now under the dominion of Austria, by whom it is though beautiful marble building.

treated with great indulgence. Population about The houses in Venice are generally gloomy and 120,000. Lon. of St. Mark 12° 20' 59" E. North defective in accommodation. Ordinary buildings Lat. 5° 25' 32". See Kuttner's Travels, chap. are of brick covered with wood, and the general xxiv.; Eustace's Travels, vol. ii. p. 67; Mayer's height is three or four stories. The principal man. Beschreebung von Venedig. Leipz. 1790, and Arndt's sions of the great families are the palaces of the Balm Travels, tom. 1. bi, Canaro, Barbarigo, Grassi, Farsetti, &c. One of VENTILATION OF MINES. See Mines, Vol. the principle churches beside that of St. Mark, is XIV. p. 386–399. that of St. Maria della Salute, designed by Palladio, VENTRILOQUISM, See Acoustics, Vol. I. and built wholly of marble. It contains several p. 179, Science, Curiosities in, Vol. XVI. p. 592, fine pictures by Titian; that of Il Redemptore, in Edinburgh Journal of Science, No. XVIII. P, 241, the island of Giudecca, is very elegant. The ca. 252, and Stewart's Philosophy of the Human Mind, thedral of St. Peter stands on an island at the east vol. iii. p. 229. end of the city, and is built of Istrian marble. The VENUS. See ASTRONOMY, Index. church of St. Georgia Maggiore, in the island of VERA CRUZ, PROVINCE OF. See Mexico, Vol. the same name, is the work of Palladio, and is one XIII. p. 193. of the most beautiful in Venice. The church of S. VERA CRUZ, the great sea-port town of MexiS. Giovanni e Paolo is the Westminster Abbey of co, is a beautiful city regularly built, and with Venice, and contains the tombs of its great men. straight and spacious streets. It stands on a parchIt is a largé Gothic structure, and contains the mar- ed plain, covered with hills of sand from 30 to 40 tyrdom of St. Peter by Titian, which was carried feet high, which are constantly changing their pooff to the Louvre, but was replaced in 1815. Near sition. The town is encircled with a parapet wall this church is a fine building with elegant halls, surmounted with a wooden pallisade. All the called the school of St. Mark, opposite to which is houses are built with materials drawn from the bota bronze equestrian statue of de Bergamo, the Ve- tom of the sea. Water is obtained by digging netian general. Venice has eight theatres, the nine or ten feet into the sand, but as it is very bad, newest and most elegant of which is the La Fenice. an aqueduct was begun and carried on at great The assembly rooms contiguous to it are large and expense, but has not yet been completed. handsome. The arsenal is a magnificent building, The harbour, which is not commodious, is desituated on an island near the eastern end of the fended by two redoubts. At the distance of 800 city. It is defended by a rampart, and before its yards, is an islet with the fortified castle of St. Juan gates are two huge pillars, with the two gigantic D'Ulloa, containing 300 pieces of cannon. About lions in granite which once stood on the Piræus at 50 ships of war, or 100 merchant vessels might anAthens.

chor here in from four to ten fathoms of water. The trade of Venice was at its height in the 12th, An account of the trade, &c. of Vera Cruz has al. 13th and 14th centuries, but even then it probably ready been fully given in our article Mexico, Vol. did not exceed that of Liverpool. Though enor XIII. p. 193, &c. Population 16,000. W. Lon. mously diminished, it is still considerable, particu- 100° 49' 15'', N. Lat. 19° 11'52". larly with the Levant, the produce of which it trans VERDE, ISLANDS AND CAPE. Cape Verde is a mits to other countries, while it supplies the Levant considerable cape stretching into the Atlantic, and with groceries, Dutch and German linens, &c. forming the most western point of Africa. It gives dried and salted fish, &c. The manufactures of name to the Cape Verde islands, which are ten in Venice consist of woollens, serges, canvas and number, three large ones, St. Jago, St. Antonio, ropes, velvets, gold and silver embroideries, silk and St. Nicholas,

and seven small

ones, viz. Mayo, stockings, and lace. The mirrors and turpentine Bona Vista, Sal, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Brava, and of Venice are celebrated every where. Printing is Fogo. These islands are very imperfectly known. carried on to a considerable extent.

They are said to consist chiefly of volcanic matter, There is at Venice an academy of the fine arts, and the island of Fogo contains an active volcano. an athenæum, and an academy for general educa- The governor general resides in Jago at Port Praya. tion, a school of navigation, and an establishment Mayo is celebrated for its sea-salt. St. Vincent, like a foundling hospital, called the Rio de Pieta, which is thirty miles in circuit, is uninhabited. for educating in all kinds of employments one hun- The Portuguese inhabitants are very few and very dred young women. Music has always been the poor, and the negro and mulatto slaves are to a conprincipal study; on Sundays they give concerts in siderable degree independent. See BONAVISTA, Vol. their church, when the girls sing and play upon III. p. 653. every kind of instrument. On the small island of VERDEN, a province of Hanover, containing Lazarus there is an Armenian seminary, with a 520 square miles, and a population of 23,000, all large library and printing office where a newspaper Lutherans. The chief town, Verden, is a small is published.

place with almost no manufactures, and a populaThe chief promenades are the square of St. Mark; tion of 3000. the gardens and the convent of St. Georgio Mag VERMES. See ZOOPHYTOLOGY, in this volume.



VERMONT, one of the north-eastern states of the Connecticut channel rises so much as to be 1028 the United States, bounded on the east by New feet above the ocean level at Canaan in Essex counHampshire; on the south by Massachusetts; on ty, near the extreme north-eastern angle of Verthe west by a part of New York, and thence by mont. From these elements, it is evident that the Lake Champlain, and on the north by Lower Ca- arable surface of that state along its northern bornada,

der, has a general declivity of about 1000 feet in 90 Having an outline along Connecticut ri.

miles, equal to 11 feet per mile. This conjugate ver opposite to New Hampshire, with

declivity is very unequally distributed. The state out estimating the partial bends of

is divided into sub-valleys, which, to expose with the stream,

170 miles. more precision, we survey from south to north. Boundary in common with Massachu

The south-western angle of the state, commensusetts,

43. do. rate with the county of Bennington, gives source Do. in common with New York, and

to Batten Kill and Hoosack rivers, which flow along Lake Champlain,

160 do. westward into the Hudson river; and also, in its Boundary on the north in common with

northern part, to the extreme sources of Paulet and Lower Canada,

90 do. Otter rivers, flowing N.N.W.into Lake Champlain.

Otter entirely overheads Paulet, the former risEntire outline,


ing on the central valley between the two main This state extends in Lat. from 42° 44' at the chains, and flowing northwards, between them, to south-eastern angle to 45°, or through 136 minutes about half its course, breaks through the western, of Lat. or within an inconsiderable fraction of 157 and, inclining to N.N.W., falls into Lake Chamstatute miles. Measured carefully on the best plain, after a comparative course of 70 miles. The maps the area is rather above than below 8600 Otter river is followed, on the same plain, by three square miles; the mean breadth will consequently other confluents of Lake Champlain-Onion, La be about 55 miles.

Moelle, and Mississque rivers. Onion and La MoThough not so represented on most maps of that elle, something more brief than Otter in length of state, there are two distinct chains of mountains course, rise also in the slopes and vales of the east. which traverse it in its greatest length. These ern chain, and traverse the western, in their way chains were noticed under the head of mountains, to their final recipient. To the sources of the Ot. and were there shown to be the continuation of the ter, Onion, and La Moelle, are opposed the more Blue Ridge and South-east mountains. The moun- brief streams that fall into Connecticut river. Of tains of Vermont received their French name from these Deerfield river, though rising in Vermont, the dense forests of evergreen laurel and terebin. flows southwardly into Massachusetts, and in the tbine trees which clothe their slopes, valleys, and latter bends to the eastward, and meets its recipimost of their summits. The name was extended ent at the bottom of the great bend below the mouth to the country, and is rendered permanent by being of Miller's river. With courses generally to the given to the state.

south-east, beside innumerable creeks, are to the By reference to Table XV. Art. United States, northward from Deerfield, West, Black, Wateror the route of the Massachusetts and Hudson quechy, White, Watts, and Wells rivers. All these rail-road, the elevation of the two mountain chains named flowing from the eastern Vermont chain, and are given before their entrance into Vermont. fall into Connecticut river below the mouth of PasThese chains rather rise than depress in leaving sumpsic. At the latter point, the western slope of Massachusetts. If, however, we examine Ver- the Connecticut basin is so narrow, that it is not mont as a physical section, from the sources and above twelve direct miles to the extreme sources of respective slope of its river valleys, we find the either Onion or La Moelle rivers. The western state composed of two inclined plains, but of very slope of Connecticut widens with the Passumpsic, unequal breadth and rapidity of descent. The but again narrows to not above six miles at the exbases of these plains are the Connecticut river on treme north-eastern angle of Vermont. The pecuthe east, and Lake Champlain on the west. By liar structure of the Passumpsic valley, and its conturning to Table XVI. Art. UNITED States, it will nexion with the Memphramagog valley, may be seen be seen, that the surface of Lake Champlain is only by reference to the head of Connecticut basin, and 90. feet above the ocean tides; and by Table XVII, Table XVII., article United States. Art. UNITED States, if we compare the elevation Lake Memphramagog, with its numerous confluof Connecticut river, 73 feet at the influx of ents, may, in some respects, be regarded as an anoMiller's river, with the general rise of that river maly in the geography of Vermont. The lake itself, channel, we shall find that the south-eastern'angle extending to 25 miles in length, with a mean width of Vermont is very nearly of equal elevation with of perhaps two miles, and with about one-third of its north-western border on Lake Champlain. But its length in Vermont, receives its confluents from

VOL. XVIII.- Part I.

2 C*

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