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this proposed military training if we look at the cost of the recent war. For an army of about three and a half million men there was an annual appropriation of $15,300,000,000. That's for one year's expense of the army alone. The navy and other departments do not come under this appropriation. The expense of our proposed army would probably be one-fifth of that amount. Multiply that sum by the unlimited number of years that this awful economic burden would be upon us—and you can see just what it means from the money standpoint.
But why have military training? Well, the "wise" men tell us that with a large, well trained army we shall keep out of war. I think the League of Nations ought to set a very low maximum on the number of armed men each nation shall be allowed to have. Still further, it might do away with the regular standing army, and allow each nation only its state guard, which would be sufficient to do internal and border police duty. If every nation had only this kind of army, then no nation need have any fear of any other nation, and be competing in armies and armaments. A nation is a thinking and feeling organism, pretty much like the average individual of that nation. In the pioneer days of our country men carried guns. Everybody got the best gun he could buy, and kept it ready for use on his neighbor. The law came along and said, "Lay down your guns." Now since people don't carry guns, they no longer carry chips on their shoulder. They don't keep their hand on their hip
pocket, because they know the other fellow doesn't carry a gun. There is more peace among the gunless citizens now than there used to be among the gunned citizens. Whenever one nation shows excessive strength in its army and navy, then its rivals do all in their power to outstrip the strong nation. It's just a problem of seeing which frog can swell up the largest. But the fable says that sometimes the overambitious frog bursts.
But some people say we ought to have military training for the wonderful good it does the individual. They say it builds up his physique, trains him to be obedient, to have order and system to what he does, and blesses him in a thousand ways.
No doubt it does help a man physically while he is in training. But he is not going to be in training all his life, and consequently can't get this benefit all the time. If he is going to be a laboring man, he will get enough exercise from his work. If he is going to be an office man, he could not carry out the strenuous exercise, and wouldn't need to if he could. There are outdoor games that give one more pleasure and more normally needed exercise than army training.
But how about the great value of discipline? The day of forcing men to do things is over. In an educated democracy men do what they think is best. If there is an attempt to force them, it results in disaster. But even if young men do submit to being regular and systematic in eating, sleeping, exercising, making beds, and picking up cigarette stumps,-then
when the restrictions are taken off, the men do not know how to act and think of their own initiative in the most simple things. When the restrictions are once removed, the restricted become licentious. The French Revolution and the Russian Revolution plainly show this fact as it is brought out in a whole nation.
(1) Make a mental outline of this talk.
(2) What were the main points the student was attempting to prove? State each in the form of a sentence.
(3) Did he support these statements with as substantial facts as could be expected of one who did not know what he was to talk on?
(4) Which was given first, the statement or the proof?
70. The Third Exercise of the Third Form.—Your teacher will give you in class a topic upon which you are to begin talking at once. The topics in both this and the second exercise will come from the information in the questionnaire and from your teacher's knowledge of you personally. The third exercise is the most important of the three, and the one in which you will be given the most practice.
3. An Oral Composition of the Third Exercise The questionnaire which follows gives you some idea of how to fill out the blank to be found in section 68 so as to provide your teacher with rather full information about yourself. The list of topics following the
questionnaire illustrates how he can select topics with which you are familiar, and upon which you could give an impromptu talk.
THE QUESTIONNAIRE (Filled out)
1. My name William Anderson.
5. Graduate from high school (give name and date)
8. Kinds of work I have done (1) Sold newspapers; (2) clerked in a grocery store; (3) worked on a farm; (4) fired furnaces, and (5) washed dishes as a college student.
9. Kinds of work I am interested in (1) Social work; (2) farming; (3) reconstruction prob
10. Sports and games I like Baseball, tennis, fishing, swimming, rowing.
11. Traveled (when and where) From Indiana to New York and back, summer of 1918; went to Coney Island.
12. Important or interesting events in my life (1)
Came near dying of pneumonia when I was ten; (2) trying to make enough money to go to college; (3) the fact that I am in college.
13. General topics I am really interested in (1) Political and economic situation arising from the war; (2) national reforms, such as prohibition and woman suffrage; (3) character study -observing people I meet; (4) farming; (5) education-the new world it opens up to
14. Work I am specializing in (in preparation for life-work) May specialize in law but am undecided.
15. College studies I am taking (1) English composition; (2) English literature; (3) English History; (4) French; (5) Mathematics.
16. Study, or studies I am most interested in English Literature and French.
17. Additional information about me I was born and reared in the country. My family moved to Indianapolis when I was twelve years old. Soon after we moved there, my father died. From that time on we have had to work very hard to make both ends meet. I am going to college at a great sacrifice on the part of my mother. I am working my way through college by doing such odd jobs as clerking in a grocery Saturday afternoons and evenings, firing a furnace, and washing dishes.
Topics Taken From the Questionnaire
1. Our First Impressions of People.
2. Some Differences between the People of the East and the People of the Middle-West.