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saw is also erroneous, the imperfect tense being employed instead of the perfect participle. The perfect tense of a verb is formed by combming the auxi liary have with its perfect participle: therefore the sentence should be writ ten thus, "I have seen many a one:" Note 3.

Note 3.

He done me no harm, for I had wrote my letter before he come home.

Had not that misfortune befel my cousin, he would have went to Europe long ago.

The sun had already arose, when I began my journey.
Since the work is began, it must be prosecuted.

The French language is spoke in every state in Europe. He writes as the best authors would have wrote, had they writ on the same subject.


Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives, and other adverbs; as, "A very good pen writes extremely well," "By living temperately," &c.

NOTE 1. Adverbs are generally set before adjectives or adverbs, after verbs, or between the auxiliary and the verb; as, "He made a very sensible discourse, and was attentively heard."

2. When the qualifying word which follows a verb, expresses quality, it must be an adjective, but when it expresses manner, an adverb should be used; as, "She looks cold; She looks coldly on him; He feels warm; He feels warmly the insult offered to him." If the verb to be can be substituted for the one employed, an adjective should follow, and not an adverb; as, "She looks [is] cold; The hay smells [is] sweet; The fields look [are] green ; The apples taste [are] sour; The wind blows [is] fresh."

3. It is not strictly proper to apply the adverbs here, there, and where, to verbs signifying motion, instead of the adverbs hither, thither, whither: thus, "He came here [hither] hastily;" "They rode there [thither] in two hours;" "Where [whither] will he go?" But in familiar style, these constructions are so far sanctioned as sometimes to be admissible.

4. The use of where, instead of in which, in constructions like the following, is hardly admissible: "The immortal sages of "76, formed a charter, where [in which] their rights are boldly asserted."

5. As the adverbs hence, thence, and whence, literally supply the place of a noun and preposition, there appears to be a solecism in employing a preposition in conjunction with them: "From whence it follows" "He came from thence since morning." Better, "whence it follows;" "He came thence." The following phrases are also exceptionable: "The then ministry;" ;""The above argument;" "Ask me never so much dowry;" "Charm he never so wisely." Better, "The ministry of that time or period;" "The preceding argument ;" "Ever so much dowry;" "Ever so wisely.”


Note 1. It cannot be impertinent or ridiculous therefore to remonstrate.

He was pleasing not often, because he was vain.

These things should be never separated.

We may happily live, though our possessions are small.


Two negatives destroy one another, and are generally equivalent to an affirmative; as, "Such things are not uncommon;" i. e. they are com


NOTE. When one of the two negatives employed is joined to another word, it forms a pleasing and delicate variety of expression; as, "His language, though inelegant, is not ungrammatical;" that is, it is grammatical.

But, as two negatives, by destroying each other, are equivalent to an affirmative, they should not be used when we wish to convey a negative meaning. The following sentence is therefore inaccurate: "I cannot by no means allow him what his argument inust prove." It should be, "I cannot by any means," &c., or, "I can by no means."


Note, 2d part. I don't know nothing about it.

I did not see nobody there. Nothing never affects her.
Be honest, nor take no shape nor semblance of disguise.
There cannot be nothing more insignificant than vanity.
Precept nor discipline is not so forcible as example.


Prepositions govern the objective case; as, "He went from Utica to Rome, and then passed through Redfield."


Each is accountable for hisself.
They settled it among theirselves.
It is not I who he is displeased with.
Who did you go with?

Who did you receive instruction from?


Home, and nouns signifying distance, time when, how long, &c. are generally governed by a preposition understood; as, "The horse ran a mile;" "He came home last June;" "My friend lived four years at college;" that is, ran through the space of a mile; or, ran over a space called a mile; to his home in last June; during four years, &c.

NOTE 1. The prepositions to and for are often understood, chiefly before the pronouns; as, "Give [to] me a book; Get [for] him some paper." 2. To or unto, is, by some, supposed to be understood after like and

unlike; as, "He is like [unto] his brother; She is unlike [to] him." Others consider this mode of expression an idiom of the language, and maintain that like governs the objective following it.

3. Nouns signifying extension, duration, quantity, quality, or value, are used without a governing word; as, "The Ohio is one thousand miles long; She is ten years old; My hat is worth ten dollars." These are sometinies considered anomalies. See page 163.


Conjunctions connect nouns and pronouns in the same case; as, "The master taught her and me to write ;" "He and she are associates."



My brother and him are grammarians.

You and me enjoy great privileges.

Him and I went to the city in company; but John and him returned without me.

Between you and I there is a great disparity of years.


Conjunctions generally connect verbs of like moods and tenses; as, "If thou sincerely desire, and earnestly pursue virtue, she will assuredly be found by thee, and prove a rich reward.”

NOTE 1. When different moods and tenses are connected by conjunctions, the nominative must be repeated; as, "He may return, but he will not tarry." 2. Conjunctions implying contingency or doubt, require the subjunctive mood after them; as, "If he study, he will improve." See pages 135, 145,

and 155.

3. The conjunctions if, though, unless, except, whether, and lest, generally require the subjunctive mood after them.

4. Conjunctions of a positive and absolute nature, implying no doubt, require the indicative mood; as, “As virtue advances, so vice recedes."


Did he not tell me his fault, and entreated me to forgive him? Professing regard, and to act differently, discovers a base


Note 1. He has gone home, but may return.

The attorney executed the deed, but will write no more.
Note 2. I shall walk to-day, unless it rains.

If he acquires riches, they will corrupt his mind.


A noun or pronoun following the conjunction than, as, or but, is nominative to a verb, or governed by a verb or preposition, expressed or understood; as, "Thou art wiser than I [am."1 "I saw nobody but I saw] him."

NOTE: The conjunction as, when it is connected with such, many, or same, is sometimes, though erroneously, called a relative pronoun; as, "Let such as presume to advise others," &c. ; that is, Let them who, &c. See page


2. An ellipsis, or omission of some words, is frequently admitted, which must be supplied in the mind in order to parse grammatically; as, "Wo is me;" that Is, to me; "To sleep all night;" i. e. through all the night; "He has gone a journey;" i. e. on a journey; "They walked a league;" i. e. over a space called a league.

3. When the omission of words would obscure the sense, or weaken its force, they must be expressed.

4. In the use of prepositions, and words that relate to each other, we should pay particular regard to the meaning of the words or sentences which they connect: all the parts of a sentence should correspond to each other, and a regular and clear construction throughout should be carefully preserved. FALSE SYNTAX.

They are much greater gainers than me.

They know how to write as well as him; but he is a better grammarian than them.

They were all well but him.

None were rewarded but him and me.

Jesus sought none but they who had gone astray.


1. In the use of verbs, and other words and phrases which, in point of time, relate to each other, a due regard to that relation should be observed.

Instead of saying, "The Lord hath given, and the Lord hath taken away;" we should say, "The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away." Instead of, "I remember the family more than twenty years;" it should be, "I have remembered the family more than twenty years."

2. The best rule that can be given for the management of the tenses, and of words and phrases which, in point of time, relate to each other, is this very general one; Observe what the sense necessarily requires.

To say, "I have visited Washington last summer; I have seen the work more than a month ago," is not good sense. The constructions should be, "I visited Washington, &c.; I saw the work, &c.' "This mode of expression has been formerly much admired;"- was formerly much admired." "If I had have been there;" "If I had have seen him;" "Had you have known him," are solecisms too gross to need correction. We can say, I have been, I had been; but what sort of a tense is, had have been? To place had before the defective verb ought, is an errour equally gross and illiterate :-" had ought, hadn't ought." This is as low a vulgarism as the use of theirn, hern, and hizzen, tother, furder, baynt, this ere, I seed it, I tell'd him.

3. When we refer to a past action or event, and no part of that time in which it took place remains, the imperfect tense *should be used; but if there is still remaining some portion of the time in which we declare that the thing has been done, the perfect tense should be employed.


Thus, we say, "Philosophers made great discoveries in the last century,” "He was much afflicted last year;" but when we refer to the present century, year, week, day, &c. we ought to use the perfect tense; as, Philos ophers have made great discoveries in the present century;" "He has been much afflicted this year;" "I have read the president's message this week ;" "We have heard important news this morning;" because these events occurred in this century, this year, this week, and to-day, and still there remains a part of this century, year, week, and day, of which I speak

In general, the perfect tense may be applied wherever the action is con nected with the present time, by the actual existence either of the author or of the work, though it may have been performed many centuries ago; but if neither the author nor the work now remains, the perfect tense ought not to be employed. Speaking of priests in general, we may say, “ They have in all ages claimed great powers;" because the general order of the priesthood still exists; but we cannot properly say, "The Druid priests have claimed great powers;" because that order is now extinct. We ought, therefore, to say, "The Druid priests claimed great powers."

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The following examples may serve still farther to illustrate the proper use and application of the tenses. My brother has recently been to Philadelphia." It should be," was recently at Philadelphia ;" because the adverb recently refers to a time completely past, without any allusion to the present time. "Charles is grown considerably since I have seen him the last time." Corrected, "Charles has grown, since I saw him," &c. "Payment was at length made, but no reason assigned for its being so long postponed." Corrected, "for its having been so long postponed." "They were arrived an hour before we reached the city :"-" They had arrived.” "The workmen will complete the building at the time I take possession of it." It should be, "will have completed the building," &c. "This curious piece of workmanship was preserved, and shown to strangers for more than fifty years past"-"has been preserved, and been shown to strangers," &c. "I had rather write than beg:""I would rather write than beg."

"On the morrow, because he would have known the certainty whereof Paul was accused of the Jews, he loosed him from his bands." It ought to be, "because he would know; or, being willing to know," &c. "The blind man said, 'Lord, that I might receive my sight;"" "If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead." In both these examples, may would be preferable to might. "I feared that I should have lost the parcel, before I arrived:"-" that I should lose." "It would have afforded me no satisfaction, if I could perform it." It ought to be, "if I could have performed it ;" or, It would afford me no satisfaction, if I could perform it." "This dedication may serve for almost any book that has, is, or shall be published :”—“ that has been, or will be published."

4. In order to employ the two tenses of the infinitive mood with propriety, particular attention should be paid to the meaning of what we express.

Verbs expressive of hope, desire, intention, or command, ought to be followed by the PRESENT tense of the Infinitive mood.

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"Last week I intended to have written," is improper. The intention of writing was then present with me; and, therefore, the construction should be, "I intended to write." The following examples are also inaccurate; "I found him better than I expected to have found him;" My purpose was, after spending ten months more in commerce, to have withdrawn my wealth to another country." They should be, "expected to find him ;" "to withdraw my wealth."

"This is a book which proves itself to be written by the person whose marne it bears." It ought to be," which proves itself to have been written," &c.

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