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appeared in 1791, illustrating 500 more genera, on the same plan with the former, in 101 plates, in which the compound flowers are treated with peculiar care and success. The preface of this volume is dated April 6, 1791, but little more than three months before the death of the author, which happened on the 14th of July, 1791, in the sixtieth year of his age. He is said, though struggling for some time preceding with debility and disease, to have finished a description and drawing of the Halleria lucida but the evening before his departure. He left one son, to whom he gave an excellent education, and who has proved worthy of his distinguished father, in publishing his inedited works, and continuing with success the same inquiries.


GAFFARELL (JAMES), a learned Rabbinical writer, was the son of Dr. Gaffarell, by Lucrece de Bermond, his wife; and was born at Mannes, in Provence, about 1601. He was educated at the university of Apt, in that county, where he prosecuted his studies with indefatigable industry; and applying himself particularly to the Hebrew language and Rabbinical learning, was wonderfully pleased with the mysterious doctrines of the Cabala, and commenced author in their defence at the age of twenty-two. He printed a 4to volume at Paris in 1623, under the title of " The secret mysteries of the divine Cabala, defended against the triling objections of the Sophists,” or “ Abdita divinæ Cabalæ mysteria," &c. The following year he published a paraphrase upon that beautiful ode the 137th Psalm, “ By the waters of Babylon we sat down and wept, when we remembered thee, Sion," &c.

He began early to be infamed with an ardent desire of travelling for his improvement in literature, in which his curiosity was boundless. · This disposition, added to his uncommon talents, did pot escape the notice of cardinal Richelieu, who appointed him bis library-keeper, and sent him into Italy to collect the best books printed or MS. that could be found. This employment extremely well suited Gaffarell's taste, both as it gave him an opportunity of furnishing his own library with some curious pieces in oriental and other languages,

I Sims and Konig's Annals of Botany, vol. I. p. 73.-Rees's Cyclopædia. Deleuze's Biog. Memoir of Gærtner.

and of making inquiries into that branch of literature which was his chief delight. With this view, while he was at Rome, he went with sone others to visit Campanella, the famous pretender to magic; his design in this visit was to procure satisfaction about a passage in that author's book, “ De sensu rerum et magia." Campanella was then in the inquisition, where he had been cruelly used, in order to force him to confess the crimes laid to his cbarge. At their entrance into his chamber he begged they would have a little patience, till he had finished a small note which he was writing to cardinal Magaloti. As soon as they were seated, they observed him to make certain wry faces, which being supposed to proceed from pain, he was asked if he felt no pain; to which, smiling, he answered, No! and guessing the cause of the question, he said he was fancying himself to be cardinal Magaloti, as he had heard him described. This was the very thing Gaffarell wanted ; and convinced him, that in order to discover another person's thoughts, it was not sufficient, as he had be. fore understood Campanella, barely to fancy yourself to be like the person, but you must actually assume bis very physiognomy. This anecdote will afford the reader a suf. ficient idea of the value of the discoveries of Campanella and Gaffarell.

In 1629, he published “Rabbi Elea, de fine mundi, Latine versus, cum notis," Paris, 8vo, i. e. “A Latin version of Rabbi Elea's treatise concerning the end of the world, with notes;" and the same year came out his “ CuBiositez Inoüez, &c. Unheard of Curiosities concerning the talismanic sculpture of the Persians; the horoscope of the Patriarchs, and the reading of the stars." This curious piece went through three editions in the space of six months. In it the author undertakes to shew that talismans, or constellated figures, bad the virtue to make a man rich and fortunate, to free a house and even a whole country from certain insects and venomous creatures; and from all the injuries of the air. He started many other bold assertions concerning the force of magic ; and having also made some reflections upon his own country, and mentioned the decalogue according to the order of the Old Testament, and the protestant doctrine, he was censured by the Sorbonne, and therefore retracted these and some other things advanced as errors ; submitting his faith in all points to the doctrine of the catholic and apostolic church.

In 1633 he was at Venice, where, among other things, he took an exact measure of the vessels brought from Cya prus and Constantinople, that were deposited in the treasury of St. Mark, at the request of the learned Peiresc, with whom he had been long acquainted, and who had a great esteem for him. During his abode in this city, he was invited to live with M. de la Thuillerie, the French ambassador, as a companion. He accepted the invitation, but was not content with the fruitless office of merely diverting the ambassador's leisure hours by bis learned conversation. He aimed to make himself of more importance, and to do this friend some real service. He resolved therefore to acquaint himself with politics, and in that view wrote to his friend Gabriel Naudé, to send him a list of the authors upon political subjects; and this request it was, that gave birth to Naudé's “ Bibliographia Politica." Gaffarell at this time was doctor of divinity and canon law, prothonotary of the apostolic see, and commendatory prior of St. Giles's. After his return home, he was employed by his patron cardinal Richelieu, in his project for bringing back all the protestants to the Roman church, which he calls a re-union of religions; and to that end was authorized to preach in Dauphiné against the doctrine of purgatory. To the same purpose he also published a piece upon the

pacification of Christians.

He survived the cardinal many years, and wrote several books besides those already mentioned ; among which are, 1. “ Index codicum MStorum quibus usus est Joh. Picus Comes Mirandulanus,” Paris, 1650. vid. Selden. de Synedriis Heb. 1653, p. 681. 2. “ Un traité de la poudre de sympathie et des Talismans." 3. “ Epistola præfat. in Rob. Leonis Mutinensis libellum de ritibus Hebraicis." 4. " Cribrum Cabalisticum,” vid. Curiosites Inoüez, p. 44, and 369. 5. “ Avis aux Doctes touchant la neces. sité des langues orientales,” ibid. p. 54 and 84. 6. “ The widow of Sarepta." 7. “ A treatise of good and evil Genii,” vid. Mercure galant, p. 161, for Jan. 1682. 8. “ Ars nova & perquam facilis legendi Rabbinos sine punctis.” 9. “De musica Hebræorum stupenda libellus." 10. “ In voces derelictas V. T. Centuriæ duæ, nova cum Scaligero de lxx Interpret. dissertatiuncula.” 11. “ De stellis cadentibus opinio nova.” 12. "Quæstio Hebraicophilosophica, ùtrom a principio mare salsum extiterit." 13. “ Lachrymæ in obitum sani Cæcilii Frey. Medici,"

1631, 4to, and some others, mentioned by Leo Allatius, in Apibus.

In the latter part of his life he was employed in writing a history of the subterranean world; containing an account of the caves, grottos, mines, vaults, and catacombs, which he had met with in thirty years' travel; and the work was so nearly finished, that the plates were engraven, and it was just ready to go to the press, when he died at Sigonce, of which place he was then abbot, in his eightieth year, 1681; being also dean of canon law in the university of Paris, prior of le Revest de Brousse, in the diocese of Sisteron, and commandant of St. Omeil. His works shew him to have been a man of prodigious reading, and uncommon subtilty of genius; but he unfortunately had also a superstitious credulity, as appears from the following passage in his “ Unheard-of Curiosities.” Treating of omens, he cites Camerarius, affirming that some people have an apprehension and knowledge of the death of their friends and kindred, either before or after they are dead, by a certain strange and unusual restlessness within them selves, though they are a thousand leagues off

. To support this idle notion, he tells us that his mother Lucrece de Bermond, when she was living, had some such sign always given her; for none of her children ever died, but a little before she dreamt either of hair, eggs, or teeth mingled with earth; this sign, says he, was infallible. “I myself, when I had beard her say she had any such dream, observed the event always to follow." His “ Curiosities'? was translated by Chilmead into English, Lond. 1650, 8vo.!

GAFFURIUS (FRANCIJINUS), an eminent musical writer, a native of Lodi, born Jan. 14, 1451, of obscure parents, was first intended for priest's orders, but after studying music for two years under John Goodenach, a carmelite, he manifested so much genius for that science, that it was thought expedient to make it his profession. After learning the rudiments of music at Lodi, he went to Mantua, where he was patronized by the marquis Lodovico Gonzago; and u bere, during two years, he pursued his studies with unwearied assiduity night and day, and acquired great reputation, both in the speculative and practical part of his profession. From this city he went to Verona,

I Moreri.-Gen. Dict.-Leo Allatius's Apes Urbanæ.-Colomesii Gallia Orie entalis.-Morboff Polyhist. Dict. Hist.

where he read public lectures on music for two years more, and published several works; after which he removed to Genoa, whither he was invited by the doge Prospero ; there be entered into priest's orders. From Genoa hè was invited to Milan by the duke and duchess Galeazzo, but they being soon after expelled that city, he returned to Naples, where Philip of Bologna, professor-royal, received bim as his colleague; and he became so eminent in the theory of music, that he was thought superior to many celebrated and learned musicians, his contemporaries, with whom he now conversed and disputed. He there published his profound “Treatise on the Theory of Harmony,” 1480 ; which was afterwards enlarged and re-published at Milan, 1492 ; but the plague raging in Naples, and that kingdom being likewise much incommoded by a war with the Turks, he retreated to Otranto, whence, after a short residence, he returned to Lodi, where he was protected and favoured by Pal. lavicino, the bishop, and opened a public school, in which, during three years, he formed many excellent scholars. He was offered great encouragement at Bergamo, if he would settle there; but the war being over, and the duke of Milan, his old patron, restored, he preferred the residence of that city to any other. It was here that he composed and polished most of his works; that he was caressed by the first persons of his time for rank and learning; and that he read lectures by public authority to crowded audiences, for which he had a faculty granted him by the archbishop and chief magistrates of the city in 1483, which exalted bim far above all his contemporaries; and how much be improved the science by his instructions, his lectures, and his writings, was testified by the approbation of the whole city; to which may be added the many disciples he formed, and the almost infinite number of volumes he wrote, among which several will live as long as music and the Latin tongue are understood. He like. wise first collected, revised, commented, and translated into Latin the ancient Greek writers on music, Bacchius senior, Aristides, Quintilianus, Ptolemy's Harmonics, and Manuel Briennius. The works which he published are, 1. “ Theoricum Opus Harmonicæ Disciplinæ,” mentioned above, Neapolis, 1480, Milan, 1492. This was the first book on the subject of music that issued from the pressafter the invention of printing, if we except the " Defi.

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