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the cause of all the wrecks, but of many. Exceptions there are to each of these causes of loss; and pity it is, there are not more.
What is the reason, we would ask, of ships foundering suddenly by springing a leak;* of others being abandoned, before their voyage is completed; of others being capsized and foundering, and of others again going to pieces as soon almost as they touch the ground? What can all these be, but bad ships; and of all such cases our tables present instances. Again what is the reason of their being badly navigated and in bad discipline, which those who know anything of our wrecks, and their crews, and our police reports, cannot but see is the case. What is the reason of this, but that of being badly commanded. Are such ships in this condition to be considered as having a captain, able in all respects, 10 do his duty; not only as a seaman and navigator, but one who can preserve the discipline of his crew; and make himself felt by them as a father? Such ships we say are badly commanded. Again, when we say that, ships are badly manned, we not only allude to the ill state of discipline of the crews, but the insufficiency of their number. From many causes tending to lessen that already small number, besides desertion and sickness, our ships are badly manned. And of their being badly found there are many instances on record.
We shall not now recapitulate the annual loss in our merchant shipping from these and other causes. They may be taken without fear of exaggeration at about one and a half daily.
The chairman at a late meeting of shipowners at Hull, (held, by-the-way, for the purpose of opposing Capt. FitzRoy's bill,) who may be supposed to know as much of these matters as any one, said, -" As to the question whether more vessels had been lost in late years than formerly, he believed it would be found, from parliamentary documents, that such was the fact. He had selected from parliamentary documents the following figures:- From 1809 to 1815, during time of the war, six years, the average loss of British ships was one ship per day, which included sea risk and war risk. From 1820 to 1825 there was a considerable increase, the average being three and a half ships per day. From 1826 to 1833, six years, and the average loss was reduced to two ships per day. From 1837 to 1830 it was two ships per day. Therefore, from 1820 to 1825 was the period of the greatest increase," We have not then overstated the fearful amount of the wrecks which take place annually amongst our merchant ships.
But while all this loss of life and property is going forward, there is a gratification in knowing that seamen wrecked on our own shores, when they happily escape with their lives are kindly received, and forwarded to their homes, and that the widows and children of those who unhappily perish are nourished and protected by the Agents of a Society, called the Shipwrecked Fishermen and Mariners' Benevolent Society. This Society is well entitled to the notice of our readers, and of their claims upon them, by their useful labours; the best means
• We might adduce many instances similar to the following :-"The barque Alexander, (No. 75 of our table,) Primrose, sprung a leak on the morning of the 25th December, and went down on the morning of the 26th, 170 miles N.W b W. of Cape St. Vincent; the crew got on board the Danish brig Sirius, Koford, from Messina for Copenhagen, and were landed safe here to-day by a pilot-boat. Mr. Koford behaved with the greatest kindness to Mr. Primrose and crew; stopping by the ship the night before she sunk, and during the time they were on board his Vessel.
Here is another respecting the Monk steamer (No. 169 of our table):-“ After bearing other evidence, the coroner summed up, and the jury returned a verdict of **Accidentally drowned,” expressing their opinion that the steamer was not sufficiently seaworthy and ought not to have been placed upon the station, and that great blame attached to those having charge of her in leaving Porthdynllaen on the day in question."
Several other instances of such sea worthiness (worthy we presume of perishing at sea) may be found without refering further back than to our last number.--ED,
we can give our readers of judging will be found in one of their advertisments.
SHIPWRECKED FISHERMEN AND MARINERS' BENEVOLENT SOCIETY.-Storms so fearful in their character, and so distressing in their consequences, as those which have recently occurred, have not visited the coasts of the United Kingdom for many years previous; hundreds of seamen have thereby been thrown into misfortune without the requisite clothing for protecting themselves from the weather, the means of gaining food and lodging, or of reaching their several homes. But still more lamentable are the facts concerning loss of life-a large number of widows and orphans have been left without the least means of subsistence-in utter destitution.
The Committee of Management of this Society earnestly crave the attention of the British public to the following particnlars of the surviving relatives of 28 fishermen lost at the undermentioned places, in addition to 80 whose families were relieved on the 27th ult:
Eighteen fishermen lost, leaving eight widows, 28 children, and 12 aged parents, at Arranmore, county Donegal.
Five fishermen lost, leaving four widows, sis children, and an aged mother, at Unst, Shetland Isles.
Three fishermen (brothers), leaving three widows and 12 children, at Dunrossness, Shetland Isles.
A fishermen lost, leaving a widow and three children, at East Donyland, Essex.
A fisherman lost, leaving a widow and two children, at Barmouth, South Wales.
The crews of the following vessels (70 persons), wrecked on various parts of the coast, have been boarded, lodged, clothed, and forwarded to their homes during the last week : Lion, of Newcastle
Glenesk, of Montrose Water Nymph
Alexander, of Kincardine Ariel, of Greenock
Southampton, of London General Brock, of London
Dart, of Yarmouth Arundel, of London
Tyro, of London Tampico, of Workington
Emma, of Scilly Islands L'Union Fortuna, of Ancona
Sarah, of St. Ives Donations and subscriptions will be thankfully received by Messrs. Williams, Deacon, and Co., Birchin-Jane, London ; by the 482 auxiliary branches; and at the central offices, 26, Bucklersbury, London. Feb. 2, 1842.
Edward West, Secretary. Total number of persons relieved from the 8th of May, 1839, to the 4th of October, 1842;Widows
. 321 Orphans
. . . 1,155
N.B. In addition to the sum of £100 granted for the beforementioned relatives of 80 fishermen, £84 has been voted this day for the benefit of the families of the 28 fishermen enumerated above.Feb. 3.
Isabella and Jane
Oakes Copenhagen London Terskelling Jan. 10. Jane
Glasgow Milford Hav Jan. 13. Janet Lepsit Towns
Jan. 14. Janet Montrose
Forth Jan. 13. cd James Clark 145
Rye Beach Dec. 7. Jessie Logan
Boscastle Jan. 16. cs John Balbriggan
Donaghadee Liverpool Holywood B. Jan. 13. John
run down Shields Jersey Off Portland Jan. 15. John and Isabella Sunderland
Tynemouth Jan. 13. John Lilly 1501
Liverpool Calabar Barnstaple Jan. 14. John and Susan
Merrix Shoreham Stockton Somer Coate Jan. 13. cs John & William Newharen Smith N. Yarmouth New Haven Sussex C. Jan. 12. 2d Lansdowne Limerick Mills Liverpool
Berbecula Feb. 5. cs Laurel 155 Belfast
Colonsay Jan. 31. Leeds
London Jackson Seaham London Winterton Feb. 4. la Liberty Sunderland Liddle Lynn
Saltburn Feb. 4. Lily Liverpool
Padstow Jan. 31. Linnet Sunderland Macduff
Cromarty Jan. ed Little Test 160 South'mpton
Hartland Jan. 1
Feb. 4. cs Martha
Hartwell R. Nov. 12. es Mary
Ipswich Deward Ipswich Shields abandoned Jan. 13. es Mary and Eliza 165 Lymington Morris
Jan. 13. Mary and Isabella Wick
Findon Feb. 4. 40 M. Ridgway
Torres St. Aug. 10. es Mayflower
Breakwater Jan. 13. Monk
Hughes Portinllaen Liverpool Caernarvon Jan. 7. 220 Montrose 170
Davis Liverpool N. Orleans abandoned Dec. 17. Nancy Dover Newton
c. Norfolk Jan. 13. od Native of Limerick London
Durlston H. Feb. 3. cs! New Times
Prnosas London Badagry blown up Oct. 13. Percy, st. v. N. Shields London
Tynemouth Jan. 13. 50 Petrel
C. Norfolk Jan. 13. ed Phoebe 175 Cardigan
Aberdovey Jan. 13. cd Phoenix Thomas
Bude Jan. 13. Porter
Sydney Manilla Palawan P. Oet. 20. Prince Albert Liverpool Mossop Liverpool Tampico Tampico Nov. 29. Reliance Bridlington Sunderland supposed founderd
Feb. 4. Resolution 180
Orfordness Jan. 13. Ringdove
Tlfracombe Jan. 13. Robert & Henrietta Beanmaris
Blyth Feb. 8. Rochester Castle Blyth Short
Feb. 4. Ruby 185
Colombo Calcutta Ladras Nov. 22.
Inistrahull Feb. 3.
Wexford Jan. 13. 40 Sarah
Edmonds Moulmein London Moulmein Nov. 18. es Sarah Tynemouth Denman Neath
Tynemouth Tintagall H. Jan. 14. es Seal Hunter 190
St. John, N. Halifax Langlais Nov. 28. Sisters Lynn Turner
Whiting S. Feb. 5. St. David
Kingston Montreal Howe I. Dec. 26. St. Mary Isle Kirke'dbght Tampico
Workington Greg Limerick Glassen dock Sligo Bay Jan. 5. 4d Thetis 195 Simpson
P. Des Monts Dec. 25. es Thomas and Mary Newcastle
Watchet Jan. 13. Thomas
N. Shields Butchard abandoned at sea Off Staithes Feb. 4. True Briton
Turnbull Sunderland London Cross Sand Jan. 29. es Two Brothers Perth Sutherlind
Port Dundas Forth Feb. 4. cs Two Sisters 200 Newcastle Fair abandoned off Cromer Feb. 4. es Tyro
Fray London Oporto Woolsners Jan. 13. cs Unaria
April 21. Unknown schooner supposed to be Betsy of Lynn on rocks near Mable Feb. 3. cd Vernon
M'Donald Liverpool Glasgow N. Burbo B. Jan. 13. 2 Victoria Barem Stone
Aberdovey Jan. 14. cd Volant Greenock Duncan
C. Mayo Jan. 26. cd Wave 205 Montrose Mearns Riga Hull
Domesness Dec. 14. es Wellington
Cardiff Evans Waterford Gloucester Off St. Ann Jan. 14. William and Ann Sunderland Tilley Sunderland London Gunfleet Jan. 13. es W. Donaldson London Smith Sunderland London Somercotes Feb. 4. 6d William Donaldson London
- House of Commons, Feb.—The following gentlemen are named as part of a select committee, to enquire into the causes of the wrecks of our Merchant Shipping, -Mr. G. Palmer, Mr. W. Gladstone, Capt. Gordon, Mr. H. Baring, Capt. FitzRoy, Mr. A. Chapman, Mr. Lyall, Sir H. Douglas, Admiral Diundas, Mr. Rice, Mr. Barclay, Mr. Duncan, Mr. Ross, Mr. Rumbold and Sir Charles Napier.
Mr. Editor.-I unfortunately became a shipowner between two and three years ago; not of my own wish; I was obliged to do it, or to have a suit in Chancery. That, however, is nothing to me, you will say, or think so. For all that, you will not be offended if I make a statement, or ask you a question or two. Well,- do you think that two surveyors (Lloyd's) can, or could, survey every ship that has been built in the Wear, Sunderland? About three years ago three hundred and sixty-four were launched in one year, some of them under special surveys-mine was one of them. Every voyage she has had to go into dock, or wanted repairs in the hull. The last voyage from Hamburgh and the Tyne she had new water-ways, and there was not one bolt through the water ways to bind the ship together, only a few spikes about two inches into the beam.
Now, Sir, are not Lloyd's surveyors to blame? or, rather, are not Lloyd's to blame for not appointing a sufficient number of surveyors where they are wanted? They have been well paid in the River Wear, but they have not, they could not do the duty (two of them). Lloyd's surveyor at Hamburg said " It was a disgrace that so fine a looking vessel should have been so badly put together." Others have made the same remark. A very great number of vessels and men have gone to the bottom within the last four months, and in my opinion the surveyors of ships are much to blame.
The masters, owners, and men come next; but that's another question. I hope something will arise out of Captain FitzRoy's intended bill to enlighten all the parties, and make every one do his duty. You will excuse this, for where the "shoe pinches” people complain.
A SHIPOWNER. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Feb. 9th, 1843.
DISPLACEMENT OF THE ROUND-Down-CLIPE BY GUNPOWDER.
Dover, Jan. 26th, 1843. You will not be surprised to hear that the announcement that an explosion of 18,000lbs. of powder was to be made in the Round Down Cliff this afternoon brought an influx of strangers into this town; still, though considerable, it was not so large as I had expected. Curiosity was, I think, paralyzed by a vague fear of danger, which kept some thousands at home who might have witnessed it, as the event turned out, without the slighest shock to their nervous system. The experiment succeeded to admiration, and, as a specimen of engineering skill, confers the highest credit on Mr. Cubitt, who planned, and on his colleagues who assisted, in carrying it into execution,
Everybody has heard of the Shakspeare Cliff, and I have no doubt that a majority of your readers have seen it. I should feel it a superfluous task to speak of its vast height were not the next cliff'to it, on the west, somewhat higher. That cliff is Round Down Cliff, the scene and subject of this day's operations. It rises to the height of 375 feet above high-water mark, and was, till this afternoon, of a singularly bold and picturesque character. To understand the reason why it was resolved to remove yesterday no inconsiderable portion of it from the rugged base on which it has defied the winds and waves of centuries, I must make your readers acquainted with the intended line of railway between Folkestone and this place.
At Folkestone there will be a viaduct of great height and length. Then ENLARGED SERIKS.—NO. 3.- VOL. FOR 1843.