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fought. A despatch was sent off on the 4th of February. The boat sank, and all the men were drowned. Julius Cæsar was one of the greatest heroes the world ever produced. Xerxes, King of Persia, invaded Greece. The gardener was very kind to the poor travellers; he gave them food, and dried their clothes by the fire. Louis XI. of France was a cunning and treacherous king. I have brought you the 'Times' newspaper. The Emperor of the French declared war against Austria. Where is the map which was on your table just now? Dinner will be on table at six o'clock. His name is well known in the city. Louis XIV. reigned seventy-two years. Tell the servant to put this letter in the post.

3. COLLECTIVE NOUNS.

4. VERBAL NOUNS.

1. Nouns are called Collective when they express a number of individual persons or things taken together, and considered as a whole; as, parliament, crowd, people.

2. As nouns are the names of whatever may be the subject of discourse, verbs (which are the names of actions) are often used as nouns.

Nouns derived from verbs are called Verbal, and are formed in various ways.

I. Some, denoting external action, have the same form as the verbs from which they are derived; as, from to walk, comes a walk:

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II. Some, generally expressing the continuation of an action, have the participial ending in ing';

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III. Some, expressing a person habitually performing an action, end in ant, or ent; as,

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Underline all the collective nouns in the following sentences, and doubly underline the verbal nouns.

His writing is illegible. We heard the crash of the falling tree. They are a very happy people. He was a dependant on the bounty of his friends. The court rose at 10 o'clock. The majority voted for the former member. He was blinded by a flash of lightning. With one spring he bounded over the fence. They supplied the poor with clothing. The binding of this book is very elegant. The parliament will soon meet. The army was completely routed. The blaze was seen from afar. In consequence of a fall, he was obliged to keep his bed. Have you seen this drawing? He took a lodging in an obscure village. He is a regular attendant at church. Some of the combatants fell into the stream. The peasantry rose in insurrection. Several houses were attacked by the mob. On their return home, they gave a loud rap at the door. I admire the colouring of this painting. Sketching from nature is delightful. The assailant attacked the outer wall. The

council decided the matter. The multitude dispersed. I have to make several calls. The inhabitants sent a memorial to the president. Part of the army was slain, and part escaped. The generality of mankind are of this opinion. There was a tinge of blood upon the waters. The clergy petitioned against the measure. The boy drove the cattle. Fishing in troubled waters is of no avail. The cloth was marked with stains. My hearing is much impaired. Take the cover off the dish. The screen was placed before the door. He made a sign to the prisoner. In her last illness her suffering was dreadful. The student read the paper attentively.

COMPOUND NOUNS.

Many nouns are called compound, i.e. they are made up of two nouns; as, bread-basket, tablecloth, a cork jacket, a lead pencil. These are sometimes joined by the hyphen (-).

Rules for the use of the hyphen.

1. When each of the two nouns retains its original accent, the hyphen must be omitted; as, a máster cárpenter; Búrton ále.

2. But if the second loses or alters its accent, the hyphen must be inserted; as, a fôot-stool, a ship-builder.

3. When the first of the two nouns denotes the material of which the second is made, no hyphen must be used; as, a silk dress, a cédar bóx.

EXERCISE.

The following sentences are to be written by the pupil from dictation, the hyphen in the compound nouns being omitted or inserted according to the above rules.

The box

Walking down Oxford-street I met the Lord Chancellor. The room was covered with a Turkey carpet. The book-case is locked. Show me the picture-frame. Sèvres china is dearer than stone ware. There was a straw bonnet lying on the work-table. Drive to the Marble Arch. Take off the dish-covers. must be sent to the trunk-maker's. The lamp-lighter spoke to the milk-man. Take the tinder-box and the cork-screw out of the drawing-room. He got into a hackney coach. The silver spoon was found in the ice-house. The lady had on a satin dress trimmed with Brussels lace.

ABSTRACT.NOUNS.

Abstract nouns are formed in various ways

I. From adjectives; as,

1. From pure

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able

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ability

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vanity

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1. Mock mockery; | bribe.. bribery; | rob. robbery.

2. Judge

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judgment; engage

amuse. amusement.

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engagement;

say. saying.

EXERCISE.

Change the adjectives, nouns, and verbs (printed in italics), in the following sentences, into their corresponding derivative abstract nouns.

Example:

We admired the learned man,

into

We admired the learning of the man.

He overcame this

I admire this beautiful picture. difficult enterprise. We all felt the severe weather. I was much fatigued by my long walk. His lively conversation was very agreeable. Her simple manner is charming. They were rescued from a watery grave by the brave sailor. Every one was attracted by her modest deportment. This is a very strong horse. The wall was fifteen feet high. These true words made a deep impression. They interrupted the merry party. The proud man was humbled. The girl was reproved for being curious. The boy showed he was grateful. The mother expressed herself anxious. The pure air was very beneficial to me. The pavement was four feet wide. To bribe is dishonourable. Not to know these things is shameful. The boy declared he was innocent.

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