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ross impropriety: thus, "He was more beloved as Cinthio;" "Richard more active as his companion," &c.
4. Adverbs, as illustrated on page 85 are generally substitutes for two or more words belonging to other parts of speech. "Will you accompany me to Europe next summer?" "Yes." "Do you believe that the voyage will restore your health?" "No." In these examples, the adverbs yes and no, are substitutes for whole sentences, and, therefore, do not qualify any words understood. Yes, in this instance, literally means, "I will accompany you to Europe next summer ;" and no, "I do not believe that the voyage will restore my health." Many other adverbs are often employed in a similar manner.
"Firstly," is often improperly used instead of the adverb first; "a good deal," instead of, much, or, a great deal.
5. A nice distinction should be observed in the use of such and so. The former may be einployed in expressing quality; the latter, in expressing a degree of the quality; as, "Such a temper is seldom found;" "So bad a temper is seldom found." In the following examples, so should be used instead of such: "He is such an extravagant young man, that I cannot asso ciate with him ;" "I never before saw such large trees."
The affected use of cardinal, instead of ordinal numbers, ought not to be imitated. "On page forty-five;" "Look at page nineteen ;”—forty-fifth, nineteenth.
6. In the choice and application of prepositions, particular regard should be paid to their meaning as established by the idiom of our language and the best usage. "In my proceedings, I have been actuated from the conviction, that I was supporting a righteous cause;" "He should have profited from those golden precepts ;""It is connected to John with the conjunction and;" "Aware that there is, in the minds of many, a strong predi lection in favour of established usages;" "He was made much on at Argos;""They are resolved of going;" "The rain has been falling of a long time;" "It is a work deserving of encouragement." These examples may be corrected thus, "actuated by the conviction;"" by those golden precepts;""by the conjunction and;"" predilection for "" much of at Ar gos;" ;"" on going;" "falling a long time;"" deserving encouragement." 7. The preposition to is used before nouns of place, where they follow verbs or participles of motion; as, "I went to Washington." But at is em ployed after the verb to be; as, "I have been at Washington;" "He has been to New-York, to home," &c. are improper. The preposition in is se before countries, cities, and large towns; "He lives in France, in London, in Philadelphia, in Rochester." But before single houses, and cities and villages which are in distant countries, at is commonly used; as, "He lives at Park-place;" "She resides at Vincennes." People in the northern states may say, "They live in New-Orleans, or, at New-Orleans."
8. Passive agents to verbs in the infinitive mood, should not be employed as active agents. The following are solecisms: "This house to let;" "Horses and carriages to let ;" "Congress has much business to perform this session;" because the agents, house, horses and carriages, and business, which are really passive, are, according to these constructions, rendered as active. The expressions should be, "This house to be let;" "Horses and carriages to be let ;" "much business to be performed."
9. AMBIGUITY.-"Nothing is more to be desired than wisdom." Not literally correct, for wisdom is certainly more to be desired than nothing; but, as a figurative expression, it is well established and unexceptionable.
"A crow is a large black bird:"-a large, black-bird.
I saw a horse-fly through the window:"-I saw a horsefly.
"I saw a ship gliding under full sail through a spy glass." I saw, through glass, a ship gliding under full sail.
One may see how the world goes with half an eye." One may see, with half an eye, how the world goes.
"A great stone, that I happened to find, after a long search, by the sea shore, served me for an anchor." This arrangement of the members and circumstances of this sentence, confines the speaker's search to the sea shore; whereas, he meant, "A large stone, which, after a long search, I happened to find by the sea shore, served me for an anchor."
"I shall only notice those called personal pronouns." I shall notice only those called personal pronouns.
10. TAUTOLOGY.-Avoid words which add nothing to the sense; such as, "Now extant, free gratis, slow mope, cold snow, a hot sun, a flowing stream, a dull blockhead, wise sages." "I am just going to go there;" I am about to go.
11. ABSURDITIES and IMPROPRIETIES.-"I can learn him many things.' It ought to be, "I can teach him," To learn, is to acquire or receive information; to teach, means to communicate it.
"I don't think it is so." You do think, that it is not so.
Ever, always. "I have ever been of this mind." I have always been. Ever and always are not synonymous. Ever refers to one indefinite period of time; as, "If he ever become rich :" always means at all times.
Excuse, pardon. The former signifies to release from an obligation which refers to the future; the latter, to forgive a neglect or crime that is past. "Excuse me for neglecting to call yesterday:" pardon me.
Remember, recollect. We remember a thing which we retain in our mind; we recollect it, when, though having gone from the mind, we have power to call it back.
Defect, deficiency. A thing which is incomplete in any of its parts, is defective; a total absence of the thing, is a deficiency.
This subject will be resumed in the appendix to this work.
CORRECTIONS IN ORTHOGRAPHY.
From among those words which are often erroneously spelled, the follow ing are selected and corrected according to Johnson, and to Cobb's Walker.
CORRECTIONS IN ORTHOEPY.
The following words being often erroneously pronounced by polite people, as well as by the vulgar, their correction, in this place, agreeably to Cobb's Walker, it is presumed, will be useful to many. Some of the mispronunciations given are provincial.
Fåte, får, fall, fât,-me, mêt,-pine, pỉn-nò, mỏve, når, nôt—tùbe, tåb, bull-831-found-thin-THIS.