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and 350 in Utah. There are 133,756 tion and amity, and in rendering the imNew-Yorkers in Michigan, 67,180 in Illi- provements and advances of each locality nois, 58,835 in Pennsylvania, and 101 in a stimulus to the exertions of all the rest. New Mexico. Virginia has sent 85,762 A common language, and common politiof her people to Ohio, 41,819 to Indiana, cal institutions, are incitements to unity; and 10,387 to Alabama. Thus, a perpet- but the reciprocal influences of trade and ual interchange of inhabitants is maintain- intercourse are the life-blood of our naed between the different States, which has tionality. a grand moral effect in fusing their sepa- Striking results are given by the table eate prejudices, in producing a common below, which shows the increase per cent. sentiment, in interweaving bonds of affec- of each class of inhabitants for the last sixty
years. We see by it that the white inha- now 2,000,000 more white people than bitants are growing nearly 10 per cent. England and Wales, and as many as Engfaster than the slaves, and that the free land, Wales, and Scotland together, while colored are dwindling out. The increase before the two years of John Adams's of the whites, per cent., in the slave States, century are expired, we shall nearly equal we should add, is 34:56, and in the free them, with Ireland thrown in. According States, 37.67. Thus, the total increase in to our past progress, too, it will only take the United States is about 31 per cent. per forty years to enable us to surpass Engannum, while in the most favored countries land, France, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, of Europe it is only 11, and in the less and Switzerland combined. The close of favored, a fraction of I, per cent. No the existing century will swell our numwonder that those old monarchies make bers to one hundred millions-not, howbig eyes when they read of the prolific ever, of such miserable, degraded wretchdoings of the young republican giant: no es as are crowded together in China, or wonder that they get so apprehensive as were packed down in some of the anabout the future, and the least whisper of cient cities, but, as we shall prove in the a possible descent some of these days upon sequel, of free, educated, industrious, retheir shore from this side the Atlantic. fined, man-loving, and God-fearing men.
We are rather used to these enormous If it were not so, the contemplation of our strides; but when we take a look into future would be terrible; as it is, under the future, we confess ourselves a little the agencies and instrumentalities at work, awe-struck at the prospect of what the in the heart of our society, we have every thing is coming to. We discover the rea- reason to look forward with confidence son, too, why Providence has provided and deep joy. such a magnificent domain for us before- One curious study suggested by the hand, and why the instincts of the people, census is, that relating to the relative rank always in the long run wiser than the of the several States, as determined by deductions of philosophers, begin to their total population. In 1770 for ininquire whether there be any room out- stance, the order in which they stood was side-whether Mexico, the Sandwich Isl- this: 1. Virginia ; 2. Massachusetts; 3. ands, Australia, and perhaps Japan, are Pennsylvania; 4. North Carolina; 5. Newlikely to furnish the necessary accommo- York; 6. Maryland ; 7. South Carolina ; dations.
8. Connecticut ; 9. New Jersey ; 10. New Old John Adams was not, so far as we Hampshire, &c. But twenty years afterknow, a prophet, nor the son of a prophet, wards, 1810, the following was the order : but simply a sagacious and discerning 1. Virginia; 2. New-York; 3 Pennsylvania ; statesman, and yet he wrote, on the 12th 4. Massachusetts; 5. North Carolina ; 6 October 1755, that "our people will, in South Carolina ; 7. Kentucky, (the 13th another century, become more numerous in 1790); 8. Maryland ; 9. Connecticut; than England itself,”-it wants but two 10. Tennessee (not formed in 1770). years of the time, and we now know his Twenty years afterwards again, 1830, the prediction will be fulfilled. We have relative position was still more changed, and stood thus:-1. New-York; 2. Penn- 592,326,612 bushels of Indian corn, sylvania ; 3. Virginia ; 4. Indiana ( which 146,567,879 bushels of oats, 14,188,639 was the 20th in 1810);5. North Carolina ; bushels of rye, 215,312,710 bushels of 6. Kentucky ; 7. Tennessee ; 8. Massachu- rice, 199,752,646 pounds of tobacco, setts ; 9. South Carolina ; 10. Georgia. Fi- 2,468,624 bales of cotton at 400 pounds nally, at the time the census was taken, each, 65,796,793 bushels of Irish potatoes, 1850, the arrangement was this :--1. New- 38,259,190 bushels of sweet potatoes, York; 2, Pennsylvania ; 3. Ohio (which 5,167.016 bushels of barley, 9,219,975 was the 17th in 1800); 4. Virginia ; 5. Ten- bushels of peas and beans, 8,956,916 nessee; 6. Massachusetts ; 7. Indiana : 8. bushels of buckwheat, 313,266,962 pounds Kentucky;9. Georgia ; 10. North Carolina. of butter, 105,535,219 pounds of cheese, It will be seen then, that the States which 221,240 gallons of wine, $5,269,930 in have grown the most rapidly in rank are garden stuffs, and $7,723,362 in orchard New-York, Ohio, Georgia, and Tennessee. products, to say nothing of the hay, In respect to the absolute increase of the hemp, flax, hops, clover, silk, and grasses, whites of the different States during the and nothing of the cattle, sheep, and last ten years, it appears to have been in horses they feed. Our real and personal the following order and percentage: Wis- estate is worth $7,135,780,228. consin. 89-11; Iowa, 347·02; Arkansas, We possess also over 100,000 manufac110:16; Michigan, 86-74; Missouri, 82.78; turing establishments, over the annual Florida, 68-92; Mississippi, 65.13; Louisia- value of $500, consuming raw material to na, 61•23, &c; while the increase of some of the value of $550,000,000, paying out for the older States has been only: New-York, labor $240,000,000, and using a vested 28.14; Pennsylvania, 34:72; South Caroli- capital of $530,000,000. Including, in na, 5.97 ; Vermont, 7.61; Connecticut, 0-28. that statement, all varieties of labor leadAt the same time the slave population has ing to valuable results, the aggregate proincreased, for the last ten years, in Arkan- duction of this species of industry would sas, 136-26 per cent. ; Mississippi, 58.74; amount to $2,932,762,642. This amount Florida, 52.85; Missouri, 50-01; Louisiana, divided by the number of inhabitants, 45.32; South Carolina, 17.71; Virginia, 5•21; free and slave, gives $126 as the average Maryland, 0.7: while in Delaware it has annual production of each person, or, takdecreased 12:09, per cent.; in the District of ing the proportion of adult males as one Columbia, 21.45, and in New Jersey, 64:98. to four, the annual production of each is The slowest increase appears to be in shown to be $504. those States bordering on the northern For the circulation of these products middle States, or Maryland, Virginia and we have 1390 steamboats, measuring Kentucky.
417,226 tons; some 3000 miles of canals, It would seem that the people of this of which those in New-York State alone country are variously occupied, although carry annually 3,582,733 tons; 13,315 miles agriculture is thus far their chief employ- of railway completed, whose commerce is ment. At the time the census was taken, valued at $1,081,500,000, besides 12,681 there were some 4,000.000 engaged in miles in progress. Our total lake, river, cultivating the land ; 1,050,000 in manu- coasting, canal, and railroad trade is valfactures ; 400,000 in commerce; 100,000 ued, for 1852, at $5,588,539,372. Add to in mining; 60,000 in fisheries; and 50,000 this the value of products and manuin the forests. The total annual product factures exported," $154,930,947, and arising from agriculture is set down by that of foreign merchandise imported, Mr. Andrews, in his report on the Lake $252,613,282, and we shall get some idea Trade, at $1,752,583,042; that from manu- of the enormous internal and foreign comfactures, in the census, is $1,020,300,000 ; merce of the United States. Our whole that from commerce may be estimated at inward and outward tonnage is 10,591,045 $225,000,000; that from the forest at tons, of which 4,200,000 tons is owned at $50,000; and that from the fisheries at home—the largest tonnage owned by any $10,000,000. The grand total of produc- nation of the globe except Great Britain, tion in the United States is therefore im- whose marine supremacy, at the present
rates of increase, we shall soon surpass. We possess 118,457,622 acres of im- It might be inferred—as not a few forproved farms, and 184,621,348 of unim- eign tourists in America, indeed, have inproved, the cash value of which is ferred, from the exhibition of the immense 3,270.733,092 dollars. The farming inn- industrial activity of our people, that they plements and machinery on these lands are wholly absorbed in the process of are worth 151.569,675 dollars. We raise creating wealth. Yet such an inference from them 100,503,899 bushels of wheat, would do them considerable injustice.
They are devoted to the dollar, it is true, but they are apt also to spend the dollar in a liberal manner. Their activity in the various spheres of intellectual and benevolent enterprise is not a whit less remarkable than their physical activity. They take care of their unfortunate bro thers, of the insane, the idiotic, the mute, the criminal, and the poor (of the latter of whom they have happily fewer than any other nation) with as sedulous a care, and as generous a provision, as the most advanced people in Christendom; they print and read an incredible number of books, and fifty-fold more journals and înagazines than any other people; while in respect to education and religion, their efforts, because they are voluntary, put to shame those of other people. Take a few statistics in regard to the latter points. They show that a large proportion of the children of the United States of a suitable age are in attendance upon schools. The whole number is 4,089,507—of which 4,063,046 are whites-—26,461 free colored —3,942,681 are natives--147,426 are foreigners. The number of males is 2,146,432, and of females 1,916,614. Of the whole, New-York is set down for 692,321. Ohio comes next with 514,309. Pennsylvania follows with 509,610.
The total number of Colleges in the United States is 234. Number of teachers 1,651; pupils, 27,159. Annual income $1,916,628. The total number of Academies and Seminaries in the United States is 6,032. Number of teachers 12,207; pupils 261,362. Annual income $4,663,842. Besides these, there are 80,991 Public Schools, which are attended by 3,354,173 scholars.
The whole number of periodicals in the world are distributed in this proportion. Asia 34. Africa 14, Europe 1094, America 3000, of which 2800 are printed in the United States, and have an annual circulation of 422,600,000 copies, or, taking the account of the leading states and empires only, the numbers stand: Austria 10, Spain 24, Portugal 20, Belgium 65, France 269, Switzerland 39, Denmark 85, Russia and Poland 90, the German States 320, Great Britain and Ireland 519, the New England States 424, Middle States 876, Southern States 716, and the Western States 784. It will thus be seen that the newspapers are a pretty good comparative index of civilization, for just in the degree in which we average from the more despotic and stationary conditions of society, we find these means of intellectual intercourse and entertainment increasing in number,—the United States and Great
Britain standing first on the list, and Austria and Russia the last.
Then, again, as to churches, it appears that there are 36,221, exclusive of the territories and California, or one church for every 557 free inhabitants, or one for every 646 of the entire population, with a total value of Church property to the amount of $86,416,639. We might append as appropriate here, the returns of the libraries, the lyceums, the scientific associations, and the various charitable and religious societies, but that we feel that our readers have had a sufficiency of figures.
Now, all these results are highly gratifying; but why are they so? Is it because we Americans have a silly schoolboy vanity, as it is sometimes charged, in the magnitude of our wealth and power ? Not at all,-if we understand the spirit of those who rejoice with us,--not at all ! We have other and better motives; we exult, because these facts confirm, by an irrefragable and resistless demonstration, the political theories to which we are devoted ; because they prove the great and vital truth of the necessary connection between a democratic constitution of society and the welfare of the whole pecple. A controversy is now going forward, among the nations of Christendom, as to the respective merits of a liberal and despotic system of government, and we throw our experience, with all its grand results, into the liberal scale. We say to the absolutist who distrusts the people, who fancies that governments were made to rule one class of men with a rod of iron, and to support another in luxurious authority, “come and see!” Behold a people who govern themselves, making Justice and Freedom the ends of their institutions, allowing to all the choice of what they shall do and think; and behold, too, the beneficent effects! The facts are before you, and judge for yourselves; but do not suppose that in making the exhibit we are moved by an inordinate and foolish pride."
The secret of the prosperity and growth of the United States, it cannot be too often repeated, is in its social and political constitution. By ordaining justice as the single object of its government, and securing to the masses the most unlimited freedom of action, they bave unsealed the fountains of human progress, they have solved that problem of social destiny, which has puzzled philosophers so long, and revealed to mankind, the momentous but simple truth, that just in the degree in which you reduce to practical applica
tion, the golden rule of Christian equity, ductive classes grows smaller, a greater “Do unto others as you would be done equality of conditions is produced, and all by,” you win from Heaven all its richest men are stimulated through hope, to the temporal and spiritual blessings.
improvement of their intellectual and soThe operation of the law is this; that, cial condition. The misery of the older in restricting the political power to its nations is that the earnings of industry legitimate function of maintaining justice are distributed, by means of the innumeramong men, you generate in each indivi- able interferences of laws and institutions, dual, a perfect sense of the security of with the most flagrant want of justice. his person and property ; he is made cer- The working class, which is the most effectain of the reward of his labor, and he ap- tive of all the agencies concerned in the plies himself in the most effective manner production of it gets the least part, while to multiply his necessaries and comforts; the capitalist, and the official functionaries he enriches the community by enriching take the rest. Thus, the stimulus to himself; his accumulations become the active industry is so far forth withdrawn, seed of future accumulations; while, being overgrown fortunes concentrate in partithrown upon his own resources, not only cular families, and an excessive expendifor his maintenance, but his position in ture, going to support large classes in life, he exerts his every faculty to the idleness or sinecureships, debauches the highest degree, to improve his state. He action of government. tasks his ingenuity to increase production; In the United States, on the contrary, - to invent machines, to facilitate processes
the share of the laborer in every joint proto economize time, in short, to make the duct, increases relatively; he is enabled to most, both of himself and his opportuni- rise in his condition, to take one step upties. An English gentleman, one of the ward, and, with every generation, to deCommissioners to the Crystal Palace, ob- vote a larger portion of his time and served to a friend of ours, that the fact means to the improvement of his mind, which had impressed him most strongly, and the refinement of his tastes. The in reference to the industry of the Ameri- consequence is, that society, as a whole, is cans, was not its activity so much as its levelled upwards; the few are not pulled indescribable knowingness, its ability to down, but the many are elevated; the meet all emergencies, its readiness under circle of intelligence and culture widens, difficulties, its quick facility in applying and the disposition as well as the means, means to ends. “You have a thousand lit- for patronizing art and promoting charity, tle convenient contrivances, in all depart- become the common privileges of larger ments of arts, and even in all the appliances and larger numbers, instead of being the of living, that we know nothing aboutprerogatives of a favored minority. Morand should never have devised.” In other alists, therefore, are short-sighted, who words, we may say that the quality of lament what they esteem to be the exour labor is better than that of the people cessive devotion of our people to pracwith whom government or society per- tical life ; for, it is a precursor of their genpetually interferes, and consequently more eral enlightenment and elevation. It is effective. It realizes more than any other preparing the masses, in spite of all the labor from the same expenditure of apparent materialism and worldliness of means. The Greeks and Romans we are the process, for a higher civilization. It is told valued the labor of a slave at half that multiplying their wants and their methods of a freeman, and we know the reason of of satisfying them, which are both eleit; for as Homer himself sings,
ments of a larger and better life. Con“The day,
sider the demand for books, and generally That makes man slave, takes hall his worth away." the best books,-for music, and the best
But there is another effect of that se- music, -for lectures, and the best lectures, curity and freedom of labor, that springs -in short, for all kinds of intellectual from just government,--pointed out by and moral incitation,-how it is diffusing Mr. Carey, -which, in our opinion, is the itself through all classes of our people, in most important truth contributed to the midst of the tremendous bustle of work Political Economy since the days of Adam and trade! Where is there a nation in Smith. It is this, that where the industry which the masses of the community have of society is left to its own development, a more living and growing interest in while the gross product of it is increased, whatever gives dignity and grace to a larger proportion of it goes to the laborer, human relations? Have the towns of and a diminished proportion to the capi- New England a parallel, for intellectua! talist; whereby the value of the laborer activity and moral integrity, in Europe ? constantly rises, the number of the unpro- Yet the towns in New England are more and more imitated in the Middle government cherishes a common national States, at the West, and even under a spirit, while the general sentiment of the different social system of the South. popular heart, in spite of political prejuCherish no fears, then, oh apprehensive dices or local estrangements, which are friends! for you may rest assured, that few and temporary, is melting the entire democracy is spreading the noblest influ- nation into a close and fraternal unity. ences of art, knowledge, and religion along Every day, in the face of that powerful with an unprecedented material develop- expansive movement which carries us ment. “The house that is a building," over the broad territories of the West, and quoth Carlyle, " is not the house that is to the unoccupied or misused lands of the built," and a wise man beholds through South, we are getting nearer to each other the smut and rubbish that encumber the in space, and drawing nearer to each other scaffolding the fair proportions of the fin- in mutual respect and affection. We are ished edifice.
thus exemplifying that process which is But the most striking fact of our growth the distinguishing mark of the highest is its tendency to a more beneficent and civilization, viz., the growth of a more and harmonious sccial union. The physical as- more complex association among men; and pects of the Continent, as we have already we are also reaching forward towards the seen, point the way to this end,—the ideal of a true Christian life, according to mobile and enterprising character of our that beautiful image of the Scriptures people looks in the same direction; the drawn from the harmonious workings of prodigious multiplication of the mere the natural body, which represents manmechanical means of intercourse promote kind as “members one of another," in a it; the common legislation of the central spirit of universal fellowship and peace.
AN ADVENTURE ON THE PLAINS.
“For he that once hath missód the right way,
Spenser's Fairy Queen.
plead guilty, in this particular, to the inpursuing my slow and somewhat distinct vision of a "pile," which every devious course across the unbroken wil- one who turns his face towards the land derness which lies between our Western of golden hills and auriferous streams has frontier and California. Who I am is of floating before his imagination. In the no particular consequence, as this I is a second place, positively, if I can bring out very vague, commonplace, generic sort of of the haze of memory what was then not character, in the commencement of a story: very distinct in my consciousness, the only that may even feel flattered if he has suc- motives which I can specify-though it is ceeded in throwing around himself any not a very satisfactory account to give of individual interest at its conclusion. As myself-were curiosity and the love of the motives, however, which impel a man adventure. I should, perhaps, add an unto such a journey, and the objects he has settled state of mind caused by domestic in view, seem to come more within the circumstances, with which you, dear range of a natural curiosity, and may serve reader, have no concern, and which I now to give a coloring to the incidents of his wonder had then such power to move story, it will perhaps be expected that I
me. admit the reader to my confidence in this I had already, in my short life, twice respect.
been to California-once by the way of First, then, negatively, I was on no the Isthmus, and, years before its golden tour of exploration or scientific discovery. mines were discovered, I had visited the I had not sold, or—what is the same thing then unimportant town of San Francisco -mortgaged a good farm in the settled —but I had never travelled in the deep States to purchase a square rod of claim solitude of vast prairies and rugged mounin the El Dorado. I had not set out with tains, thousands of miles from the haunts the “sink or swim, live or die " determi- of civilization. I had never been in tho nation of making a fortune. I can only lodge of the Pawnee, the Sioux, the Oma