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been brought

to him be- had the satisfaction of receiving the fore.

submission of John XXII. the deposThe result of these precautions thus ed Pontiff, who, having escaped from taken to prevent the spirit of intrigue the place of his confinement, came to and worldly ambition from interfering throw himself on his mercy. Martin with the more elevated motives by received his fallen predecessor with which the choice of the conclave ought kindness, and bestowed upon him the to be dictated, was, that after some dignity of Cardinal, which, however, stormy debates, the suffrages of the he did not long enjoy, as he died at electors were, on the 10th of Nov. Florence before the termination of 1417, unanimously bestowed on Otto the year. Colonna, a inember of a noble Roman It has been observed, that the Tusfamily of high distinction, who imme- can government treated Martin with diately, on his nomination to the pon- the honours due to his rank; but this tificate, assumed the name of Mar- does not seem to have been the case tin V+

with the populace, at least towards Thus terminated the famous schism the close of his residence in their city. of the West, but not before this eccle- To the licentiousness of the vulgar, siastical fend had given a deadly blow his poverty was an object of contempt, to the pontifical authority. Gregory and they vented their ridicule of him had died about a month before the in contumelious songs. Leonardo, nomination of Martin; Benedict XIII. who had been assiduous in his attenthough he thundered his anathemas tions to him since the time of his arrifrom the fortress of Paniscola, found val, observed with pain, that the rudeso few supporters, that bis fulmina- ness of the rabble had made a deep tions were regarded as objects of con- impression on his mind, and that he tempt; and Martin was acknowledged was about to quit the Florentine state as Pontiff by all the powers of Chris- with very unfavourable impressions of tendom. Still, however, the past the character of his countrymen. could not be forgotten. Princes and These impressions, as we learn from deputies had publicly sat in judgment the following narrative, Leonardo, on an impeached Pope; and the de- with much good sense and judgment, tail of his crimes, and his consequent endeavoured to do away. deposition, must have occasioned in “I remember,” says he, “only a the minds of thinking men, most per- few days before Martin's departure, I plexing doubts and difficulties, as to was with him in his chamber, together the high question of the infallibility, with one or two of his chamberlains, which had been bitherto supposed to and no one else. He was walking stamp the principles and the actions of from his library to the window which the father of the faithful.

overlooks the gardens, wben, after Though Martin V.was thus elevated taking a few turns in silence, he sudto the pontifical dignity, he was not, denly came up to me, and looking for the present, enabled to take pos- stedfastly in my face, and raising his session of the territories appended to arın a little, he said, 'Pope Martin it this exalted station. The dominions seems is not worth a farthing.' I inof the church were the prey of factions stantly recognized the words, for they and of petty usurpers, which he had were the burden of a song made upon not the means to repress.

On the him, and wbich runs thus in the dissolution of the council, therefore, Italian language, which event took place on the 22d of

Papa Martino April, 1418, he repaired to Geneva,

Non vale un quatrino. whence, after crossing the Alps, he What, said I, have these children's went to Mular and to Mantua, where trifles reached the ears of your holihe remained till the end of the year, ness? He made no reply, but repeatwhen he proceeded to Florence. I ed · Pope Martin is not worth a far

At the Tuscan capital, Martin was thing.' Being then aware of the irrireceived by the constituted authori- tation of his feelings, I determined, ties with every token of respect; and through my regard for the honour of soon after his arrival in Florence, he the state, to soothe them to the best

* L'Enfant's Council of Constance, vol. ii.

+ Ibid. p. 164.

p. 102.

Leon. Aret. Rerum. Italic. Historia, p. 259.



Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.


of my ability. I therefore took the 1420, he expressed his obligations to liberty to say to him:~"No state, most them for their protection and assistholy father, has bestowed upon your- tance, and recounted the fortunate self and the holy see, such signal ser- circumstances which had occurred to vices as those which you have received him during his abode in their capital, from the Tuscan republic. You came in the very order which Leonardo had to Florence at a time, when you were suggested to him.t destitute of temporal dominion. At From Florence, Martin repaired to that period, the country was so fully | Rome, which was now eager to open occupied by your adversaries, that its gates to receive him. On this acinstead of proceeding hither for Ferra- cession of prosperity, the Pontiff, who ra, by way of Bologna, which was in had been long sensible of the abilities a state of rebellion, you were obliged and the integrity of Leonardo, wished to take a long circuit through Ravenna to engage him in his service. But and Forli. During your residence in though his offers of remuneration were Florence, the other towns of the papal splendid, and his promises of adterritory have yielded to your autho- vancement highly flattering, he was rity; and Bologna has submitted. unable to tempt the learned Florentine And these happy effects have been again to enter into the Roman cbanbrought about by the interposition of cery. In the year 1426, Leonardo had the Tuscan state, which, by procuring an opportunity of renewing his friendfor your holiness the aid of Braccio di ly intercourse with the Pontiff, as he Montove, has enabled you to reduce was then sent to Rome, as envoy from your rebellious subjects to obedience, the Tuscan state, to negociate, under so that your power is now most widely the mediation of his holiness, a peace extended. During your residence between the Florentine republic and here, also, the Spanish cardinals, de- the Duke of Milan. serting the cause of Benedict, have This employment was the prelude come to you in person, to offer you to more permanent honours ; for, in their homage ; and, which is of the the year 1427, he was promoted to the utmost importance, John XXII. con- office of Secretary to the Republic, cerning the regularity of whose abdi- which he held, occasionally in concation, as having been obtained by junction with other municipal honours, force, doubts might have been enter- till the time of his death, which event tained, trusting his person to the lo- took place in the year 1444.Ş nour of our republic, has thrown him- The loss of Leonardo was regarded self at your feet, and acknowledged by his countrymen as a public calayou as the true Pontiff. As this event, mity; and, in testimony of their rewhich was speedily followed by his spect for his memory, they resolved death, clears away all doubts as to to inter his remains with extraordiyour title to the pontificate, so you nary honours. Reviving, then, an anmay be assured that John would have cient custom, they invited the public ventured to take this step in no other functionaries, and the ambassadors city but this, where he was sheltered from foreign states, to attend bis obfrom danger by the security of public sequies. In the midst of this august and of private friendship. These are assemblage, Gianozzo Manetti, a schothe advantages which ġou have de- lar of considerable reputation, prorived from your residence in the city nounced an eulogium on his virtues, of Florence; and permit me to remark and concluded the ceremony by encirto your holiness, that it is hardly con- cling the brows of his deceased friend sistent with the dignity of your cha- with a crown of laurel. Leonardo was racter to suffer the remembrance of buried in the church of Santa Croce ; them to be obliterated by resentment and the spot where his remains were at an idle song.

deposited is still marked by a monuMartin listened to this remonstrance ment, which bears the following inwith patience. It should seem, also, scription, that he profited by the advice of Leonardo, for, on taking leave of the Florentine magistracy, in the year





* Leon. Aret. Rerum Italic. Historia, p. 259.

+Ibid. No. 38.-Vol. IV.

Mehi Vita Leon. Aret. p. xliv.
Ibid. p. xlv.

These public marks of esteem, thus pouring out their own lives whilst bestowed upon the memory of Leonar- seeking that of another, as true victims do Aretino, evince the respect which to the grim Moloch of destruction as the Italian states paid to literary me- ever thronged the altars of a barbarit in the fifteenth century. For it was rous and idolatrous people. Whilst to his scholarship that this illustrious the earth has swallowed up her own reviver of literature was indebted for offspring, with a voracity that sets the the employments which he obtained earthquake at defiance; the ocean, too, in the pontifical chancery, and for the murmurs for her share, and the minrank to which he was elevated in his gled sounds of vengeance and destrucnative republic. He was a true lover tion, of agony and despair, have risen of his country, jealous of its indepen- up in one uniform unremitting course dence, and ambitious for the promo- -a hateful sacrifice before the eternal tion of its honour. If we may judge throne. The agonies of a premature from his writings, his principles were and violent death have been more upright; and he had imbibed from the than doubled by the desolation and study of the ancients, a familiar ac- wretchedness of those who survive. quaintance with the best maxims of The warrior sleeps on his gory bed,morality and of civil polity. The the blood of the brave stains the ocean works of the classic writers, indeed, flood,—they are at rest, and they are were the objects of his daily studies, honoured, while the living are left to and of his nightly vigils. His industry mourn them; not unfrequently with must have been truly exemplary; for, no other support, but unavailing sighs though his engagements of business and tears. Orpbans, widows, and must have occupied much of his time, the childless, are left a prey to the be constantly carried on an extensive varied calamities of life. correspondence with men the most But we shall, perhaps, be told that distinguished by their rank and their it is necessary for the honour of naliterary acquirements, of the age in tions, like that of individuals, that which he lived ; and the catalogue of wars, as well as duels, should be tohis published works, as arranged by lerated,—that they are in many inthe accurate and diligent Mehus, ex-stances unavoidable, and should be tends to no less than sixty-three arti- acquiesced in and continued, if not eles. His Latin style is correct, but perpetuated and approved. Of this deficient in elegance, partaking more occasional necessity, in both cases, of the abruptness of Sallust, than the we freely admit the justice of the arcopious fluency of Cicero. For his gument, in other times and circumzeal and perseverance in prosecuting stances, and in the primitive stages the discovery of the lost works of the of society, before the light of the gosancients, modern scholars are more pel, and of civilization, had shone indebted to him than many of them upon mankind. When every man's are aware ; and whosoever estimates arm was against every one, and tribes his literary character with candour, swore vengeance and blood against and even with justice, wik be much tribes, such mode of warfare we allow more inclined, in consideration of the to have been just and necessary. But disadvantages under which he labour- where is the parallel between the ed, to admire his excellencies, than rudest ages, and the most savage and to find fault with his deficiencies, and untamed inhabitants of the earth, with will be ready to acknowledge, that the enlightened times in which we though he lived during the dawn of live, to draw any argument in favour the revival of literature, he contri- of the ferocious customs of our ancesbuted not a little to the bringing on tors ? The very arguments which once of the splendour of the risen day. supported the use of them, equally

demonstrate, in this age, their abuse :

1-and it is a wretched excuse for reON THE PROBABILITY OF ABOLISHING taining the elements of barbarism,

and the unprincipled vices of “man

the savage,” by contending that they (Conclued from col. 140.)

are still requisite to protect the mem

ber of civilized society. This last Thousands, tens of thousands, have resource of culpable passions, and of fallen by the hands of their fellow men, ignorant prejudice and superstition,


On the Probability of abolishing War.

222 this appeal to the fears, and reliance , wantonly attacked by the avarice or upon the infatuation of mankind, will, ambition of another, theinvaders would doubtless, in time, he brought to yield, be quickly destroyed, or rather delike our inquisitions, slave traffics, voured at a mouthful. They would and despotisms, to the united and be stung to death like a drone in a bee overwhelming powers of religion, in- hive. They would be sent to work and telligence, and truth.--Even on the to the Meeting, and speedily reclaimgrounds of cautious policy, and the ed from the error of their ways.-Why interests of aggrandisement and then should we indulge fears for the wealth, what fears need we entertain, consequences of eradicating out of in the supposition of abolishing wars, human commerce and human instituthat national honour and safety would tions, one of the very worst princibe endangered? What degree of ples, (that of authorized bloodshed) probability is there, that the Otahei- which the depravity of our nature adtan, the Tartar, the wild Arab, or the mits ?– No evils, we think, could

posNorth American savage, will, as the sibly be incurred, were one, or all barbarians of old, make a descent, nations, in this, to join the society of and attack the regions of the civilized Friends to-morrow. We might sit European, if he be not in readiness to down in worse than Turkish apathy receive them with a pistol, for an and fatality, were no improvement to imagined insult, and a musket and take place, for fear of risking the altebayonet, in case of invasion ? Nothing ration. but an insane idea can excuse the One of the most fatal enemies to the supposition.

tranquillity and happiness of human The fears to be entertained of a life, is, that jealous and timid apprerival nation, may, also, be proved as hension, which foresees evils at too groundless. Were the standing army, great a distance, and often imagines and every soldier in a country, instan- them when they do not exist ; nor is it taneously disbanded, are we absurd seldom that this weak and foolish poenough to suppose that the army of licy, by exciting appearances of prethe next people would march instanter parative hostility, has occasioned to invade and occupy it?-No such those very quarrels, against the efthing. It would doubly respect, and fects of which it was intended to doubly fear, the motives and charac- provide. ter of a nation, capable of exhibiting On these subjects, the selfish prinsuch an instance of magnanimity, ciple has sometimes been carried to humanity, and true courage and con- such an extreme, as almost to border fidence in themselves. It would be on insanity. The most remote effects felt that the army, in becoming part of become present;-the mostimprobable the people,-the whole people had be- consequences appear certain ;-the come a formidable army, and such a most trifling things seem of the highest nation, in its very nature alone, would importance : for nothing is so contagibe invincible. More than this, its ous as fear. We have, in our own example would be followed, instead times, seen this great nation agitated to of violated and scouted, until a its centre, about a barren rock, called standing army would become a stand- Falkland's Island, and trembling for ing jest,

our possessions in the East Indies, if We see that societies and commu- we should part with the key of nities of Quakers, truly deserving the them, by relinquishing, in pursuance appellation of Friends, can not only of a solemn treaty, the island of subsist, but flourish, by virtue of the Malta. principles we would recommend. When one nation, without a just Their enmity is only to war, and their cause of offence, attacks another by battle to withstand the payment of force of arms, she commits a crime taxes--those sinews which support it. against her not the less heinous, beNow, would it not be possible that a cause there is no carthly judicature colony or a nation of Quakers might by which it can be punished. Is agexist, and acquire national reputation, grandizement the object? If this were integrity, wealth, and power, in the allowed to be a legitimate cause of same manner as among individuals war, it would only be a general license and societies? We think it might: to the stronger to oppress the weaker, and supposing the worst, that it was or, in other words, a concession to the


odious and profligate maxim that, the western and northern barbarians ; power constitutes right.

and thus, whatever remained of the Is it to prevent another nation from Greek empire, its literature and its increasing her strength, and improving art, were finally obliterated by the deher internal resources ?--This is the solating power of the Mahometan fair contest in which every nation, as tribes, who had, at one time, threatwell as every individual, is engaged; ened to establish their authority in the and if we were allowed to wreak our central provinces of Europe. Regardvengeance on all those, who, by their ing it, therefore, on its greatest scale, ability or their industry, surpass us in war is so far from having contributed the career of life, there would be an to the improvement and prosperity of end of human society. All nations mankind, that it may rather be consiare benefited by the exertions of any dered as the extinguisher which has particular nation; and to repress the put out the light of civilization, and energies, or prevent the improvement, for a long course of centuries has inof any, is a crime against the human volved the fairest portions of the

Even in the agitated state, and earth in hopeless and impenetrable imperfect regulations, under which darkness. Europe has existed, what nation is But if we were to discover, or to there, to which mankind has not been admit, that conquered nations have, at indebted for some useful discoveries, times, been indebted to their adversome beneficial results, some addi- saries for some advancement in useful tions to the comforts and convenien- knowledge, or for some beneficial accies, or the pleasures, of life?

quirements; will any person have the But it may, perhaps, be objected, hardihood to assert that this would be that if wars are not inevitable, yet a justification of war?-Would it not that in many points of view they be the most glaring hypocrisy in any would be desirable. That by means people, to pretend that they made of war and conquest, knowledge has war on another nation to promote been diffused through the most unen- their prosperity, honour, and happi. lightened portions of the earth, and ness? Of all the pretexts by which that they are in fact the implements, ambition, superstition, or animosity, of which Providence has thought pro- have ever attempted to impose on the per to make use, for the civilization of world, this would be the most absurd mankind.

and contemptible, the most false, and This objection may admit of a dis- the most detestable. tinction. It may either be considered In its own opinion, every nation is as the assertion of a mere historical the most enlightened, and consefact, or as a justification of war. quently rejects the officious kindness

With regard to the first, it must be of instruction, at the point of the allowed, that as in the order and sword. course of Providence, good is often But it has not been possible, on all educed from evil, and as infinite occasions, to avoid these efforts of power and wisdom can, even from extraordinary benevolence. And the the enormities and crimes of the wick- progress of the Turks in the established, accomplish the most beneficial ment of their dominion in the three purposes ; so it may have been, that quarters of the old world,—and the the contests of exasperated and hos- Spaniards, by tormenting and extirtile nations may eventually have been pating the inhabitants of the new,productive of some benefit. If, how- afford a fair specimen of the effects of ever, we turn to the annals of former wars, undertaken to civilize and enages, we shall find it difficult to sup- lighten mankind. port such an opinion, upon the autho- Whether war be successful or unrity of established facts; whilst, on the successful, the consequences of it are contrary, we have innumerable in- alniost equally to be deprecated. The stances, where the progress of civili- result of an unsuccessful war is an zation has been impeded, and the implicit submission to the will of a order and happiness of society over- conqueror, -disgrace, slavery, and thrown, by the irruption of an ambi- death,--whatever the victor may pretious and a barbarous foe,

scribe; and all these have been preIt was thus, that the polished states scribed in their turn. The conseof Greece sunk before the ravages of ! quences of a successful warfare, if

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