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Rice-bridegroom." In parts of Russia the first sheaf is
treated much in the same way that the last sheaf is treated
elsewhere. It is reaped by the mistress herself, taken home
and set in the place of honour near the holy pictures; after-
wards it is threshed separately, and some of its grain is
mixed with the next year's seed-corn.”
In Phoenicia and Western Asia a plaintive song, like
that chanted by the Egyptian corn-reapers, was sung at the
vintage and probably (to judge by analogy) also at harvest.
This Phoenician song was called by the Greeks Linus or
Ailinus and explained, like Maneros, as a lament for the death
of a youth named Linus.” According to one story Linus
was brought up by a shepherd, but torn to pieces by his
dogs.” But, like Maneros, the name Linus or Ailinus ap-
pears to have originated in a verbal misunderstanding, and
to be nothing more than the cry ai lanu, that is “woe to us,”
which the Phoenicians probably uttered in mourning for
Adonis';* at least Sappho seems to have regarded Adonis
and Linus as equivalent."
In Bithynia a like mournful ditty, called Bormus or
Borimus, was chanted by Mariandynian reapers. Bormus
was said to have been a handsome youth, the son of King
Upias or of a wealthy and distinguished man. One summer
day, watching the reapers at work in his fields, he went to
fetch them a drink of water and was never heard of more.
So the reapers sought for him, calling him in plaintive strains,
which they continued to chant at harvest ever afterwards.”
In Phrygia the corresponding song, sung by harvesters
both at reaping and at threshing, was called Lityerses. Ac-
cording to one story, Lityerses was a bastard son of Midas,
King of Phrygia. He used to reap the corn, and had an
enormous appetite. When a stranger happened to enter the
corn-field or to pass by it, Lityerses gave him plenty to eat
and drink, then took him to the corn-fields on the banks of

* Above, pp. 199 sy., 201 sy. Idyl. iii. 1 ; Callimachus, Hymn to * Ralston, Songs of the Aussian Afollo, 20. People, p. 249 sq. * Conon, l.c. * Homer, II. xviii. 57o; Herodo- * W. Mannhardt, A. W. F. p. 281. tus, ii. 79 ; Pausanias, ix. 29 ; Conon, * Pausanias, l.c. Marrat. 19. For the form Ailinus see * Pollux, iv. 54; Athenaeus, xiv. pp.

Suidas, s. v.; Euripides, Orestes, 1395 : 619 F-620 A; Hesychius, svv. Bopuov Sophocles, Ajax, 627. Cp. Moschus, and Maplavövvös 6pivos.

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the Maeander and compelled him to reap along with him. Lastly, he used to wrap the stranger in a sheaf, cut off his head with a sickle, and carry away his body, wrapt in the corn stalks. But at last he was himself slain by Hercules, who threw his body into the river." As Hercules was probably reported to have slain Lityerses in the same way that Lityerses slew others (as Theseus treated Sinis and Sciron), we may infer that Lityerses used to throw the bodies of his victims into the river. According to another version of the story, Lityerses, a son of Midas, used to challenge people to a reaping match with him, and if he vanquished them he used to thrash them ; but one day he met with a stronger reaper, who slew him.” There are some grounds for supposing that in these stories of Lityerses we have the description of a Phrygian harvest custom in accordance with which certain persons, especially strangers passing the harvest field, were regularly regarded as embodiments of the corn-spirit and as such were seized by the reapers, wrapt in sheaves, and beheaded, their bodies, bound up in the corn-stalks, being afterwards thrown into water as a rain-charm. The grounds for this supposition are, first, the resemblance of the Lityerses story to the harvest customs of European peasantry, and, second, the frequency of human sacrifices offered by savage races to promote the fertility of the fields. We will examine these grounds successively, beginning with the former. In comparing the story with the harvest customs of Europe,” three points deserve special attention, namely: I. the reaping match and the binding of persons in the sheaves; II. the killing of the corn-spirit or his representatives; III. the treatment of visiters to the harvest-field or of strangers passing it. I. In regard to the first head, we have seen that in modern Europe the person who cuts or binds or threshes the last sheaf is often exposed to rough treatment at the hands of his fellow-labourers. For example, he is bound up in the last sheaf, and, thus encased, is carried or carted about, beaten, drenched with water, thrown on a dunghill, and so forth. Or, if he is spared this horseplay, he is at least the subject of ridicule or is thought to be destined to suffer some misfortune in the course of the year. Hence the harvesters are naturally reluctant to give the last cut at reaping or the last stroke at threshing or to bind the last sheaf, and towards the close of the work this reluctance produces an emulation among the labourers, each striving to finish his task as fast as possible, in order that he may escape the invidious distinction of being last." For example, in the neighbourhood of Danzig, when the winter corn is cut and mostly bound up in sheaves, the portion which still remains to be bound is divided amongst the women binders, each of whom receives a swath of equal length to bind. A crowd of reapers, children, and idlers gathers round to witness the contest, and at the word, “Seize the Old Man,” the women fall to work, all binding their allotted swaths as hard as they can. The spectators watch them narrowly, and the woman who cannot keep pace with the rest and consequently binds the last sheaf has to carry the Old Man (that is, the last sheaf made up in the form of a man) to the farmhouse and deliver it to the farmer with the words, “Here I bring you the Old Man.” At the supper which follows, the Old Man is placed at the table and receives an abundant portion of food, which, as he cannot eat it, falls to the share of the woman who carried him. Afterwards the Old Man is placed in the yard and all the people dance round him. Or the woman who bound the last sheaf dances for a good while with the Old Man, while the rest form a ring round them; afterwards they all, one after the other, dance a single round with him. Further, the woman who bound the last sheaf goes herself by the name of the Old

1 The story was told by Sositheus in his play of Daphnis. His verses have been preserved in the tract of an anonymous writer. See Scriptores rerum mirabilium Graeci, ed. Westermann,

Lityerses; Apostolius, x. 74. Photius mentions the sickle. Lityerses is the subject of a special study by Mannhardt (Mythologische Forschungen, p. 1 so.), whom I follow.

p. 220 ; also Athenaeus, x. p. 415 B ; Schol. on Theocritus, x. 41 ; Photius, Lexicon, Suidas, and Hesychius, s.v.


* Pollux, iv. 54. * In this comparison I closely follow Mannhardt, Myth. Forsch. p. 18 sqq.


1 Cp. above, pp. 172,179 sq., 181 sq. On the other hand, the last sheaf is sometimes an object of desire and emulation. See p. 173 sq. It is so at Balquhidder also (Folk-lore Journal, vi. 269); and it was formerly so on the Gareloch, Dumbartonshire, where there was a competi

tion for the honour of cutting it, and handfuls of standing corn used to be hidden under sheaves in order that the last to be uncovered should form the Maiden. — (From the information of Archie Leitch. See p. 185, note 2.)

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Man till the next harvest, and is often mocked with the cry, “Here comes the Old Man.” At Aschbach in Bavaria, when the reaping is nearly finished, the reapers say, “Now, we will drive out the Old Man.” Each of them sets himself to reap a patch of corn as fast as he can ; he who cuts the last handful or the last stalk is greeted by the rest with an exulting cry, “You have the Old Man.” Sometimes a black mask is fastened on the reaper's face and he is dressed in woman's clothes; or if the reaper is a woman, she is dressed in man's clothes. A dance follows. At the supper the Old Man gets twice as large a portion of food as the others. At threshing, the proceedings are the same ; the person who gives the last stroke is said to have the Old Man.”

These examples illustrate the contests in reaping, threshing, and binding which take place amongst the harvesters, from their unwillingness to suffer the ridicule and discomfort incurred by the one who happens to finish his work last. It will be remembered that the person who is last at reaping, binding, or threshing, is regarded as the representative of the corn-spirit,” and this idea is more fully expressed by binding him or her in corn-stalks. The latter custom has been already illustrated, but a few more instances may be added. At Kloxin, near Stettin, the harvesters call out to the woman who binds the last sheaf, “You have the Old Man, and must keep him.” The Old Man is a great bundle of corn decked with flowers and ribbons, and fashioned into a rude semblance of the human form. It is fastened on a rake or strapped on a horse, and brought with music to the village. In delivering the Old Man to the farmer, the woman says—

“Here, dear Sir, is the Old Man.
He can stay no longer on the field,
He can hide himself no longer,
He must come into the village.
Ladies and gentlemen, pray be so kind
As to give the Old Man a present.”

* W. Mannhardt, Myth. Forsch. p. deutschen Mythologie, ii. p. 217, § I9 sy. 397. * Ibid. p. 20; Panzer, Beitrag zur * Above, p. 190.

Fifty or sixty years ago the custom was to tie up the woman herself in pease-straw, and bring her with music to the farmhouse, where the harvesters danced with her till the pease-straw fell off." In other villages round Stettin, when the last harvest-waggon is being loaded, there is a regular race amongst the women, each striving not to be last. For she who places the last sheaf on the waggon is called the Old Man, and is completely swathed in corn-stalks; she is also decked with flowers, and flowers and a helmet of straw are placed on her head. In solemn procession she carries the harvest-crown to the squire, over whose head she holds it while she utters a string of good wishes. At the dance which follows, the Old Man has the right to choose his, or rather her, partner; it is an honour to dance with him.” At Blankenfelde, in the district of Potsdam, the woman who binds the last sheaf at the rye-harvest is saluted with the cry, “You have the Old Man.” A woman is then tied up in the last sheaf in such a way that only her head is left free; her hair also is covered with a cap made of ryestalks, adorned with ribbons and flowers. She is called the Harvest-man, and must keep dancing in front of the last harvest-waggon till it reaches the squire's house, where she receives a present and is released from her envelope of corn.” At Gommern, near Magdeburg, the reaper who cuts the last ears of corn is often wrapt up in corn-stalks so completely that it is hard to see whether there is a man in the bundle or not. Thus wrapt up he is taken by another stalwart reaper on his back, and carried round the field amidst the joyous cries of the harvesters.” At Neuhausen, near Merseburg, the person who binds the last sheaf is wrapt in ears of oats and saluted as the Oats-man, whereupon the others dance round him.” At Brie, Isle de France, the farmer himself is tied up in the first sheaf." At the harvest-home at Udvarhely, Transylvania, a person is encased in corn-stalks, and wears on his head a crown made out of the last ears cut. On reaching the village he is soused with water over and over." At Dingelstedt, in the district of Erfurt, about sixty years ago it was the

1 W. Mannhardt, Myth. Forsch. p. 22. * Ibid. p. 22. * //id. p. 22 sy. * Ibid. p. 23. * /bid. p. 23 sq. * /öid. p. 24. * /bid. p. 24.

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