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A. Frances Burney, afterwards Madame d'Arblay. Her first book was "Evelina." Upon this and "Cecilia" her fame rests.

Q. I would like to ask your opinion, Mr. Editor, as to the propriety of using a violin in a church concert. In the country where I live this instrument has been so much in the service of the Devil, in dances and low company, that I am shocked to see it used in a church dedicated to God. A. Satan has never been granted an exclusive right to the sweetest and noblest of all the musical instruments. We are glad to learn that in the country where our correspondent lives, having been made to serve the Devil so long, the violin is at last allowed to sing the praises of God. When we can wrest all the noble and beautiful things which he has prostituted from his clutches, we shall render Satan's service very unattractive.

Q. Is it not probable that the telephone will in time, to a great degree, supplant the telegraph?

A. That depends on whether the telephone is ever emancipated from the control of monopolies, especially the same monopoly that so largely controls the telegraph.

Q. Where can I get information concerning the organized effort in our country to reform the civil service?

A. Write to the Civil Service Reform Association, of New York City. Mr. Dorman B. Eaton is a prominent member of the society.

Q. Do the learned Christian men of the world, as a rule, accept the theory that the world is older than the Mosaic account makes it?

A. No; the foremost scholarship of the world, Christian and non-Christian, unites with Moses in declaring "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth."

Q. What is the rule of newspapers, etc., in regard to publishing reports of sermons, lectures, and other speeches; do they obtain the consent of the author, or are such productions public property? I write shorthand, and often take notes of a serinon which I would like to send to some paper for publication. Often it is very inconvenient to ask permission of the author.

A. Editors and publishers differ in their practice in such matters, just as men differ in politeness and courtesy. Courtesy requires, in every case, tacit or avowed consent of the author. In the case of the shorthand writer, no minister or lecturer would object to his taking notes for his private use; but to take the labor of another without his consent, and make it a means of financial profit, would be nothing short of stealing. The copyright law ought to apply to such conduct.

Q. I know an attorney who makes a profession of the religion of Christ in a very earnest manner on Sundays, and who is pointed out on the streets as an example of a devout Christian lawyer; and yet I have seen him very many times in court before the jury making an earnest and eloquent plea for the acquittal of a rascal client whom he knew from the evidence alone to be guilty. Can a truly Christian man do this?

A. We answer no. God recognizes no such duty as some lawyers claim to see in their relation to their clients. A Christian lawyer may defend the guiltiest man on the earth, and see that justice is not denied to him, but to rob justice is as much under the condemnation of heaven as any other robbery.

Q. Is it not high time for a crusade against tobacco? Will not THE CHAUTAUQUAN exert its influence to rouse Christian ministers and all good people to make war upon this twin brother of alcohol?

A. THE CHAUTAUQUAN hails with joy every reform, every movement to improve society or the individual. The latest and most cheerful news touching the tobacco question is that the students of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, and of Oberlin College, Ohio, have been forbidden its use. It is hopeful when these centers of education take the lead. To

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A. "Brotherly love" is the literal signification of the Greek for "Philadelphia." Oliver Wendell Holmes is said to have humorously called Boston the "Hub of the Universe." Q. Is there any scriptural authority for the observance of Christmas day?

A. The day is not of New Testament origin nor of divine appointment. Its observance is traced as early as the third century. The date of the Savior's birth is not known, but in an age given to festivals one was naturally appointed to commemorate his birth. The observance arose with the Western Church, and was afterwards adopted by the East


Q. A member of the class of '83 asks the following: "If a shower of rain is falling in England, and another at the same time in New Zealand, how can the earth gravitate toward the raindrops in opposite directions at the same time?"

A. The fact that a body is acted on by the force of gravity does not imply that it yields to that force, or is moved by it toward the mass which attracts. If a body is placed between two masses which attract it equally, it will remain stationary.

Q. Our circle is very much interested to know what is meant by the "Pilgrimage made by Marius to the shrine of the Great Mother, in Asia Minor," mentioned in THE CHAUTAUQUAN. Who is the Great Mother?

A. The Great Mother was the fabled Mother of the Gods, called also Cybele and Rhea. She fled to Crete to escape her husband, Saturn, who had devoured all her children, and while there gave birth to Zeus (Jupiter). She then returned and presented her husband with a stone, carefully folded in clothes; this he instantly swallowed, thinking it to be the child. By this and the devotion of the shepherds, the child was saved. These shepherds gathered around the young god and drowned his cries by songs and the sound of horns. For this act Cybele made them priests. The mysterious mother then migrated to Sicily. Her high priest appeared at the Eternal City and established the religion among the Romans. On his departure many persons vowed pilgrimages to her shrines in the East. Her worship was especially acceptable to the Roman matrons; and at one time this eunuch priesthood was the most popular religion at Rome. It was to this goddess that Marius vowed a sacrifice.

In compliance with the request of many members, we give answers to the October questions for further study, as follows. The eleventh question being the one that has given the most difficulty, we give two of the answers received, at length; the others are briefly indicated:

1. Q. What is meant by the stone ages? A. That period of pre-historic times when men used no metals, but made all their implements entirely of stone.

2. Q. What are the Theban dynasties in Egyptian history? A. The XI, XII, and XIII, at the beginning of the Middle Empire. And the XVIII, XIX, and XX at the beginning of the New Empire. The Theban dynasties from 1525 to 525 B. C. were the brightest periods in Egyptian history.

3. Q. Who was Memnon, whose statue now exists on the Plain of Thebes? A. A king of Ethiopia, who led an army of his subjects to Troy. The Greeks, in later ages, confounded him with the Egyptian king Amenophis III, to whom colossal statues were erected near Thebes.

4. Q. The winged bulls that guarded the entrances to Assyrian palaces were symbolical of what? A. The bull's

body signified strength; the lion's feet, power; the human head, intelligence; the eagle's wings, swiftness.

5. Q. Why were painting and sculpture forbidden among the Jews? A. All early art represented deity. Under the Mosaic law they considered it a breaking of the second commandment.

6. Q. Give brief descriptions of the Parthenon, the Erechtheum, and the Propylea. A. The Parthenon was a white pentelic marble temple, of the pure Doric order, adorned with statues and bas-reliefs by Phidias, regarded as masterpieces of ancient art. The Erechtheum is the double temple of Neptune and Athene, and is of the Ionic order; some of the porticoes were supported by caryatides. The Propylea was the gateway to the Acropolis; a broad flight of marble steps led up to a portico supported by six Doric columns. There were five entrances, the middle one a carriage road. 7. Q. Who was Mausolus? A. The king of Caria, about 355 B. C.

8. Q. Describe his tomb. A. It was a rectangular building, surrounded by an Ionic portico, and surmounted by a pyramid crowned with a statue of Mausolus.

9. Q. What was the great Pan-Athenaic festival? A. Erechtheus instituted a festival under the title of Athenæ; Thesus, who united all the Attic tribes into one body, made this the common festival, and called it Pan-Athenæa.

10. Q. What are the Pergamos Marbles? A. Works of art recently excavated at Pergamos. The most noted are reliefs representing the battles between the Gauls and the Giants.

11. Q. What were the requirements of the Roman ritual that led the Romans to adopt certain forms for their temples? A. The Roman temples were usually built to face the rising sun, on the day sacred to the god to whom the temple was dedicated. A round temple would have no proper facing, and so the square form was adopted. When the officiating priests were offering sacrifices they were required to face the east, and also to make use of the other points of the compass, so that temples of the square or oblong form were vastly more convenient. When the diviners swung their rods from side to side, or over their heads, vaulted arches and circular temples were adopted. (Answer of De Ette Howard, Janesville, Wisconsin).

Their knowledge of the gods they derived from certain signs in the sky. Those who studied and watched for these signs were called augurs. At first they marked out a square piece of ground from which they watched the skies; afterward temples were built for them. These temples were square, and divided into four regular squares, and at their point of intersection the augur took his stand. Signs appearing in the left were of good luck; in the right, bad luck. The corner stone lay so that the building faced the rising sun. (Answer of a member whose name was not



12. Q. Describe the Appian Way and the Cloaca Maxima. A. The Appian Way, constructed by Appius, the Censor, was the oldest and most celebrated of Roman roads. pavement was solid blocks, so joined as to appear as one smooth stone. It extended originally from Rome to Capua, but was eventually continued to Brundusium. The Cloaca Maxima was the trunk drain of the sewers of Rome. It was formed of three tiers of concentric arches. Its vault was of massive masonry, and was high enough to admit a cart loaded with hay.

13. Q. What was the Arch of Titus erected to commemorate? A. His conquest of Jerusalem and Judea.

14. Q. When and under what circumstances was the Torso of the Belvedere Hercules discovered? A. It was found at the beginning of the sixteenth century, during the making of excavations on the site of the theatre of Pompey at Rome.

15. Q. How were the buried cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii discovered, and what progress has been made in uncovering them? A. Herculaneum, in 1709, on the occasion of the deepening of a well. A very small part of the city has yet been uncovered. The ruins of Pompeii were first noticed in 1689; attention again called to them in 1748, in sinking a well, and the first extensive excavations were made in 1755. More than one-third of the city has been exposed.

16. Q. Briefly describe the Roman catacombs. A. They are ancient underground cemeteries. (A full description is given in the November and December numbers of THE CHAUTAUQUAN).

17. Q. Who was Orpheus? A. A mythical poet, who, with his lyre, enchanted everything that had life, and even trees and rocks, so that they would follow him.

18. Q. What is meant by mosaics, and how are they formed? A. A mosaic is the representation of a design by the fitting together on a ground of cement of numerous small pieces of stone and glass, of various colors, and generally of cubical form.

19. Q. What is the Vatican at Rome? A. The residence: of the Pope. It is the largest palace in Europe.

20. Q. Give a short description of Westminster Abbey.. A. It has the form of a Latin cross. Its extreme length is. five hundred and eleven feet, its width across the transept. two hundred and three feet, and the height of the roof is. one hundred and two feet, a loftiness unusual in English churches.


The following are the graduates: Rev. B. F. Austin, St. Thomas, Ont.; M. Alma Anderson, Bloomington, Ill.; Mrs. J. S. Anderson, Waterford, Pa.; Fanny L. Armstrong, 13Camp St., New Orleans, La.; May Atwater, Saginaw City, Mich.; Sarah Billings, Sinclairville, N. Y.; John L. Brown, Wellsville, N. Y.; Ella M. Brew, Akron, O.; Mrs. J. S. Brown, Wellsville, N. Y.; Miss A. E. Burrows, Saginaw, Mich.; Mrs. C. S. Brumagim, Summerdale, N. Y.; Mrs. J. F. Brooks, Oberlin, O.; Ella L. Barkeville, 24 E. Centre St., Akron, O.; John Currie, East Carlton, N. Y.;, Mrs. S. E. Carpenter, 220 Clinton St., N. Y.; Sibyl A. Cashey, Akron, O.; Miss Florence Clark, Ft. Wayne, Ind.; Frank Church, Akron, O.; James L. Case, Akron, O.; Letitia Caldwell, 508 W. 8th St., Erie, Pa.; A. Caldwell, 508 W. 8th St., Erie, Pa.; Rev. W. W. Case, Akron, O.; Anna Clark, Ridgway, Pa.; Lizzie A. Constable, Athens, O.; Chas. W. Crakshaw, 409 E. Center St., Akron, O.; Chas. N. Church, 118 Carroll St., Akron, O.; Mrs. Lytie P. Davies, Machias, N. Y.; W. Irving Dice, Akron, O.; Tillie Ewing, 125 N. Broadway, Akron, O.; Retta E. Eaton, Fairview, Pa.; Sophia Echoren, 122 Grand St., Akron, O.; Sarah E. Eaton, Fairview, Pa.; Rev. H. C. Farrar, Gloversville, N. Y.; Mrs. H. C. Farrar, Gloversville, N. Y.; Addie Fish; Mrs. C. L. Fish, Willink, N. Y.; Jennie A. Gouldy, Newburgh, N. Y.; Emma J. Gleason, Hartstown, Pa.; Flora Gleason, Farmdale, O.; Harvey S. Getz, 402 S. Forge, Akron, O.; Alice Heath, Kirksville, Mo.; Miss Eliza F. Hammond, Pa.; Will J. Hoover, box 1275, Bradford, Pa.; Delphie Haynes, Chenew, Ill.; J. M. Hervey, 96 Wylie Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Julia B. Hayes, Oakfield, N. Y.; Lama A. Haygood, 45 McDonough St., Atlanta, Ga.; Mrs. A. W. Hayes, Oakfield, N. Y.; Mrs. Maggie B. Hervey, 96 Wylie Place, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Oak C. Herrick, Akron, O.; Henry W. Hargelt, 608 Bowery St., Akron, O.; M. D. Jackson, Hinsdale, N. Y.; Mrs. M. D. Jackson, Hinsdale, N. Y.; Carrie E. Jones, Akron, O.; Mrs. M. J. Judd, Newark Val

ley, N. Y.; Anna Kidder, Akron, O.; Fred D. Kidder, 478
S. Main St., Akron, O.; Nellie M. Kirkland, Dewittville,
N. Y.; George A. Kirkland, Dewittville, N. Y.; Mrs. A. J.
Kerr, Mercer, Pa.; Roslia S. Cook, Dewittville, N. Y.;
Ella E. Little, Canton, Pa.; Marion Metcalf, Elyria, O.;
Walter H. Means, Akron, O.; Mrs. Carrie McDowell, Dick-
sonburg, Pa.; Minnie L. Mallery, Hartfield, N. Y.; Mary
C. Morrison, 121 Park Place, Akron, O.; Carrie McMillen, |
-50 E. Middlebury St., Akron, O.; Emma S. Norton, Ma-
rengo, Ill.; Lilian A. Nason, Townville, Pa.; Mrs. A. D.
Olds, North Evans, N. Y.; Sarah Penn, Mercer, Pa.; Joseph
Phelps, Belgrave, Ontario, Canada; Mabel M. Perkins,
Machias, N. Y.; Mrs. L. R. Pearson, 12 Belleview Avenue,
Cincinnati, O.; Mrs. May V. W. Radcliff, Westburgh, Pa.;
D. N. Rosencrans, 167 Public Square, Cleveland, O.; Rev. N.
J. Rubiņkam, 929 Franklin St., Phil'a, Pa.; Mrs. N. J. Rubin-
kam, 929 Franklin St., Phil'a, Pa.; Rev. E. A. Sabin, Speeds-
ville, N. Y.; Mrs. E. A. Sabin, Speedsville, N. Y.; Edwin
L. Sliney, Westerville, O.; F. P. Sigler, Osceola, Iowa; Mrs.
F. P. Sigler, Osceola, Iowa; Welthie F. Scofield, Hartfield,
N. Y.; Hallie Steadman, Townville, Pa.; Jeannette Sloane,
Chillicothe, O.; Abbie M. Scott, Sinclairville, N. Y.; Laura
E. Shaffer, Akron, O.; Jessie S. Stow, Hillsdale, Mich.;
Lena W. Smith, Columbus, Pa.; Effie Shoaf, 702 S. High
St., Akron, O.; Laura A. Schenck, Fenton, Mich.; Lucy M.
Shattuck, Six Mile Creek, Erie Co., Pa.; Miss M. S. Tipton,
Paris, Ky.; May Thorp, Belfast, N. Y.; Clarence B. Treat,
East Hartford, Conn.; Miss Ella P. Thompson, Maysville,
O.; Mrs. F. W. VanVrodenburgh, Ischua, N. Y.; Mary
Walworth, Mt. Holyoke Seminary, S. Hadley, Mass.; Em-
ma L. Wyman, Wilbraham, Mass.; Mrs. Ida G. Wilson,
Franklin, Pa.; Mrs. C. A. Willard, Findley's Lake, N. Y.;
Mrs. H. Jane Whipple, Saegertown, Pa.; Warren W.
Walsworth, 155 Harrison St., Syracuse, N. Y.; A. J. Whip-
ple, Saegertown, Pa.; Mrs. F. E. Woods, 940 West Avenue,
Buffalo, N. Y.; Clara G. Williamson, Clayton, N. J.; Miss
H. M. Winslow, Hinckley, Ill.; Cornell M. Walsworth,
Nottingham, O.; Kent B. Wait, Hudson, O.; A. O. Welsh,
Randolph, O.


Is awarded to Miss Mary Atwater, teacher in the Methodist Episcopal Sunday-school, Saginaw City, Mich.


Is awarded to Rev. N. J. Rubinkam, pastor of the Independent Reformed Church, Philadelphia, Pa.


Is awarded to Rev. Joseph Phelp, pastor of the Methodist Church, Belgrave, Canada.


NEW ENGLAND ASSEMBLY, SOUTH FRAMINGHAM, MASS. Emma F. Angell, Walpole, Mass.; Roxa F. Beard, Framingham, Mass.; Rev. Lyman D. Bragg, Whitonsville, Mass.; S. R. Le Bosquet, Southville, Mass.; Henry D. Barber, Worcester, Mass.; Mrs. J. F. Bashford, Auburndale, Mass.; Mrs. C. T. Borden, Mansfield, Mass.; Susie H. Bean, Newtonville, Mass.; Mrs. P. D. Cowan, Wellesley, Mass.; Mabel B. Coffin, box 52, Hyde Park, Mass.; Mrs. E. W. Clark, Lowell, Mass.; Rev. P. D. Cowan, Wellesley, Mass.; Edward Day, Milford, Mass.; Emma A. Davis, box 52, Southboro, Mass.; Mrs. R. A. Davidson, box 725, Newtonville, Mass.; R. C. Day, South Framingham, Mass.; Miss Mary G. Day, South Framingham, Mass.; Miss E. Ellen Lloyd, South Framingham, Mass.; Mrs. Geo. B. Fisk, Holliston, Mass.; L. Laureatte Fairbanks, Marlboro, Mass.; W. W. Fairbanks, Marlboro, Mass.; Ella W. Fisk, Framingham, Mass.; Nellie M. Frost, Nepouset, Suffolk County, Mass; Abbie J. Gannett, North Scituate, Mass.; Rev. E.

W. Goodier, Mansfield, Mass.; Chas. J. Hooper, Southville, Mass.; Lizzie Hemennay, Westboro, Mass.; Addie V. Hodges, Foxboro, Mass.; Mary W. Houghton, Holliston, Mass.; Mrs. Cordelia W. Hayes, Natick, Mass.; Helen M. Hills, South Framingham, Mass., Eva G. Jones, box 128, Stoneham, Mass.; Katharine A. Lent, Allston, Mass.; Lizzie M. Lewis, Marlboro, Mass.; Mary A. Lloyd, South Framingham, Mass.; Chas. F. Light, Nepouset, Mass.; Mrs. C. K. Langer, Hyde Park, Mass.; Mrs. S. A. Morrill, Foxboro, Mass.; Mary L. Moreland, Fitchburg, Mass.; Miss E. Murray, Beaufort, South Carolina; E. J. Mitchell, West Newton, Mass.; Mattie C. Payson, Foxboro, Mass.; Mary M. Peckham, Westminster, Mass.; Miss Eliza J. Puffer, | Saxonville, Mass.; Mary A. Ranger, 18 Ash Street, Lowell, Mass.; Mrs. Geo. Rice, South Framingham, Mass.; Mrs. Y. E. Ruggles, Milton, Mass.; Daniel Redfield, Holyoke, Mass.; Mrs. M. E. Safford, South Framingham, Mass.; Miss Eva O. Tuck, Magnolia, Mass.; Christine P. Trommer, North Scituate, Mass.; Hannah Varnum, 111 Salem Street, Lowell, Mass.; Rev. N. J. Whittaker, Lowell, Mass.

The best examination paper was presented by Katharine A. Lent, Allston, Mass.; the second in rank by Rev. P. D. Cowan, Wellesley, Mass.


Miss Jennie B. Merrill reports as follows: The successful candidates at the "Primary Teachers'" competitive examination held at Chautauqua, August 18, 1881, were as follows:

Mrs. J. G. Allen, Rochester, N. Y.; Miss E. J. Crothers, New York, N. Y.; Mrs. J. H. Crozier, Oil City, Pa.; Mrs. C. W. Foulk, Springboro, Pa.; Miss M. J. Gifford, Mayville, N. Y.; Mrs. E. C. Lambert, Jacksonville, Ill.; Mrs. T. H. Murdough, Mansfield, Pa.; Mrs. F. P. Sigler, Osceola, Iowa; Mrs. B. T. Vincent, Philadelphia, Pa.

Miss Martha J. Gifford wrote the prize paper.

The successful candidates at the "Primary Teachers'" competitive examination held at Framingham, Mass., Sept. 1, 1881, were as follows:

Miss A. H. Bean, Newtonville, Mass.; Miss N. B. Besse, Lowell, Mass.; Miss G. E. Besse, Lowell, Mass.; Miss M. Q. Brown, Newburyport, Mass.; Miss A. O. Cheney, Milford, Mass.; Miss J. M. Daniels, Framingham, Mass.; Miss M. E. Drew, Lowell, Mass.; Mrs. M. E. Hawks, South Deerfield, Mass.; Mrs. J. A. Johnson, Holliston, Mass.; Mrs. S. B. Jones, Stoneham, Mass.: Miss L. R. Jones, Aitken, S. C.; Miss G. A. Rodliff, Lowell, Mass.; Miss A. I. Rodliff, Lowell, Mass.; Miss M. C. Sheldon, W. Newton, Mass.; Miss F. H. Sprague, Lowell, Mass.; Mr. E. M. White, Boston, Mass.; Mrs. W. P. Hancock, Milford, Mass.

Misses J. M. Daniels, M. E. Drew, L. E. Lee, and A. I. Rodliff, each receive 100 per cent. Miss Daniels wrote the prize paper.


Abu Nuwâs, the court poet and jester, of the Caliph Haroun Alraschid, is a peculiar character. The author of the following article in Temple Bar, made his acquaintance in Cairo, where he heard an Arab story-teller reciting some of the legends here given:

Abu Nuwâs had once, according to his habit, gone too far, and seriously offended the Caliph by some impertinent answer. Jaafer, "the Barmecide," Haroun's vizier and inseparable companion, did his best to make peace, and finding the monarch one day in a good humor while at the bath; induced him to send for the culprit. Jaafer good-naturedly met the wag before he went into his master's presence, and

warned him to make the most of this opportunity for reconciliation, and to be upon his very best behavior. After prostrating himself on the ground, and suing for pardon, he took his seat immediately opposite the Caliph, the "trough," or marble water-basin, being between them. Haroun was the first to speak:

"Abu Nuwâs," said he, "I used to think you a wit; what 'made you give such witless answers? Are you an ass?" "Oh, no, Prince of the Faithful," was the reply, "there is a trough between the ass and me!"

The monarch could scarcely believe his own ears; but started up and left the place without completing his bath. This time Abu Nuwâs's head was very insecurely attached to his neck, and even Jaafer's eloquent appeals on behalf of the graceless wag were for some time unavailing; nor was the latter's own ingenious explanation that he meant nothing more than "that asses ate out of a trough, while he himself used a dish," of any use at all. All the concession which the prime-minister could ultimately obtain was that the offender should be thrown into a pit where a savage bear was kept, and left there for twenty-four hours. order was executed, but as Abu Nuwâs had induced Jaafer to take a store of wine, provisions, and candles with him, he contrived to stave off the too pressing advances of his companion, and when the Caliph came to gaze upon the corpse of his peccant jester, he found him drunk, and playing upon a tambourine, and endeavoring to induce the beast to dance.


His peccadillos, as might be expected, often made him acquainted with the inside of a prison, and it was his wont during these temporary periods of seclusion to solace himself with singing to the accompaniment of his lute. On one occasion, a fellow-prisoner regarded his performance with so much interest and emotion, that the poet said to him:

"My brother, art thou not a connoisseur in music, or haply a poet thyself? or art thou merely a lover separated from his love, that thou dost listen so mournfully, but feelingly withal?"

"Nothing of the kind," answered the unfortunate prisoner, but you wagged your beard just like an old goat of mine at home."

On this Abu Nuwâs began to scream and thump upon the dungeon door, and behave in so mad and boisterous a manner that the jailer came to see what was amiss. Jaafer was sent for, and the poet brought before the Caliph, to whom he related the incident. "I do not mind," said he, "keeping company with your majesty's bear, who, by-the-by, was so loth to part with me that he retained part of my garments in his teeth, as the servants hauled me up; but to lodge with such a boor will be the death of me."

For another gross fault the Caliph ordered him to be mounted on an ass with his face to the tail, tricked out in the animal's trappings, and ridden round the town. To Jaafer, who met him and asked what had brought him to this plight, he answered: "I have presented the Caliph with my best verses, and his highness has clad me in his own best clothes."

Abu Nuwâs does not appear to have been remarkable for courage, unlike most of the old Arab minstrels, who often combined the professions of the sword with the lyre.

It is told of him that he accompanied Haroun Alraschid in one of his numerous raids against the Byzantine emperor. But when he found himself in action for the first time

he acted upon the proverb that "discretion is the better part of valor," put spurs to his horse, and rode off to a neighboring hillock whence he could watch the fight in safety. As evening came on the battle ended, and two armies returned to their respective camps, and Abu Nuwâs also sought his tent. The next morning there issued from the ranks of the enemy a doughty champion who challenged the best man

among the Moslems to single combat, and either killed or took prisoner every one who accepted his challenge. At length the Caliph, who had been informed of Abu Nuwâs's | cowardice on the previous day, ordered him to go forth and rid them of the Grecian warrior. The poor jester, in extreme terror, endeavored in vain to excuse himself, but obtained consent to enter the commissariat tent and make a good meal before he fought. Instead, however, of eating then and there, he packed up and took with him a good supply of edibles and a flask of wine, and rode out towards the fierce champion who had overcome the Caliph's bravest soldiers. While still at a safe distance he cried out:

"O bravest of the warriors of the age! I have a proposition to make to thee, which will profit thee much." "Out with it then," said the other.

"First let me ask thee, hast thou a blood feud against me?"

"No," said the Greek.

"Do I owe thee aught?" continued Abu Nuwâs. "Surely not," said the Greek.

"Then what is the use of our fighting and killing each other? Let us come behind yonder hillock and breakfast off some capital roast fowls which I have brought with me. Then we will go back, each to his tent; you especially must require rest, and I am sure you have killed and taken captive knights enough for one day!"

Half amused, the champion consented, and after an amiable meal together, they parted and rode off to their respective camps.

"Your majesty bade me rid you of him," said he to the Caliph in explanation, "and I have done so most effectually. Let the next guard when it turns out follow my example." As might have been expected, and as a story I have already told shows, our hero was very lax in his observances of the duties of his religion.

Smitten, however, once with conscientious scruples, Abu Nuwâs, determined upon making the pilgrimage to Mecca, and presenting himself before Alraschid, said:

"Prince of the Faithful! You know that I am a Moslem." "I suppose so," said the Caliph; "what do you want?" "I wish to make the pilgrimage to Mecca." "Well, the way is open to you."

"But I have not money enough to go," pleaded the poet. "Then you are excused from the duty, by the canons of our holy law," said the Caliph.

"Confound you!" said Abu Nuwâs, "I came a-begging, not to ask for a legal decision!"

A number of witty sayings are of course attributed to him, but a few will be sufficient to indicate their nature and the sort of thing which an Arab considers smart and amusing. "I would like to see the devil face to face," said a very ugly man to him one day.


Then look in a looking-glass," was the reply. Again, seeing another ugly man praying in a mosque, he politely asked, "Why do you grudge Gehenna such a face?" When do you think you will die?" asked an acquaintance one day," because I should like to send a letter by you to my deceased father." "Very sorry," said Abu Nuwas; "I shall not be passing his way; I am going up aloft."

A very long-nosed man was quarrelling with his wife and reproached her, saying, "You know how good-natured I am, and how much I have put up with." Allah is witness that you speak the truth," said Abu Nuwâs, who was standing by, or you would never have put up all these years with such a nose as that." Once while seated in a friend's house an ominous noise was heard, and a crack appeared suddenly in one of the walls.

"What ails the house?" asked Abu Nuwâs. "It is but celebrating Allah's praises," replied his host. "Then I am off," remarked the poet, "for it might proceed with its religious exercises and take to prostration next!"

numerable, but many of them turn on some verbal quibble, The tales and jests related of Abu Nuwâs are indeed inwhile more are scarcely in accordance with modern taste. They exhibit him as a clever and witty, but unscrupulous rogue, with brilliant talents and an irrepressible tendency to mischief. He was just the man to please the "good Haroun Alraschid" in his cheerier moods, and no greater praise of his tact and ready wit can be written, than the simple fact that he served such a master and yet died in his bed.

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THE C. L. S. C.

President: J. H. Vincent, D. D. Counselors: Lyman Abbott, D. D.; Bishop H. W. Warren, D. D.; J. M. Gibson, D. D.; W. C. Wilkinson, D. D. Office Secretary: Miss Kate F. Kimball. General Secretary: Albert M. Martin, A. M.



This new organization aims to promote habits of reading and study in nature, art, science, and in secular and sacred literature, in connection with the routine of daily life (especially among those whose educational advantages have been limited), so as to secure to them the college student's general outlook upon the world and life, and to develop the habit of close, connected, persistent thinking.


It proposes to encourage individual study in lines and by text-books which shall be indicated; by local circles for mutual help and encouragement in such studies; by summer courses of lectures and "students' sessions" at Chautauqua, and by written reports and examinations.


The course of study prescribed by the C. L. S. C. shall cover a period of four years.


Each year's Course of Study will be considered the "First Year" for new pupils, whether it be the first, second, third, or fourth of the four years' course. For example, "the class of 1885," instead of beginning October, 1881, with the same studies which were pursued in 1880-81 by "the class of 1884," will fall in with "the class of '84," and take for their first year the second year's course of the '84 class. The first year for the class of 1884" will thus in due time become the fourth year for "the class of 1885."

5. STUDIES FOR 1881-82.*

The course for 1881-82 comprises readings in: 1. History. 2. Literature. 3. Science and Philosophy. 4. Art. 5. Religion.

The required books for the year are as follows:

1. HISTORY.-Man's Antiquity and Language. Dr. M. S. Terry (Chautauqua Text-Book.) Price 10 cents. Outlines of General History. Dr. J. H. Vincent. (Chautauqua Text Book.) Price, 10 cents. Mosaics of History. Selected by Arthur Gilman, Esq., of Cambridge, Mass. (CHAUTAUQUAN.) Readings from Mackenzie's Nineteenth Century. Books First and Second. (Franklin Square edition.) Price, 15 cents.

2. LITERATURE.-Art of Speech. Part II. "Oratory and Logic" (Dr. L. T. Townsend.) Price, 50 cents. Illustrated History of Ancient Literature, Oriental and Classical. Dr. Quackenhos. Price, $.00. English History and Literature. Chautauqua Library. Vol. III. [To be ready in 1882.]

3. SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY.-Popular Readings concerning Mathematics, Political Economy, Geology, Chemistry, Laws of Health, and Mental and Moral Philosophy. (CHAUTAUQUAN.)

4. ART. Outline Lessons on Art. Miss De Forest. (Chautauqua Text-Book.) Price, 10 cents. A Short History of Art. Miss De Forest. Price, $2.

5. RELIGIOUS. -God in History. (CHAUTAUQUAN.) Religion in Art. (CHAUTAUQUAN.)

6. ADDITIONAL.-(For Students of Class 1882.) Hints for Home Reading, Dr. Lyman Abbott. The Hall in the Grove. Mrs. Alden. (About Chautauqua and the C. L. S. C.)

The following is the distribution of the subjects and books through the year:

October and November.
[Ch. stands for THE CHAUTAUQUAN.]
Outline Lessons on Art. [De Forest.]
A Short History of Art. [De Forest.]
Mosaics of History. [Ch.]
Christianity in Art. [Ch.]
Readings about Geology. [Ch.]

Man's Antiquity and Language. [Terry.]
Outlines of General History. [Vincent.]
Mosaics of History. [Ch.]
Readings about Geology. [Ch.]
Readings about Philosophy. [Ch.]
Christianity in Art. [Ch.]

Mosaics of History. [Ch.]
God in History. [Ch.]

Illustrated History of Ancient Literature,
Oriental and Classical. [Quackenbos.]
Readings about Mental Science [Ch.]
Laws of Health. [Ch.]
Christianity in Art. [Ch.]

Mosaics of History. [Ch.]

Illustrated History of Ancient Literature. [Continued.]

Christianity in Art. [Ch.]
Readings about Moral Science. [Ch.]
Laws of Health. [Ch.]

Mosaics of History. [Ch.]
Readings about Political Economy. [Ch.]
Readings from Mackenzie's Nineteenth
Mosaics of History. [Ch.]
Art of Speech. Part II. [Townsend.]
Readings about Political Economy. [Ch.]

Mosaics of History. [Ch.]
English History and Literature. [Chau-
tauqua Library, Vel. III.]
Readings about Mathematics. [Ch.]
Readings about Chemistry. [Ch.]
Mosaics of History. [Ch.]
Readings about Chemistry. [Ch.]

6. THE WHITE SEAL SUPPLEMENTARY COURSE. Persons who desire to read more extensively in the lines of study for 1881-82 are expected to read, in addition to the "required" books for the year, the following:

Conflict of Christianity with Heathenism. By Dr. Ulhorn.
Outline Study of Man. By Dr. Hopkins.

History of Germany. By Charlotte M. Yonge.

Persons who pursue the "White Seal Course" of each year, in addition to the regular course, will receive at the time of their graduation a white seal to be attached to the regular diploma.


Members of the C. L. S. C. may take, in addition to the regular course above prescribed, one or more special courses, and pass an examination upon them. A series of special courses in the several departments of study will be in due time announced, and pupils will receive credit and testimonial seals to be appended to their regular di

*The additional books for the "White Seal Course" for 1881-82 are: "Conflict of Christianity with Heathenism," by Dr. Ulhorn; "Outline Study of Man," by Dr. Mark Hopkins; "History of Germany," by Charlotte Yonge.

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Persons desiring to unite with the C. L. S. C. should forward answers to the following questions to Dr. J. H. VINCENT, PLAINFIELD, N.J. The class graduating in 1885 should begin the studies of the less sons required, October 1881. They may begin as late as January 1, 1882. 1. Give your name in full. 2 Your post-office address-with county and State. 3. Are you married or single? 4. What is your age? Are you between twenty and thirty? or thirty and forty, or forty and fifty, or fifty and sixty, etc.? 5. If married, how many children living under the age of sixteen years?* 6. What is your occupation? 7. With what religious denomination are you connected? 8. Do you, after mature deliberation, resolve, if able, to prosecute the four years' course of study presented by the C. L. S. C.? 9. Do you promise to give an average of three hours a week to the reading and study required by this course? 10. How much more than the time specified do you hope to give to this course of study?

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Individuals may prosecute the studies of the C. L. S. C. alone, but their efforts will be greatly facilitated by securing a “local circle" of two or more persons, who agree to meet as frequently as possible. read together, converse on subjects of study, arrange for occasional lectures by local talent, organize a library, a museum, a laboratory, etc. All that is necessary for the establishment of such "local circles" is to meet, report organization to Dr. Vincent, Plainfield, N. J., and then prosecute the course of study in such a way as seems most likely to secure the ends contemplated by the C. L. Š. C.


Twelve days are set apart as days of especial interest to every member of the C. L. S. C., and as days of devout prayer for the furtherance of the objects of this society. On these days all members are urgently invited to read the literary and scriptural selections indicated, to collect some facts about the authors whose birthdays are thus commemorated, and to invoke the blessing of our heavenly Father upon this attempt to exalt His word, and to understand and rejoice in His works. The selections to be read on the memorial days are published by Phillips & Hunt, and by Walden & Stowe, in a small volume-Chautauqua Text-Book No. 7 "Memorial Days." Price, 10 cents.


"We study the word and the works of God." "Let us keep our heavenly Father in the midst." "Never be discouraged."


The center of the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle is the HALL OF PHILOSOPHY in the beautiful grove at Chautauqua, which was dedicated August 17. 1878, by Bishop R. S. Foster, in the presence of a large, devout, and enthusiastic audience. It is the purpose of the managers of Chautauqua to have St. Paul's Grove fitted up with rustic seats, statuary, fountains, etc., and make it a place of beauty and inspiration to all members of the Circle.


Persons desiring forms of application, or information concerning the Circle, should address Dr. Vincent, Plainfield, N. J.


The organ of the C. L. S. C. is THE CHAUTAUQUAN. Issued monthly, from October to July. Price, $1.50. Send subscriptions to TheodoreL. Flood, Editor and Proprietor, Meadville, l'a.

We ask this question to ascertain the possible future intellectual and moral influence of this "Circle" on your homes.

†These mottoes are issued on large cards by Prang & Co., of Boston, Mass. Each motto sells at $1.

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