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LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE
Lithography. Mr J. Ruthven of Edinburgh has succeeded in constructing a press on the principle of his patent, which answers most perfectly for printing from *stone. It is free from the disadvantages that have hitherto attended lithographic presses, and promises to render the art very generally adopted throughout England. Any degree of pressure is at once brought to bear on the stone by means of the lever. The roller is found to clean the stone from the printing ink at each impression, and the labour of winding the bed through is much less than by the method hitherto used. By this machine a greater number of impressions may be taken in a day than formerly. One of them has been for some time at work in London at the lithographic establishment of -Mr Willich, Dartmouth Street, Westmin-ster; where may be seen by the admirers of this interesting art. The press has also the advantage of being equally applicable to copperplate printing. England.-Education.-By returns made up to the 1st of May last, it appears that there are in England and Wales 37,382 schools of all descriptions, in which are educated 1,571,372 children of both sexes, or about 42 to a school. It is specified that 18,276 of these schools are initiatory, and that 14,192 are English or commercial schools, of which 8375 are for females. It also appears that the church catechism is taught in 22,581 schools; that the systems of Bell and Lancaster have been more or less adopted in 1411; that Phillips's interrogative system of questions without answers has been introduced into 3682; and Pestalozzi's system of oral analysis into 7; that the French language is taught in 7520; and the dead languages in 3327. The number of persons employed in education, as master, governesses, assistants, and private tutors, is estimated at 56,330.
Engraving. The Siderographic printing and engraving establishment of Messrs Perkins, Fairman, and Heath, has been commenced in the house in Fleet Street, late Parker's Glass Manufactory, with every prospect of splendid success. Already they have engaged to manufacture Bank Notes on their inimitable plan for several Yorkshire and other banks; and they are also preparing various engravings for popular books, as maps and views for Goldsmith's Geography, frontispiece to Mayor's Spelling Book, and a solar system for Blair's Preceptor, all of which will have proof impressions of their engravings, though tens of thousands are sold annually. Over and above these applications, they are making preparations to
print on cotton, dresses of greater beauty than ever were fabricated before. The perfection and taste of all their prints must so improve the public judgment, that coarse and inferior prints must soon be banished from use; and hence the arts themselves must be greatly improved.
Agriculture. Of all the animals which share with man against his will the fruits of his labours, the weevil in corn is one of the most formidable, on account of its voracity, its diminutive size, by which it eludes the observation, and its extraordina ry fecundity. It is, besides, so impassible, or tenacious of life, that no means of destruction hitherto employed have been able to extirpate it from buildings in which it was once lodged. Besides its ability to endure very long abstinence from food, it braves even aspersion with muriatic acid, and fumigation with sulphur: nay, boiling water and brandy are stated not to destroy in it the principle of life. As this insect is reported, by French writers on agriculture, to destroy annually a tenth, and sometimes even a fifth part of the har vest, a simple, easy, and cheap mode of effectually destroying it has long been sought, but without success. A French gentleman, of the name of Chenest, appears to have really discovered such a me. thod. He has applied it with complete success in various places in France, and has received the most satisfactory testimonies from the Mayors and other persons who have witnessed the results of his experiments. He has also laid his plan before the Royal Agricultural Society, which appointed a committee to examine the truth of his statements. The Committee, after a series of successful experiments for seven years, declared that the method perfectly answered the purpose: and Count de Cazes, as Minister of the Interior, recommended the Prefects to make the invention known. Mr Chenest is, we hear, now in England, and intends to submit his invention to the Board of Agriculture.-Lit. Gaz.
Corsicaurum.A new mineral earth has been lately found in Corsica, thought to be impregnated with particles of gold. By chemical operation, vases have been made of it, for table services, and it is found to vie in colour and lustre with the finest vermilion. The name of Corsicaurum has been given to it ;-it has the property of not discolouring white stuffs, which is not always the case with gold, the most purified and refined.
Succedaneum for Leeches.-M. Salandiere, physician, has invented an nstru. ment to serve as a succedaneum for Leeches x k
It possesses considerable advantages; measuring exactly the quantity of blood to be taken, causing the fluid to move with greater or less rapidity on a determinate scale, and producing an effect called by the physicans resolving, much superior to the leech. It has nothing to disgust, like those animals, excites little or no pain, and it may be used in all countries and at all
France. From a late publication of the Academy of Sciences in Paris, it appears that Paris contains 714,000 inhabitants, of which 25,000 are not domiciled. The average number of births annually is 21,000, and of these the proportion of male to female is 25 to 24. The consumption of bread annually is 113,880,000 kilogrammes; of oxen, 70,000; of heifers, 9000; of calves, 78,000; of sheep, 34,000; of swine, 72,000; of eggs, 74,000,000; of pigeons, 900,000; of fowls, 1,200,000; of wine, 870,000 hectolitres.
French Theatres.-The theatres in France have long been under the immediate control of the government, and various regulations have at different periods been made respecting them. In November 1796, a decree was passed, and which still continues in force, enacting, that a decime on every franc of the price of admission at all places of public amusement should be collected for the use of the poor
that is, one tenth part of the receipts. The following is the produce of the duty in francs for 3 years, 24 francs to a pound sterling.
1814. 1815. 1816. 446,551 449,038 452,635 Fetes Publiques 13,383 13,614 10,887 Balls
4763 Soirees Amusantes 2341 Fanoramas 3551 2511 Petits Spectacles 2635 3636 8608 Curiosities 6470 6516 6420 Total 485,137 491,826 497,358 Italy. The excavators have just discovered, near the forum of Pompeii, a pub. lic edifice which is supposed to be the Chalcidicum, and an inscription importing that the edifice was built at the expénce of the priestess Eumachia. A few days after the above discovery, a statue of the same priestess was found in perfect preservation; which far surpasses in grace, elegance, and grandeur, all the works of art that had previously been dug from the ruins of Pompeii.
Mr Giardin, the French Ambassador at Constantinople, has sent to Paris fifteen valuable works in Arabic from the Imperial Library at Constantinople, among which are the complete works of Plutarch and Herodotus !
The Classics in Arabic.-The learned world may reasonably expect, in a few years, complete and perfect translations of Plutarch, Sallust, Livy, Tacitus, Aristotle, Hippocrates, &c. from the Arabic; the French have been lately assiduous in their researches after such Arabian trea
The works of Aristotle, Hippocrates, Livy, Tacitus, Sallust, &c. are known to have been translated into Arabic, and might be discovered and purchased by well-directed search after them, at Fas, Morocco, or some other ports of West or South Barbary.-Mr Jackson, in his recent travels in those countries, annexed to Shabeeny's Account of Timbuctoo and Housa, page 325, says, "It is more than probable, that the works of many Greek and Roman authors, translated during the æra of Arabian learning, are to be found in the hands of literary individuals, in several parts of West and South Barbary !”—Lit. Gaz.
Germany. The Germans, we are happy to see, are beginning to fill up a most important vacancy in their Literature. Hitherto they have been almost destitute of Biography, and comparatively few of their great men have been transmitted to posterity in a manner worthy of them. We, in fact, know no one good Biography composed in German, and even the lives of Schiller, Fichte, Mendelsohn, are yet very imperfectly written. The long notices relative to authors and professors, which are given in all the German Reviews, seem to have contented curiosity in this most important point. There has lately, however, appeared the Biographies of three celebrated men, and they will no doubt stimulate the Germans to more attempts in this agreeable species of writing. The life of Kraus, a celebrated political economist and philosopher, distinguished as the opponent of Kant, was published at Königsberg (where he was professor) in 1819. The life of the amiable Jacobi, formerly President of the Royal Society of Sciences at Munich, was published there in 1819; and the life of the celebrated bookseller of Berlin, and yoluminous author Nicolai, was published there in the early part of this year. these are men who had much influence on the taste and genius of their country; and we hail these productions as the dawn of an elegant literature, (not fable,) which amuses as much as the best invention, and leaves none of those vain wishes which the ideal perfections of the poets never fail to cause. Nicolai has been accused of Illuminatism. He was at least conspicuous in the controversy about secret societies in the latter part of the last century; and the present biography ought to contain some good materials for forming a correct opinion on this doubtful point of History.
A Biography has been published at Copenhagen, of Peter Hörberg, a celebrated Swedish painter. He also wrote his own
life, which has been translated into German; and from a review of the two works in a German periodical publication, we extract the following account of him::
He was born, in 1746, at Vierstadt, in Smaalland, of very poor parents, and was so weak that he did not learn to walk before he was four years old. His father taught him to write. His infancy was passed tending cattle and asking alms, and even in this situation he amused himself carving, on the bark of trees, a representa tion of every thing he saw or could imagine. At the age of eighteen, he was bound apprentice to a common painter, and after the usual time of apprenticeship, and being some short time a journeyman, he became a master, and was appointed district painter at Almisäkra, where he soon afterwards married a servant who was neither handsome nor sensible. He followed his profession here till 1783, when the wish to gain more knowledge of his art drove him to Stockholm, and here he excited much notice, received some attention, and at length obtained a small pension from the government. He passed the remainder of his days at Finspång, in Ost Gothland, under the particular protection of a Baron de Geer. He died here in 1816, at the age of 70. Though a complete peasant in his manners, he left behind him a great number of paintings, particularly altar-pieces, which are much esteemed. He necessarily wanted all the accomplishments which a regular education supplies, but all his pictures display a vigorous imagination, richness of thought, and clearness of conception. His manner was formed before he visited Stockholm, and it was observed that there was little difference in his works before and after receiving instruction. He painted, to use his own expression, " his humour directed him, and as God had taught him."
must be nearly the same as in other fat countries.
Milk. Professor Schubler has published "Researches on Milk and its constituent Principles." The results of his analysis differ greatly from those lately published by Berzelius; and hence, in the author's opinion, prove the great influence of food and climate on the lacteal secretion. 1000 parts of new milk contain 110 of fresh cheese, 50 of fresh serai, 24 of butter, 77 of coarse sugar of milk, and 739 of water; or, in a dry state, 42.6 cheese, 7.87 serai, 24.0 butter, 77.0 sugar of milk, and 848 53 water. 1000 parts of skimmed milk contain 43.64 dry cheese, 8.06 dry serai, 78.94 sugar of milk, and 869-34 water. 1000 parts of cream contain 240 butter, 33 cheese, 6 serai, and 721 whey. Lastly, 721 parts of whey contain 60 coarse sugar of milk. These observations were made at Hofwyl, which is some distance from the mountains, and where the cows are kept constantly in the stable, so that the milk
Vinegar. Mr Stotze, apothecary at Halle, has discovered a method of purifying vinegar from wood by treating it with sulphuric acid, manganese, and common salt, and afterwards distilling it over. For this method he has obtained a prize from the Royal Society of Gottingen. This gen tleman has likewise verified the method proposed by Professor Meineke in 1814 of preserving meat by means of vinegar from wood, and by continued treatment with the same acid has converted bodies into mummies.
Prussia. The official Gazette of Berlin contains some statistical data of the Prussian monarchy, according to authentic re ports made in the course of the year 1819. From these it appears that all the states of this monarchy, not including the principality of Neufchatel, comprehend a space of 5014 geographical square leagues, (15 to a degree of the equator, equivalent to 25 French leagues,) or 107,765,760 acres, Rhenish measure, with 10,800,112 inhabitants, including the military. All the great bodies of water do not occupy a space above 2,202,541 acres, which constitutes about the 49th part of the whole surface. It results from a late census by the police, that, at the end of 1818, the popula tion had augmented to the number of 75,000 persons; this is ascribed to foreigners that have settled in them. At Berlin alone were enumerated 1042 males, and 1728 females, that in the year 1819 arrived there, to offer their services as domestics.
Sweden. According to the last census, taken in 1819, the population of the kingdom of Sweden amounted to 2,543,412 inhabitants. The amount of the registers of what is called the civil state of Stockholm, for the year 1819, has produced a result unfavourable for the population. The births were 2329, and the deaths 3238; a diminution therefore has taken place of 909 individuals. Almost one half of the children are born out of marriage. Out of three children, one has invariably died. The marriages have been 504, and the divorces 24.
Africa. The settlement at Algoa Bay has been accomplished, The John trans port, which took out 600 settlers to Algoa Bay, from Lancashire, has returned. “We have," says a correspondent, "arrived at Algoa Bay, after a tedious passage. I have been up the country as far as Graham's Town, and a more delightful one cannot be conceived. The proper officer has a surveyed government plan before him of the intended settlement, marked out in lots, of from 100 to 10,000 acres. Every lot has a good spring of water, and very well wooded. Every follower is allowed 100 acres; the quantity of land is sought
for without partiality. The settlement is about 190 miles from the sea, where we found many respectable families already housed. One who had brought out an iron roof was housed, with all his family, in three days and nights, by lodging his roof on the stumps of trees, plastering up
WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.
IN the present autumn will be published, Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, ancient Babylonia, &c. &c. during the years 1817, 1818, 1819, and 1820, by Sir Robert Ker Porter, &c. &c. These Travels embrace a vast extent of country; namely, almost all that comprised the ancient Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires, from the banks of the Black Sea to the Euphrates, and from the Euphrates to the mouth of the Persian Gulf.
The favourable reception of the first part of Mr Lingard's History of England has encouraged the author to prepare a fourth volume, which will be published in October next, and will comprise the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI,
the sides, and giving it a good white washing. The climate here is so good that you have four crops a year. The road to the settlement is good, with excellent pasturage everywhere for your cattle; plenty of water and timber."
Dr Leach has nearly completed his Synopsis of British Mollusca, being an ar rangement of Bivalve and Univalve Shells, according to the animals inhabiting them.
Mr Bridgens is about to publish, in a series of 12 numbers, Sketches illustrative of the Manners and Customs of Italy, Switzerland, and France; the plates are to be coloured, and each will be accompanied by an appropriate description.
Dr Andrew Halliday, domestic physi cian to his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence, announces a General History of the House of Guelph, or Royal Family of England, from the first record of that name, to the accession of George the First to the throne of Great Britain. The principal sources from which the author has drawn his materials are the extensive and most valuable collections of Leibnitz, in print as well as in manuscript, preserved in the King's Library at Hanover; the works of Eccard, Gruber, and Muratori; the "Origines Guelfica" of Schneideus; Jornandes' "History of the Goths;" the "Mars Gothicus" of Pretorius; Rethmeyer's and other Chronicles; and Schiller's" History of the Thirty Years' War." The work will be printed in the best manner, in one volume 4to, with a portrait of his Majesty, engraved (by permission) from the Coronation Medal. It will also contain an engraving of the original arm's of the House of Guelph.
A Treatise on the Plague is preparing for publication, designed to prove it contagious, from facts, founded on the author's experience, during the visitation of Malta in 1813. By Sir A. B. Faulkner, M. D. With observations on its prevention, character, and treatment; followed by an appendix, containing minutes of the author's evidence given before the Contagion Committee of the House of Commons, accompanied by their Report.
Mr J. A. Heraud, author of "Totten ham," a poem, has in the press, the Légend of St Loy, in four cantos.
Dr Thomson is printing a new edition of his System of Chemistry; he also announces his intention to prepare a work on the Practice of Chemistry.
Outlines of Midwifery will be published in October, developing its principles and practice, with illustrative lithographic engravings, by J. T. Conquest, M. D. F. L. S. &c.
A Translation of Ossian's Poem, Fingal, from the Celtic Original, in Latin Heroic Verse, will, with a prefatory dissertation and notes, be soon submitted to the public, by the Rev. Alex. M'Donald.
A prospectus is published of a new and complete edition of Origines Ecclesiastica; or, Antiquities of the Christian Church; and other works of the Rev. Joseph Bingham, A. M. formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford.
Mr Aspin is preparing for publication an Account of the Naval and Military Exploits which have distinguished the reign of George the Third. The work will be embellished with numerous coloured plates.
Shortly will be published in quarto, a series of designs, lithographed, by Mr J. Hedgeland, for private dwellings, comprising perspective elevations adapted to geometrical measurement, and plans of the several stories, with explanatory refer
Mr Egan has in the press, a new and original work, entitled, "Life in London: or, Day and Night Scenes of Jerry Hawthorn, Esq. accompanied by his elegant friend, Corinthian Tom, in their Rambles
and Sprees through the Metropolis." It will be completed in about twelve numbers, each number illustrated with three characteristic coloured plates. The scenery will be drawn from real life, by Robert and George Cruikshank.
One of the posthumous works of the late Rev. William Cowherd, Minister of Christ Church; Salford, Manchester, entitled, "Facts Authentic in Sciences and Religion," is nearly ready for publication. It will consist of two parts in one volume, quarto; containing upwards of 6000 extracts illustrative of scripture, from nearly 1000 different authors, besides Mr CowHerd's own remarks, L. 1, 5s. in boards.
Eminency. The Contemplative and Prac tical Angler, by way of Diversion. With a Narrative of that Dextrous and Myste rious Art Experimented in England, and Perfected in more Remote and Solitary Parts of Scotland. By way of Dialogue. Writ in the year 1658, but not till now made Publick. By Richard Franck, Philanthropus. New edition.
The Works of John Dryden, Illustrated with Notes, Historical, Critical, and Explanatory, and a Life of the Author. By Sir Walter Scott, Bart. Second edition, revised and corrected, 18 vols. 8vo.
Historical Sketches of the Highlands of Scotland; with Military Annals of the Highland Regiments. By David Stewart, Colonel in the Army. Two volumes octa
Northern Memoirs, calculated for the Meridian of Scotland. Wherein most or all of the cities, Citadels, Sea-ports, Castles, Forts, Fortresses, Rivers and Rivulets, are Compendiously described. Together with Choice Collections of Various Discoveries, Remarkable Observations, Theological Notions, Political Axioms, National Intrigues, Polemic Inferences, Contemplations, Speculations, and several Curious and Industrious Inspections; lineally drawn from Antiquaries, and other Noted and Intelligible Persons of Honour and
The leading object of this work is to trace the effects of climate and situation, of ancient manners and superstitions, and of peculiar habits and institutions, in form ing the military character of the Highlanders. But the principal attraction of this work will be found to consist in the History of their Martial Achievements, in which a great mass of original information has been accumulated, and many interesting facts and details been recorded from the author's personal observation and experience. Interspersed through the work, will also be found many curious anecdotes illustrative of the Highland character; particularly of their heroic and chivalrous devotion to the Jacobite cause.
Rome in the Nineteenth Century, containing a Complete Account of the Ruins of the Ancient City.the Remains of the Middle Ages, and the Monuments of Modern Times; with Remarks on the Fine Arts, on the State of Society, and on the Religious Ceremonies, Manners, and Customs of the Modern Romans,-in a Series of Letters, written during a residence at Rome in the Years 1817 and 1818. Three volumes octavo.
Mr Dymock, Glasgow, is engaged in a Work on Grecian and Roman Litera