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percolation through the porous parts of the moraine, and not by a stream overflowing that barrier. Such a glacier-lake Dr. Hooker actually found in existence near the head of the Yangma valley in the Himalaya. It'was moreover partially bounded by recently formed marginal terraces or parallel roads, implying changes of level in the barrier of ice and moraine matter.*

It has been sometimes objected to the hypothesis of glacierlakes, as applied to the case of Glen Roy, that the shelves must have taken a very long period for their formation. Such a lapse of time, it is said, might be consistent with the theory of pauses or stationary periods in the rise of the land during an intermittent upward movement, but it is hardly compatible with the idea of so precarious and fluctuating a barrier as a mass of ice. But the reader will have seen that the permanency of level in such glacier-lakes has no necessary connection with minor changes in the height of the supposed dam of ice. If a glacier descending from higher mountains through a tributary glen enters the main valley in which there happens to be no glacier, the river is arrested in its course and a lake is formed. The dam may be constantly repaired and may vary in height several hundreds of feet without affecting the level of the lake, so long as the surplus waters escape over a "col' or parting ridge of rock. The height at which the waters remain stationary is determined solely by the elevation of the col,' and not by the barrier of ice, provided the barrier is higher than the col.'

But if we embrace the theory of glacier-lakes, we must be prepared to assume not only that the sea had nothing to do with the original formation of the parallel roads, but that it has never, since the disappearance of the lakes, risen in any one of the glens up to the level of the lowest shelf, which

* Hooker, Himalaya Journal, vol.i. p. 242 ; ii. pp. 119, 121, 166. I have

also profited by the author's personal explanations.

CHAP. XII.

PARALLEL ROADS OF GLEN ROY.

263

is about 850 feet high; for in that case the remarkable persistency and integrity of the roads and deltas, before described, must have been impaired.

We have seen (p. 244) that fifty miles to the south of Lochaber, the glacier formations of Lanarkshire with marine shells of arctic character have been traced to the height of 524 feet. About fifty miles to the south-east in Perthshire are those stratified clays and sands, near Killiecrankie, which were once supposed to be of submarine origin, and which in that case would imply the former submergence of what is now dry land to the extent of 1,550 feet, or several hundred feet beyond the highest of the parallel roads. Even granting that these laminated drifts may have had a different origin, as above suggested (p. 246), there are still many facts connected with the distribution of erratics and the striation of rocks in Scotland which are not easily accounted for without supposing the country to have sunk, since the era of continental ice, to a greater depth than 525 feet, the highest point to which marine shells have yet been traced.

After what was said of the pressure and abrading power of a general crust of ice, like that now covering Greenland, it is almost superfluous to say that the parallel roads must have been of later date than such a state of things, for every trace of them must have been obliterated by the movement of such a mass of ice. It is no less clear, that as no glacier-lakes can now exist in Greenland, so there could have been none in Scotland, when the mountains were covered with one great crust of ice. It may, however, be contended, that the parallel roads were produced when the general crust of ice first gave place to a period of separate glaciers, and that no period of deep submergence ever intervened in Lochaber after the time of the lakes. Even in that case, however, it is difficult not to suppose that the Glen Roy country participated in the downward movement which sank part of Lanarkshire 525

feet beneath the sea, subsequently to the first great glaciation of Scotland (p. 244). Yet that amount of subsidence might have occurred, and even a more considerable one, without causing the sea to rise to the level of the lowest shelf, or to a height of 850 feet above the present sea-level.

This is a question on which I am not prepared at present to offer a decided opinion.

Whether the horizontality of the shelves or terrace-lines is really as perfect as has been generally assumed, is a point which will require to be tested by a more accurate trigonometrical survey than has yet been made. The preservation of precisely the same level in the lowest line throughout the Glens of Roy, Spean and Laggan, for a distance of twenty miles east and west, and ten or twelve miles north and south, would be very wonderful if ascertained with mathematical precision. Mr. Jamieson, after making in 1862 several measurements with a spirit-level, has been led to suspect a rise in the lowest shelf of one foot in a mile in a direction from west to east, or from the mouth of Glen Roy to a point six miles east of it in Glen Spean. To confirm such observations, and to determine whether a similar rate of rise continues eastward as far as the pass of Muckul, would be most important.

On the whole, I conclude that the Glen Roy terrace-lines and those of some neighbouring valleys, were formed on the borders of glacier-lakes, in times long subsequent to the principal glaciation of Scotland. They may perhaps have been nearly as late, especially the lowest of the shelves, as that portion of the post-pliocene period in which Man coexisted in Europe with the mammoth.

CHAP. XIV.

EXTINCT GLACIERS IN WALES.

265

CHAPTER XIV.

CHRONOLOGICAL RELATIONS OF THE GLACIAL PERIOD AND THE EARLIEST SIGNS OF MAN'S APPEARANCE IN EUROPE,

Continued.

SIGNS OF EXTINCT GLACIERS IN WALES – GREAT SUBMERGENCE OF
WALES DURING THE GLACIAL PERIOD PROVED BY MARINE SHELLS
- STILL GREATER DEPRESSION INFERRED FROM STRATIFIED DRIFT
--SCARCITY OF ORGANIC REMAINS IN GLACIAL FORMATIONS -- SIGNS OF
EXTINCT GLACIERS IN ENGLAND – ICE ACTION IN IRELAND — MAPS
ILLUSTRATING SUCCESSIVE REVOLUTIONS IN PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
DURING THE POST-PLIOCENE PERIOD - SOUTHERNMOST EX
ERRATICS IN ENGLAND — SUCCESSIVE PERIODS OF JUNCTION AND SEPA-
RATION OF ENGLAND, IRELAND, AND THE CONTINENT — TIME REQUIRED
FOR THESE CHANGES ---- PROBABLE CAUSES OF THE UPHEAVAL AND
SUBSIDENCE OF THE EARTH'S CRUST — ANTIQUITY OF MAN CONSIDERED
IN RELATION TO THE AGE OF THE EXISTING FAUNA AND FLORA.

Extinct Glaciers in Wales. MHE considerable amount of vertical movement in opposite

1 directions, which was suggested in the last chapter, as affording the most probable explanation of the position of some of the stratified and fossiliferous drifts of Scotland, formed since the commencement of the glacial period, will appear less startling, if it can be shown that independent observations lead us to infer that a geographical revolution of still greater magnitude accompanied the successive phases of glaciation through which the Welsh mountains have passed.

That Wales was once an independent centre of the dispersion of erratic blocks, has long been acknowledged. Dr. Buckland published in 1842 his reasons for believing that the Snowdonian mountains in Caernarvonshire were formerly

covered with glaciers, which radiated from the central heights through the seven principal valleys of that chain, where striæ and flutings are seen on the polished rocks directed towards as many different points of the compass. He also described the “moraines' of the ancient glaciers, and the rounded masses of polished rock, called in Switzerland “roches moutonnées.' His views respecting the old extinct glaciers of North Wales were subsequently confirmed by Mr. Darwin, who attributed the transport of many of the larger erratic blocks to floating ice. Much of the Welsh glacial drift had already been shown by Mr. Trimmer to have had a submarine origin, and Mr. Darwin maintained that when the land rose again to nearly its present height, glaciers filled the valleys, and “swept them clean of all the rubbish left by the

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Professor Ramsay, in a paper read to the Geological Society in 1851, and in a later work on the glaciation of North Wales, described three successive glacial periods, during the first of which the land was much higher than it now is, and the quantity of ice excessive; secondly, a period of submergence when the land was 2,300 feet lower than at present, and when the higher mountain tops only stood out of the sea as a cluster of low islands, which nevertheless were covered with snow; and lastly, a third period when the marine boulder drift formed in the middle period was ploughed out of the larger valleys by a second set of glaciers, smaller than those of the first period. This last stage of glaciation may have coincided with that of the parallel roads of Glen Roy, spoken of in the last chapter. In Wales it was certainly preceded by submergence, and the rocks had been exposed to glacial polishing and friction before they sank.

Fortunately the evidence of the sojourn of the Welsh

* Philosophical Magazine, ser. 3, vol. xxi. p. 180.

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