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I sent these lines by Ibrahim Chehreh. Between noon-day and afternoon prayers, the party got drunk, and began to be guilty of follies.. While they were in this state of intoxication, I made myself be carried out in my Takht-rewan.1 For several days before this I had drank the wine mixture, but afterwards, in consequence of its doing me no service, I had given up using it. Towards the close of my illness, I made a party to the south-west of Talerikhmiti,2 under an apple tree, when we drank the medicated wine.

On Friday the 12th, Ahmed Beg and Sultan Muhammed Duldai, who had been June 10. left in Bajour to assist in the defence of the country, rejoined me.

On Wednesday, the 17th of the month, Tengri Berdi, with some Begsand young June is. officers, gave a party in Haider Taki's garden. I too went to the party, and drank wine. After bed-time prayers, we rose, left the place, and sat down to drink together in the Grand Public Tents.''

On Thursday, the 25th of the month, Mulla Mahmud was appointed to read the June 23. Fika-e-Syfi.4

On Tuesday, the last day of the month, Abu Muslim Gokultash arrived from Shah June 28. Shujaa Arghun,5 as ambassador. He brought a Tipchak horse as a peshkesh. This same day Yusef Ali Rikabdar having swam across the water-plot of the Bagh-e-Chenar a hundred times, received a dress of honour and a saddled horse as a present.

On Wednesday, the 8th of Rejeb, I went to Shah Hassan's house, where we had a July 6. drinking party. Many of my nobles and courtiers were present.

On Saturday the 11th, there was a party between afternoon and evening prayers. July 9. We went out to the terrace of the Pigeon-house, and sat down to our wine. When it was rather late, some horsemen were observed coming along the Deh-Afghanan road, proceeding to the city. I ascertained that they were Derwish Muhammed Sarban and his people, who were coming on an embassy from Mirza Khan; we sent for him up to the terrace. "Put aside the form and state of an ambassador," said I, "and sit down and join us without ceremony." Derwish Muhammed accordingly came, and, having placed before me a few articles of the presents which he had brought, sat down beside us. At that time he was strict in his deportment, and did not drink wine. We, however, got extremely drunk. Next morning, when I was sitting in the hall of audience, he came with all due state and ceremony, and having been introduced, presented the tributary offerings which Mirza Khan had sent.

Last year, with extreme difficulty, and by unceasing exertions and management, all the natives in the neighbouring tracts, along with the Aimaks, had been moved and brought down into Kabul. Kabul is but a small country. It has not sufficient room for the range of their flocks of sheep and brood-mares, and the Aimaks and Turks have not there any proper situations for their Summer and winter residences. The tribes who inhabit the desert and wilds, if they have their own will,- never will settle in Kabul. Through Kasim Beg, they begged leave to pass into another country. Ka

1 A sort of litter, generally carried between two mules. 2 Talar-chemiti.—Turki. 3 Khaneh Sefid.

4 Sacred extracts from the Koran, which were to operate as a charm for his recovery.

5 Generally called Shah Beg.

A. D. 1519. sim Beg pleaded hard for them, and at last procured leave for the Aimaks to go over to Kundez and Baghlan.

Hafez Mir Katib's elder brother had come from Samarkand. I now gave him leave to return. I sent by him my Diwan for Polad Sultan, and on the back of it I wrote the following verses :—

(Persian) —O Zephyr, if thou enter the sanctuary of that cypress,

Remind him of this heart-hroken victim of separation—

The object of my love thinks not of Baber; yet I cherish a hope

That God will pour pity into his iron heart—(or Polad's' heart). ,

u y On Friday, the 17th of the month, Muhammed Zeman Mirza brought an offering,

and a horse, as tribute from Shah Mazid Gokultash, and was introduced to me.

The same day, having arrayed Abu Muslem Gokultash, the ambassador of Shah Beg, in a dress of honour, and given him some presents, I gave him his audience of leave. N

The same day, I also gave an audience of leave to Khwajeh Muhammed Ali and Tengri Berdi, who held the countries of Khost and Anderab.2 July 21. Qn Thursday the 23d, Muhammed Ali Jeng-Jeng, whom I had left in the neigh

bourhood of Kacheh-kot and Karluk,3 districts which I had placed under his control, came to me, accompanied by Mirza Milvi Karluk's son, Shah Hussein, and by some of Haiti's people.

This same day, Mulla Ali Jan, who had gone to Samarkand to bring his family, having returned, waited on me. h^bdai ^e Abdal-Rahman Afghans had settled themselves within the limits of Gerdez, Rahman and did not pay their taxes nor demean themselves peaceably. They molested the g an"' caravans both in coming and going. In order to chastise these Afghans, and beat up July 27- their quarters, on Wednesday, the 29th of Rejeb, I set out on an expedition against them. We halted and took some food in the neighbourhood of Teng-Waghehan ; and again set out after noonday prayers. That night we lost our road, and wandered a great deal to the south-east of Panjab Shekhneh,4 among hillocks and waste grounds. After a time we again found the road, passed the Kotal (hill-defile) of Cheshmeh-eJuly 28. Pureh, and about the time of morning prayers, reached the plain, (descending to it by the valley of Yakishlik, on the side of Gerdez,) and sent out our plundering parties to scour the country. One detachment went out to plunder the country, and beat up the enemy's quarters on the side of the hill of Kirmas,5 which lies south-east of Gerdez. I sent Khosrou Mirza Kuli and Syed Ali, with a division under their command, from the right of the centre, to follow and support this body. A considerable party of troops proceeded on a plundering excursion up the Julga (or Dale), to the east of Gerdez,

1 I'olud means steel; whence the play on the words, and the epigrammatic turn of these lines.

2 Khost and Anderab lie west of fiadakhshau.

3 Beyond the Sind. Kacheh-kot seems to be Church.

4 The Persian has Patkhat-Shekhneh.

4 The Turki also reads Keryds and Kismush. On the Kurrum there is a village called Kerman. Perhaps the hill-country at the sources of the Kurrum may be meant, the whole country watered by that river being sometimes called Kurman.

Syed Kasim Ishek-agha,1 Mir Shah Kochin Kiam, and Hindu Beg, Kutluk Kedcm,
Hussain, and their followers, were sent to support this second detachment.

As the party that went up the Dale was the most considerable, after seeing them pass, I followed them. The inhabitants were a great way up, so that the troops which went to find them out tired their horses, and did not get the slightest thing worth mentioning. Forty or fifty Afghans came in sight on the plain. The party that had been sent to follow and support the troops rode up towards them, and sent a horseman to hasten my advance. I immediately rode briskly forward, but before I could come up, Hussain Hassan, without motive or reason, had spurred on his horse into the midst of the Afghans, and while he was laying about him with his sword, his horse, being wounded with an arrow, threw him. He had no sooner risen, than they wounded him in the leg with a sword, threw him down again, dispatched him with their hangers and swords, and cut him in pieces. The Amirs stopped short, and stood looking on, but gave him no assistance. On getting information of this, I ordered Gedai Taghai, Payendeh Muhammed Kiplan, Abul Hassan Korchi, Momin Utkeh, with my immediate followers, and some chosen troops, to gallop on at full speed. I myself followed them at a quick pace. First of all, Momin Atkeh, on getting into action, struck down an Afghan with a spear, and cut off his head, which he brought away. Abdal Hassan Korchi had not arrayed himself in his mail, but he advanced bravely, posted himself in the road by which the Afghans were marching, charged among them full speed on horseback, brought down an Afghan with his sabre, and cut off his head, which he brought in as a trophy. He himself received three wounds, and his horse was also wounded in one place. Payendeh Muhammed Kiplan also advanced very gallantly, attacked and wounded an Afghan, sword in hand, made him prisoner, and brought in his head. Though the courage of Abul Hassan and Payendeh Muhammed Kiplan had been distinguished on former occasions, yet in this affair they gave still more conspicuous proofs of their gallantry. These forty or fifty Afghans were all shot or cut down to a man. After slaying the Afghans, we halted in a cultivated field, and I directed a tower of skulls to be made of their heads. By the time I reached the road, the Begs who had been with Hussain came up. Being very angry, and resolved to make an example of them, I said,—" As you, though so many in number, have stood by and seen a young man of such distinction and merit killed by a few Afghans on foot, and on plain ground, I deprive you of your rank and station, take from you your commands and governments, direct your beards to be shaven, and that you be led ignominiously round the streets of the town, that no man may henceforward give up a youth of such worth to socontemptible an enemy. On level ground you stood looking on, and never lifted an arm. Be this your punishment." That detachment of the army which had gone towards Kirmas brought in some sheep and plunder. Baba Kishkeh, who was a very resolute man, while an Afghan was in the act of lifting his sword, and rushing on to come to close quarters with him, stood his ground without flinching, applied his arrow to the string with the greatest coolness, hit the Afghan, and brought him down.

Next morning we set out on our return towards Kabul. I ordered Muhammed July N.

1 The Chamberlain.

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July 31.
August 2.

A.D. 1519. Bakhsh, Abdal Aziz Mir Akhur,1 and Mir Khurd- Bekawel,2 to remain at Cheshmehpureh, and take some Gherghawels.3 I myself, with a small body, went by the way of Meidan-e-Rustam, as I had never seen that road. The Meidan-e-Rustam lies in the heart of a hill country, towards the top of the hills. The place is not remarkable for beauty. In the middle of a hill is an open Julga, or Dale. To the south, on the skirts of an eminence, is a small fountain of water. It is surrounded with extremely large trees. Along the road leading from Gerdez to this Meidan-e-Riistam there are springs. They also have many trees about them, but these trees are not so lofty as the former. Although the Julga is rather narrow, yet below these last mentioned trees the valley is extremely verdant, and it is a most beautiful little Dale. On reaching the top of the hill which rises to the south of Meidan-e-Rustam, the hill country of Kermas and the hill country of Bangash appear under our feet. As the rains do not reach that tract of ground, there is never a cloud seen on it. About noon-day prayers I reached Hiili, and halted.

Next morning, I halted at the village of Muhammed Aka, and, indulging myself with a maajun, made them throw into the water the liquor used for iutoxicating fishes, and caught a few fish.

On Sunday, the third of Shaban, I arrived in Kabul.

On Tuesday, the 5th of the month, I inquired into the conduct of Derwish Muhammed Fazli, and the servants of Khosrou, regarding the surrender of Nilab, and it appearing clearly in the course of the examinations that they had behaved ill, I degraded them from their rank and employments. About noon-day prayers, there was a drinking party under a plane tree. I bestowed a dress of honour on Baba Kishkeh Moghul.

On Friday, the 8th, Kepek, who had been sent to Mirza Khan, returned back.

On Thursday, we mounted, in order to ride round and visit the Damenkoh (or skirts of the hill-country) of Khwajeh Seyaran and Bar an. About bed-time prayers, we August 12. alighted at Mama Khatun. Next morning, we went as far as Istalif, where we halted. That day I took a maajun.

On Saturday, we had a drinking party at Istalif.

Next morning we left Istalif, and passed through the Sunjid Dereh. When we had nearly reached Khwajeh Seyaran, they killed a large serpent, which was as thick as the arm, and as long as a man. Out of this large serpent crept a thinner one, which had apparently been caught and swallowed immediately before. All its parts were quite uninjured and sound. The thin serpent might be somewhat shorter than the thick one. Out of the thin serpent came a large rat, which likewise was perfectly sound; no limb of it was injured. On reaching Khwajeh Seyaran, we had a drinking party.

I wrote letters, which I sent by the hand of Kichkeneh Tunketar to the Amirs beyond the hills, desiring them to assemble the force4 of the country, mentioning that

August 5.
August 11

August 13.
August 14.

1 Master of Horse. * Taster.

3 A bird resembling the great partridge, or the pheasant.

* Biljar, or perhaps rather Iljar, the military force of the country of Kabul being still called Iljari.

the army was in the field, and about to make an inroad; that they must therefore array themselves and join the camp.

Next morning I mounted, and took a maajun. We threw into the river Perwan, August 15. where it meets the road, some of the drug which is used by the inhabitants of the country to intoxicate the fishes, and took a very great quantity of fish. Mir Shah Beg presented me with a horse, and gave us a dinner. From thence we went on to Gulbehar. After bed-time prayers we had a drinking party. Derwish Muhammed Sarban was present at these parties. Though young, and a soldier, yet he never indulged in wine. He always rigidly abstained from it. Kutluk Khwajeh Gokultash had for a long time renounced the profession of arms, and become a Derwish. He was very aged, and his beard had become white, but he always joined us at our wine in these jovial drinking parties. "Does not the hoary beard of Kutluk Khwajeh make you ashamed?" said I to Muhammed Derwish; " Old as he is, and white as is his beard, he always drinks wine. You, a soldier, young, with a black beard* and never drink! What sense is there in this?" It never was my custom, as I did not think it polite, to press anybody to drink who did not wish ; so that this passed as a mere pleasantry, and he was not induced to take wine.

Next morning we had a morning cup. August 16.

On Wednesday, we left Gulbehar, and came to the village of Alun, where we dined, August 17. and then went on to Baghat Khan, where we halted. After noon-day prayers we had a drinking party.

Next morning, we set out again on our progress, and after having visited and cir- August l«. cumambulated the tomb of Khwajeh Khan Said, embarked in a raft at Chineh Kurghaneh. At the conflux of the river Penjhir, where the hill juts out, the raft struck on a rock, and began to sink. When the raft struck, the shock was so violent, that Rukh-dem, Tengri Kuli, and Mr Muhammed Jaleban, were tossed into the river. Rukh-dem and Tengri Kuli were dragged again into the raft with much difficulty. A china cup with a spoon and cymbal fell overboard. Putting off from thence, as we Teached a place opposite to Seng-e-Burideh (the cut-rock), the raft again struck on something in the midst of the stream, I know not whether the branch of a tree, or a stake, which had been driven in for making a stop-water. Shah Hassan Shah Beg went over on his back. While falling, he laid hold of Mirza Kuli Gokultash, and drew him in along with him. Derwish Muhammed Sarban likewise tumbled into the water. Mirza Kuli Gokultash fell in an odd way. He had in his hand a knife for cutting melons, which, while in the act of falling, he struck into the mat that was spread over the raft, and fell overboard. Not being able to regain the raft, he kept swimming in his gown and dress of honour, till he reached the shore. On disembarking from the raft, we passed that night in the raftsmen's houses. Derwish Muhammed made me a present of a cup of seven colours, like that which had fallen overboard.

On Friday, we left the banks of the river. We halted on the skirt of a small hill August 19. situated lower down than Koh-Barik, where I plucked a number of toothpicks with my own hand. About noon-day prayers, we halted in Kutluk Khwajeh's village,' in a

1 Tiul is a jaghir or estate.

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