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goes to West Indies, 1779,
100; fails to recover Santa
Lucia, 102-104; captures
Grenada, 105; action with
Byron, 106-112; fails in at-
tempt to retake Savannah,
115; returns to Europe with
ships of his original command,
115; sent to Cadiz, in 1780,
to bring back to Brest French
contingent of Allied Fleet, 158.
De Grasse, Comte, French Admiral,
exercises the decisive effect
in obtaining American Inde-
pendence, 4; sails to take
chief command in America,

1781, 162; action with Hood
off Martinique, 163-165; Che-
valier's comment on conduct
of, 166; abortive attempt
against Santa Lucia, 167;
capture of Tobago by, 168;
goes to Cap Francois, 168,
176, and there prepares for
expedition against Cornwallis,
178; on this occasion shows
energy and foresight unusual
to him, 178; anchors in
Chesapeake Bay, 178; ac-
tion with Graves, 179-184;
regains Chesapeake, 184; re-
turns to West Indies after
Cornwallis's surrender, 185;
expedition against St. Kitts,

1782, 197-205; outgeneralled
by Hood, 201, 204, 205; St.
Kitts surrenders to, 205;
Hood escapes from, 205; re-
turns to Martinique, 206;
expedition against Jamaica,
plan of, 206; puts to sea,
207; transactions from April
8 to April 12, 207-212; de-
feated in great battle of
April 12, 213-221, and cap-
tured with flagship, 221;
professional character of, illus-
trated, 166, 178, 184, 198,
205, 207, 209, 214, 215, 216.

De Guichen, Comte de, succeeds
d'Estaing in North American
command, 1780, 115, 130;
biographical summary of, 115
(note); project of against
Barbados, 130; frustrated

by Rodney, 130; action of
April 17, with Rodney, 130-
135; orders of French Gov-
ernment to, 141; consequent
conduct of, 141-145; actions
with Rodney, May 15, 142,
and May 19, 144; broken
down by responsibility, 145;
under orders, accompanies
Spanish squadron to Cap
Francois, 147; there refuses
to cooperate with Americans,
147; returns to Europe, 148;
commands French contingent
to Allied Fleet under de Cor-
dova, 1781, 188; advises
attack upon British Fleet
in Tor Bay, 189; loses great
part of West India military
convoy entrusted to his charge,
196.

De Langara, Spanish Admiral, squad-
ron under command of, de-
feated, and himself captured
by Rodney, 122, 123; in-
efficiency of, 125.

D'Orves, Comte, French Admiral,
commands in East Indies,
1781, 235, 236; joined by
Suffren, 239; sails for Coro-
mandel Coast, 240; dies, and
succeeded by Suffren, 240.

D'Orvilliers, Comte, French Admiral,
commander-in-chief of Brest
Fleet, 1778, 82; puts to sea,
82; Government instructions
to, 83; encounter with Brit-
ish Fleet under Keppel, 83;
manoeuvres of, and action of
July 27, 83-91; comment
upon, 92, 97; summer cruise
of, 1779, 116-120; hampered
by instructions, 119; re-
turns to Brest unsuccessful,
120.

De Suffren, Bailli, French Captain
and Admiral, with d'Estaing
in Narragansett Bay, 1778,
69; in the action with Byron
off Grenada, 111; his comment
upon d'Estaing's conduct,
111; biographical summary
of, 111 (note); sails for East
Indies, 1781, 163, 236; effect
upon operations of, in India,
by capture of a French con-
voy in Bay of Biscay, 228;
attacks British squadron in
Porto Praya, 236-238; saves
Cape of Good Hope, 238;
arrives He de France, 239;
succeeds to chief command in
East Indies, 240; five battles
with British squadron, 240,
242, 244, 247, 253; captures
Trincomalee, 1782, 247; re-
lieves Cuddalore, 252-254;
estimate of, 254, 255.

De Ternay, French Commodore,
commands squadron with con-
voy, from Brest for Newport,
R. I., 155; action with Brit-
ish squadron under Corn-
wallis, 1780, 155-157; com-
ment, favorable and unfavor-
able, 156; death of, 1781,
and succeeded by des
Touches, 170.

Des Touches, French Commodore,
succeeds de Ternay in com-
mand at Newport, 1781, 170;
sails to enter Chesapeake
Bay, to check British opera-
tions in Virginia, 170; pur-
sued by Arbuthnot, 171;
action between the two squad-
rons, 171-173; gains tactical
advantage, but leaves the field
to the British, 174; justified
by de Barras, who arrives
and supersedes him, 174.

De Vaudreuil, Marquis, French
Admiral, second to de Grasse
in 1782, 209; commands-in-
chief partial attack on Hood's
division, 209; quoted, 214;
succeeds to chief command
upon de Grasse's surrender,
222; condition of his com-
mand after the battle, 223;
pursued by Rodney, but
reaches Cap Francois, 225.

Doggers Bank, Battle of the, 1781,
189-194.

Dominica, British West India Island,
captured by French, 1778, 99;
battle of, 208, 209, 210, 213,
215.

Douglas, Sir Charles, British naval
captain, commands squadron

which relieves Quebec, 1776,
10; quoted, 11, 14, 17, 18,
22, 25, 26; energetic prepara-
tions by, to regain control
of Lake Champlain, 15-17;
force created by, 17; made
a baronet for his services at
this time, 26; captain of the
fleet to Rodney, 1782, 222;
opinion as to Rodney's con-
duct cited, 222.

Farragut, at Mobile, cited in illus-
tration, 66 (note).

Fighting Instructions, Additional,
point in, bearing upon the
failure of Rodney's plan of
attack, April 17, 1780, 133,
138, 139 (and note).

"Fleet in Being," 73, 174; how
regarded, apparently, by
D'Orvilliers in 1779, 119.

France, intervention of France in
the American quarrel deter-
mined by Burgoyne's defeat,
and leads to Spanish inter-
vention, 3, 58, 116; vacil-
lating naval instructions of
Government of, 83, 118, 119,
141, 154; divergence of views
between Spain and, 120, 121,
147, 158, 186, 188, 189.

France, He de (now Mauritius),
French naval station in Indian
Ocean, 126, 234, 236, 239.

Gardiner's Bay, east end of Long
Island, station of British
fleet under Arbuthnot, watch-
ing French at Newport, 151,
170.

Gates, Horatio, American General,
defeated by Cornwallis at
Camden, 152.

George, Lake, a link in consecutive
water communications from
New York to Canada, 7, 61.

Gibraltar, d'Estaing ordered to
commence hostilities when
forty leagues west of, 59;
capture of, a leading object
with Spanish Government,
120; this desire affects the
major operations of Allies
throughout the war, 121, 186:
blockade of, by land and sea,
121; Rodney's relief of, 1780,
121-126, 157; Darby's relief
of, 1781, 186, 188; Howe's
relief of, 1782, 229-233.

Glossary, of technical terms used
in this book, 257.

Grant, James, British General, share
of in capture of Santa Lucia,
102-104.

Graves, Sir Thomas, British Admiral,
brings reinforcement of vessels
to New York, 151; relieves
Arbuthnot in command of
North American Station, 1781,
176; difficulties of, owing to
interception of communica-
tions, 177; joined by Hood
off New York, 177; sails for
the relief of Cornwallis, 178;
action of, with French fleet
under de Grasse, 179-184;
conduct of, criticized by Hood,
181, 182, 184; returns to
New York, 184; relieves
Sir Peter Parker in Jamaica
command, 185.

Great Britain, feeble hold of, upon
Canada, 1775, 10; shown by
rewards for saving the colony,
26; inadequate provision of
force by, 1774-1776, 29, 30,
59, 62, 79, 82, 99, 112, 116,
117, 120, 127, 148, 189, 193,
226; improper dispersion of
effort by, 30, 31, 48, 52, 56,
62, 63, 72, 113-115, 151-153,
175; distrust of Government
of, among naval officers, 79,
81, 93, 95, 97, 99, 135, 146,
157, 158, 193; alarm in,
produced by Allied fleets in
Channel, 1779, 117; declares
war against Holland, 1780,158.

Grenada, British West India Island,
captured by French, 105;
naval battle off, 105-112.

Haiti, French West India Island,
147, 148, 168 (see "Cap
Francois"); squadron action
off north coast of, 153-155.

Hardy, Sir Charles, British Admiral,
commands Channel Fleet, 117,
119.

Holland, brought into War of Ameri-
can Independence by con-
curring in Armed Neutrality
of Baltic Powers, 1780, 3, 158,
236; colonial possessions of,
3, 158, 160-162, 236, 240,
246; St. Eustatius, St. Mar-
tin, and Saba, West India
Islands of, taken by Rodney,
160-162; battle of Doggers
Bank, 189-193; fleet of, held
in check by Howe, 1782, 228;
Cape of Good Hope menaced
by British, saved by Suffren,
236-238; Trincomalee, in
Ceylon, taken by British,
240, recaptured by Suffren,
247.

Hood, Sir Samuel (afterwards Lord),
British Admiral, arrives in
West Indies, 1781, with re-
inforcements for Rodney, 160;
sent to cruise off Martinique,
to intercept de Grasse, 162;
action between, and de
Grasse, 163-167; exceptional
ability of, 166, 184; French
tribute to, 167; sent by Rod-
ney with fourteen ships-of-the-
line to reinforce North Ameri-
can station, 176; under com-
mand of Admiral Graves,
sails for Chesapeake, 177;
part of, in action between
Graves and de Grasse, 180-
183; criticisms of, upon
Graves's conduct, 181, 182,
184; returns to West Indies,
185; in chief command there
for two months, 196-205;
brilliant operations of, at
St. Kitts, 197-205; super-
seded by Rodney's return,
205; part of, in action of
April 9, 1782, 208-210; in
battle of April 12, 212-221;
de Grasse's flagship strikes
to, 221; censures passed by,
upon Rodney's course after
the battle, 220, 222, 224, 225;
detached in pursuit, captures
a small French squadron, 224;
returns to England after the
peace, 226.

Hotham, William, British naval

Captain, in operations against
New York, 1776, 42; convoys
reinforcement of troops to
West Indies, 100; left in
West Indies in temporary
command, by Rodney, 148.
Howe, Richard, Earl, British Ad-
miral, appointed to command
North American Station, 1776,
30; invested also with powers
as peace commissioner, 39;
arrives at New York, 39;
failure of peace negotiations,
39; operations at and about
New York, 39, 42-47; trib-
ute of, to force under his
command, 47; accompanies
army expedition to Chesa-
peake Bay, 52; operations
in the Delaware, 53-55, and
coastwise, 56; purpose of
d'Estaing to intercept, in
Delaware, 59; serious ex-
posure of, through inadequate
force, 62, 66; extricates him-
self by rapid movements, 62-
64; preparations to defend
entrance to New York, 65-
68; inferiority of force to
d'Estaing, 66; follows French
Fleet to Narragansett Bay,
70, and by his presence there
induces d'Estaing to abandon
siege of Newport, and put
to sea, 73; manoeuvres of,
with inferior force, 73-75;
fleet of, scattered by gale, 75;
returns to New York, 76,
and again follows French
Fleet to Boston, 77; admir-
able qualities of, as illustrated
in this campaign, 78; fu-
tile contemporary criticism
of, 79; relinquishes command,
and returns to England, 1778,
81; not employed again, un-
til change of Ministry, 1782,
81, 227; appointed to com-
mand Channel Fleet, 1782,
and primary operations there,
227-229; successful evasion
of very superior Franco-Span-
ish Fleet, 229; skilful conduct
of relief of Gibraltar by, 1782,
229-231; engagement with

Allied Fleet, 232; special
qualities of, again illustrated,
232; French eulogy of, 232,
and of force under his com-
mand, 233.
Howe, Sir William (brother of Earl),
British General, failure of to
support Burgoyne, 1777, 28,
51, 52; evacuates Boston,

1776, and retires to Halifax,
29, 30; extent of regions under
his command-in-chief, 30; ap-
pointed peace commissioner,
jointly with Lord Howe, 39;
goes from Halifax to New
York, 39; fruitless peace
negotiations, 39; reduction
of New York by, 42-45;
subsequent operations of, to
Battle of Trenton, 45-49;
constitutional sluggishness of,
45, 47; occupies Narragansett
Bay, 48; injudicious exten-
sion of front of operations, 48;
small results after New York,
49; rewarded with the Order
of the Bath, 49; takes the
greater part of his force to
Chesapeake Bay, 52; effect
of this upon Burgoyne's oper-
ations, 52, 53, 55; occupies
Philadelphia, 53; this suc-
cess worse than fruitless, 56;
relieved in command by Clin-
ton, and returns to England,
56, 63.

Hudson River, a link in the chain
of water communications from
Canada to New York, 7, 30,
45; mentioned, 28, 41, 44,
45, 46, 49, 50, 51, 53; al-
ternative name, North River,
41; Washington retreats
across, into New Jersey, 45;
British advance up valley of,

1777, 55.

Hughes, Sir Edward, British Ad-
miral, commander-in-chief in
East Indies, 1779, 235; enter-
prise of, 235; engagements
with French Fleet under Suf-
fren, 240, 242, 244, 247, 253;
loses Trincomalee, 247, and
compelled thereby to leave
Coromandel coast for Bombay
251; reinforced by Bicker-
ton, 251; contrasted with
Suffren, as a general officer,
254.

Hughes, Sir Richard, succeeds to
West India command at peace
of 1783, 226; subsequent
controversy with Nelson, 226.

Hyder, Ali, Sultan of Mysore, at
war with British, 1779, 235;
French Admiral d'Orves re-
fuses cooperation with, 235;
Suffren acts with, 240, 242;
captures Cuddalore, 1782,
244; death of, 1782, 252;
succeeded by Tippoo Saib,
252.

Inflexible, British cruiser built by
Sir Charles Douglas on Lake
Champlain, 1776, 16; in
herself sufficient to control
the lake, 17.

Jamaica, British West India Island,
38, 110, 149, 153, 159, 176,
177, 185, 224, 226; conquest
of, intended by France and
Spain, 1782, 206; attempt
leads to defeat of de Grasse
by Rodney, 208, 209; Rod-
ney repairs to, after his vic-
tory, 225.

Japan, significance of contrast of
population of, to square mile,
with that of the United States,
5.

Johnstone, George, British Com-
modore, commands squadron
despatched to take Cape of
Good Hope from Dutch, 236;
attacked by Suffren in Porto
Praya Bay, 237; arrives at
Cape too late, Suffren having
strengthened it, 238; returns
to England, 238; profes-
sional capacity of, 239; at-
tacks made by, upon profes-
sional conduct of Howe and
Keppel, 239. (See also p. 80.)

Jones, John Paul, American naval
captain, serves as a volunteer
in French Fleet, 1782, 212.

Kempenfelt, Richard, British Ad-

miral, captures in Bay of
Biscay great part of French
convoy going to West Indies,
1781, 195, 196; commands
a division in Channel Fleet
under Howe, 1782, 227, 228;
lost in sinking of the Royal
George, 229.
Keppel, Augustus, British Admiral,
refuses to serve against Ameri-
cans, 81; commander-in-chief
of Channel Fleet, 1778, 61,
82; encounter with French
Brest Fleet, 83-91; com-
ments on the conduct of,
92, 97; controversy with
Palliser, third in command
under, 95; returns to port
with fleet, 96; court martial
upon, 93; and cited from,
87, 88, 95; resigns command,
97; becomes first Lord of the
Admiralty, 97, 225; quoted,
107 (note).

La Motte Picquet, French Com-
modore, 115; action with a
British division off Marti-
nique, 1779, 128; encounter
with squadron under Corn-
wallis, 1780, 153-155; cap-
tures great part of a British
convoy returning from West
Indies, 1781, 188; quoted,
229 (note).

Leeward Islands Station, extent of,
99; under command of Bar-
rington when war begins, 1778,
99; Byron succeeds to com-
mand, 1779, 105; held tem-
porarily by Hyde Parker,
1779, 113; Rodney takes
command, 1780, 121, 128;
Hood in temporary charge
of, 1782, 177, 185, 196-
205; Rodney relieved by
Pigot, 225.

Les Saintes, small West India Islands,
between Dominica and Guade-
loupe, scene of Rodney's
battle with de Grasse, 209,
211, 213.

Manners, Lord Robert, British naval
captain (killed in the battle

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