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7. He shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, after conviction, except in cases of impeachment, in such manner, on such terms, and under restrictions, as he shall think proper, and he shall have power to remit fines and forfeitures, unless otherwise directed
8. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed in mercy.
9. "He shall have power to prohibit the exportation of provision, for any time not exceeding thirty days.
10. 'He shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be increased or diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected.
11. All officers in the executive department, when required by the Governor, shall give him information, in writing, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.
12. The Governor shall, from time to time, give to the General Assembly information of the condition of the State, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary or expedient.
13. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General Assembly, and, in case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, not beyond the fourth Monday in the month of November then ensuing.
ARTICLE III. Sec. 1. The judicial power shall be vested in such superior and inferior courts of law and equity, as the Legislature shall, from time to time, direct and establish.
The judges of each shall hold their commissions during good behavior; and judges of the superior courts shall, at stated times, receive a compensation for their services, which shall neither bé increased or diminished during their continuance in office: but they shall receive no fees or perquisites of office, nor hold any other office of profit or trust, under this State, the United States, or any other power.
2. The style of all processes shall be, “ the State of South Carolina." All prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the State of South Carolina, and conclude—“against the peace and dignity of the same.”
ARTICLE IV. All persons who shall be chosen or appointed to any office of profit or trust, before entering on the execution thereof, shall take the following oath : "I do swear (or affirm) that I am duly qualified, according to the Constitution of this State, to exercise the office to which I have been appointed, and will to the best of my abilities,
discharge the duties thereof, and preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of this State, and of the United States."
ARTICLE V. Sec. 1. That the House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching; but no impeachment shall be made, unless with the concurrence of two-thirds of the House of Representatives.
2. All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When sitting for that purpose, the Senators shall be on oath or or affirmation: and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
3. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and all the civil officers, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such cases shall not extend further than to a removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit, under this State. The party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.
ARTICLE VI. Sec. 1. The judges of the superior courts, the commissioners of the treasury, Secretary of the State, and Surveyor-General, shall be elected by the joint ballot of both houses, in the House of Representatives. The commissioners of the treasury, Secretary of this State, and Surveyor-General, shall hold their offices for four years : but shall not be eligible again for four years after the expiration of the time for which they shall have been elected.
2. All other officers shall be appointed as they hitherto have been, until otherwise directed by law; but sheriffs shall hold their offices for four years, and not be again eligible for four years after the term for which they shall have been elected.
3. All commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the State of South Carolina, and be sealed with the seal of the State, and be signed by the Governor.
ARTICLE VII. All laws in force in this State at the passing of this Constitution, shall so continue until altered or repealed by the Legislature; except where they are temporary, in which case they shall expire at the times respectively limited for their duration, if not continued by act of the Legislature.
ARTICLE VIII. Sec. 1. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall, forever hereafter, be allowed within this State to all mankind : Provided, that the liberty of conscience thereby declared, shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices incon. sistent with the peace or safety of this State.
2. The rights, privileges, immunities, and estates of both civil and religious societies and of corporated bodies, shall remain as if the Constitution of this State had not been altered or amended.
ARTICLE IX. Sec. 1. All power is originally vested in the people; and all free governments are founded on their authority, and are instituted for their peace, safety, and happiness.
2. No freeman of this State shall be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold. liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land: nor shall any bill of attainder, er post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, ever be passed by the Legislature of this State.
3. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power.
4. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel punishments inflicted.
5. The Legislature shall not grant any title of nobility or hered itary distinction, nor create any office, the appointment to which shall be for any longer time than during good behavior.
6. The trial by jury, as heretofore used in this State, and the liberty of the press, shall be forever inviolably preserved.
Sec. 1. The business of the treasury shall be in future conducted by two treasurers, one of whom shall hold his office and reside in Columbia; and the other shall hold his office and reside in Charleston.
2. The Secretary of State and Surveyor-General shall hold their offices both in Columbia and in Charleston. They shall reside at one place, and their deputies at the other.
3. At the conclusion of the circuits, the judges shall meet and sit at Columbia, for the purpose of hearing and determining all motions which may be made for new trials, and in arrest of judgments, and such points of law as may be submitted to them. From Columbia they shall proceed to Charleston, and there hear and determine all such motions for new trials, and in arrest of judgment, and such points of law as may be submitted to them.
4. The Governor shall always preside, during the sitting of the Legislature, at the place where their sessions may be held, and at all other times, wherever, in his opinion, the public good may require.
5. The Legislature shall, as soon as may be convenient, pass laws for the abolition of the rights of primogenitures, and for giving an equitable distribution of the real estate of intestates.
No convention of the people shall be called, unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of both branches of the whole representation.
No part of this Constitution shall be altered, unless a bill to alter the same shall have been read three times in the House of Representatives, and three times in the Senate, and agreed to by two-thirds of both branches of the whole representation ; neither shall any
alteration take place until the bill so agreed to be published three months previous to a new election for members to the House of Representatives; and if the alteration proposed by the Legislature shall be agreed to in their first session by two-thirds of the whole representation in both branches of the Legislature, after the same shall have been read three times, on three several days in each house, then and not otherwise, the same shall become a part of the Constitution.
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.
Amendments ratified December 17, 1808. The following sections, in amendment of the third, seventh, and ninth sections of the first article of the Constitution of this State, shall be, and they are hereby declared to be, valid parts of the said Constitution, and the said third, seventh, and ninth sections, or such
; parts thereof as are repugnant to such amendments, are hereby repealed and made void.
Sec. 1. The House of Representatives shall consist of one hundred and twenty four members, to be apportioned among the several election districts of the State, according to the number of white inhabitants contained, and the amount of all taxes raised by the Legislature, whether direct or indirect, or of whatever species, paid in each, deducting therefrom all taxes paid on account of property held in any other district, and adding thereto all taxes elsewhere paid on account of property held in such district. An enumeration of the white inhabitants, for this purpose, shall be made in the year one thousand eight hundred and nine, and in the course of every tenth year thereafter, in such manner as shall be by law directed : and representatives shall be assigned to the different districts in the above mentioned proportion, by act of the Legislature, at the session immediately succeeding the above numeration.
2. If the enumeration herein directed should not be made in the course of the year appointed for the purpose by these amendments, it shall be the duty of the Governor to have it effected as soon thereafter as shall be practicable.
3. In assigning representatives to the several districts of the
State, the Legislature shall allow one representative for every sixty-second part of the whole number of white inhabitants in the State; and one representative also for every sixty-second part of the whole taxes raised by the Legislature of the State. The Legislature shall further allow one representative for such fractions of the sixty-second part of the white inhabitants of the State, and of the sixty-second part of the taxes raised by the Legislature of the State, as, when added together, form a unit.
4. In every apportionment of representation under these amendments, which shall take place after the first apportionment, the amount of taxes shall be estimated from the average of the ten preceding years; but the first apportionment shall be founded upon the tax of the preceding year, excluding from the amount thereof the whole produce of the tax on sales at public auction.
5. If, in the apportionment of representatives under these amendments, any election district shall appear not to be entitled, from its population and its taxes, to a representative, such election district shall, nevertheless, send one representative ; and, if there should be still a deficiency of the number of representatives required by these amendments, such deficiency shall be supplied by assigning representatives to those election districts having the largest surplus fractions ; whether those fractions consist of a combination of population and of taxes, or of population or of taxes separately, until the number of one hundred and twenty-four members be provided.
6. No apportionment, under these amendments shall be construed to take effect, in any manner, until the general election which shall succeed such apportionment.
7. The election districts, for members of the House of Representatives, shall be and remain as heretofore established, except Saxe Gotha and Newberry ; in which the boundaries shall be altered, as follows, viz : That part of Lexington in the fork of Broad and Saluda rivers, shall no longer compose a part of the election district of Newberry, but shall be henceforth attached to, and form a part of Saxe Gotha. And, also, except Orange and Barnwell, or Winton, in which the boundaries shall be altered as follows, viz. : That part of Orange in the fork of Edisto shall no longer compose a part of the election district of Barnwell, or Winton, but shall be henceforth attached to, and form a part of, Orange election district.
8. The Senate shall be composed of one member from each election district, as now established for the election of members of the House of Representatives, except the district .formed by the parishes of St. Philip and St. Michael, to which shall be allowed two senators, as heretofore.
9. The seats of those senators who under the Constitution shall represent two or more election districts, on the day preceding the second Monday of October, which will be in the year one thousand eight hundred and ten, shall be vacated on that day, and the new senators who shall represent such districts under these amend