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bit, produced a still more terrible 72 degree of longitude. west from and speedy dissolution. The poi. Paris, or the mountains of Micachissonous principle of the other upas ta of the Sierra Nevada of Merida. tree, or anthiuris to.ricaria, is a bit- The cinchonu ferruginea, C.Vellozii, ter substance, soluble in water and and C. Remijiano of Mr. St. Hialcohol. This bitter substance is laire grow on the table lands of the composed of a colouring matter, of province of Minas-Geraes, at the an acid, and ia particular sub- height of 100 metres, in a temperate stance, which seems to be the ac- climate between 220 and 189 of tive part of the poison, and which Southern latitude. They are rethese chemists suppose to be a ve- garded as certainly indicating the getable alkali. This vegetable al- presence of minerals containing kali has the same effect on the iron wherever they grow. The bitanimal economy as the poison of ter and, astringent bark of those the upas tree, but is much more quinina (Quina da Serra) of the energetic. It differs somewhat mountains of Brazil resembles very in its action from strychnia, the much in its flavour the quinina of former producing convulsions, with Peru and of New Grenada. Their relaxation, and not being so speedy febrifuge qualities are not, howin its destroying 'effects as the lat- ever, so strongly marked as those ter, which seems suddenly to arrest of a still more celebrated tree, the with a single convulsion the whole strychnos pseudoquina, which is found functions of life.

in the diamond districts, in the de

serts of Goyaz, and in the western THE BARK TREE

part of Minas-Geraes. Of all the The following is an extract from a medicinal plants of these vast Reportlately made by the celebrat- countries, the Quina do Campo, or ed traveller, Baron Humboldt,'to the strychnos pseudoquina, is most in use, Academy of Sciences at Paris, on and best kņown. The physicians b a work of Mr. Auguste St. Hilaire, of Brazil give the bark in powder who returned to France not long and in decoction; and it is a beneago, from the Brazils, bringing ficent gift of nature to a region with him 7000 plants, 2000 birds, where intermittent fevers are un16,000 insects, and 130 mammifer- fortunately too frequent. The virous animals. “The discovery," tues of the strychnos pseudoquina, as says the Baron, “ of the true cin- a febrifuge, are found not to be inchona in the eastern part of South ferior to the best species of the America, far from the Cordilleras, cinchong of the Cordilleras; and must strike those who attend to the though the former has not at Bradistribution of vegetables over the zil entirely superseded the use of surface of the globe, and the geo- imported bark, it may one day be logical causes which have influ, exported to Europe in great quanenced it. At present not a single tities. species of cinchona is known to exist, M. Vauquelin has analyzed the not even the exostema, either in the strychnos, and found in it a pecumountains of Silla de Caraccus, liar acid, but neither brucia quinina,

where the befaria, the aralia, and nor any of the poisonous principle 1 the thibandia, and other mountain found in the strychnos nux vomica. plants of New Grenada grow, or in It was before known that strychnos the wooded mountains of Caripe or potatorum was destitute of this deof French Guiana. This total want leterious principle, and that the of the cinchona and exoslema genders pulp of the fruit of the nux vomica on the table land of Mexico, and might be eaten without any danger, on the eastern parts of South Ame. The various parts of a plant do not 1, rica, north of the eqaator, is more all contain the same principles, and surprising, because the Antiles are if in the same family of plants, in not destitute of species of bark the same gender, and in plants of trees. The quining of the Cordils an analogous structure, we do not Jeras does not extend further east find very striking chemical differin the northern hemisphere than the ences, it must be recollected that such anomalies are more apparent content in their hearts. It is well than real; for, according to the known that the same law applies experiments of M. M. Gay Lussac to animals as well as men; and dog and Thenard, on vegetable che- will only eat dog when he is on the mistry, the same elements, with point of starving. A French author, very small variations of proportion, M. Noble, has lately shown that are differently grouped, and pro- the same fact is true of leeches. As duced different combinations, the long as these little water serpents effects of which on the nervous can find the blood of man or beast system may be diametrically op- to suck, they live in great harmony posite,

with one another, go on depositing BATTLES AND LOVES OF their eggs, and propagating their LEECHES.

kind, nine, ten, eleven, and even as MANKIND are more indebted to many as fourteen in a family.the labours of the husbandman When, however, they have exthan they in general confess; for hausted their stock, like the Irish, not only their comforts but their they turn on one another, and, like morality depends on his exertions. capnibals, feed on their own dead. It is found by experience, that hu

Among the causes (says this manity and hunger cannot exist physician) which augment very together; and in spite of the tirades much the mortality of leeches, must of ascetic philosophers against en be placed those battles (of course joyment, it is clear that full bellies they are naval battles, though the are the great source of peace and physician has not described their love and good-will amongst men. Nelson or their Van Tromp,) which it is quite a mistake to suppose they fight when they are too nuthat CANNIBALS eat their brother. merous in the same vessel, or when men out of pure love to human their food is not sufficient; the weakflesh, and a natural delight in est fall, and the others feed on them. cruelty. They only do it as the To obviate this inconvenience, it half-starved Sow is known to feed was found only necessary to place on her young-out of hunger; and them in a large reservoir, supplied wherever they can find somewhat with a stream of fresh water. to satisfy this craving, though it be - When the winter came, like by toils and dangers, amidstquaking Laplanders, they buried themice-bergs, like those of the Esqui selves in the mud ; and when maux, and though their food be the returning warmth of spring only whale blubber, they prefer this brought them forth, they were atto steeping their hands in human tended with a great number of blood. The effect of full bellies in young ones. Holes were found in promoting harmony and tranquil- the sides of the reservoir, and in lity is wonderfully apparent at each of these there was deposited present in this country. We now a cocoon of an oval form, and as and then feel a little puff of reli. Jarge as the cocoons of the silkgious discord, but the fierce spirit worms. They were of the texture of sectarianism is gone to sleep in outside, and had the appearance of the lap of animal indulgence. very fine sponge. Several of them Radicalism and terrorism have were opened; some were found both been choked by cheap bread; empty, and their interior was comand it is plain, if there were plenty pact and polished, as if covered with of potatoes and rags in Ireland, a coat of varnish; others were filled we should hear nothing of either with a transparent and homoge- . Orange or Catholie Associations, neous jelly. In the most advanced, White-boyism, Blue-boyism, and nine, ten, and even fourteen young the other isms and schisms of that leeches were found.”- Bulletin des unhappy land. All have their origin Sciences Technologiques. in the people having incautiously To Correspondents in our next. 25 multiplicd faster than the mur-London: Published by KNIGHT and LAphies; and the emptiness of their CEY, 55, Paternoster-row.-Printed by stomachs is the cause of the dis B. Bensley, Bolt-court, Fleet-street.


PENUH XIX Search, undismayed, the dark profound

FEO Where Nature works in secret; trace the forms

Of atoms, moving with incessant change

Their elemental round; behold the seeds diese Of being, and the energy of life, a

Kindling the mass with ever-active flame;
Then say if naught in these external scenes
Can move thy wonder?

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hiworlar Chemical Apparatus. The Absorb- On Purifying the Air of Apartments 281 vaxing and Productive Cascade .... 274 Chemistry as a Science. Art. XVII. Analysis of Scientific Journals. Au- Bismuth. Mercury .......... 283 nals of Philosophy for July...... ib. Sound has no Velocity ......

285 Dictionary of Chemistry ........... 278 More Poisons .................... 287 To make Ice in the midst of Summer 279 Perkins outdone, or new Inventions ib. Queries

ib. Mr. Tait's Invention disputed...... 288 Extraordinary Engine for propelling Chemical Society ...... Vessels ....

280 To make Fire from Water , 2000. ib. Explosive Engine ......

So 01.11. 17 ib.


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CHEMICAL APPARATUS. considerable period of time, and the ABSORBING AND PRODUCTIVE in a more convenient and less exCASCADE.

pensive manner than by the ordi

nary methods. Thus for example: Description of the Plate.

to prepare chlorine, a large vessel, This is an apparatus invented H, provided with four mouths or and employed by Mr. Clement, a holes, is filled with the 'oxide of mancelebrated French chemist of the ganese broken into large pieces; present day, to promote the ab. ihe mouth, I, is connected with a sorption or solution of gases. It leaden vessel, K, containing comis known that this takes place in mon salt and sulphuric acid. By proportion to the pressure on the ab- the tube, L, a small stream is made sorbing liquid, the extent of surface to flow from the reservoir, M, exposed to the absorbing action, and which gradually moistens the whole to the length of time in which it is surface of the pieces of manganese, exposed. If the pressure, however, and permits the muriatic acid gas is very great, the vessels are apt to to attack and dissolve it very burst, and therefore, in general, the easily. The chlorine which is proobject chemists have had in view duced passes by the tube, N, into has been to strengthen the influence the absorbing cascade, while the of the two other principles we have muriate of manganese is carjust mentioned. Mr. Clement em- ried off as it forms by the water ploys the following means:-AB through the tube, 0, into the reis a long cylinder full of a great servoir, P. By using this appanumber of small glass or porcelain ratus there is no occasion to reduce balls, about one-third of an inch in the manganese to powder, and a diameter. This cylinder is fixed much larger quantity may be opein another of a much greater dia- rated on at the same time, without meter, in which a hole, C, is made the operator being under the necorresponding to the lower extre- cessity of frequently renewing the mity of A B, and with which two charge of materials and dismountsmall tubes, D E, communicate, ing his apparatus. We should one being intended to introduce the suppose that many of our readers gas, the other to empty the liquid. who have chemical operations to From a reservoir, F, a stream of perform, will find Mr. Clement's a water flows by means of the tube, very useful method. G, which is supplied with a stopcock, so that this stream may be ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC regulated at pleasure. The water

JOURNALS. in its descent is detained by all the little balls, which it wets succes. ANNALS OF PHILOSOPHY FOR JULY. sively, and is a considerable time. Great complaints have lately before it reaches the bottom; on been made of the inefficiency and the other hand, as the gas arises it barrenness of scientific journals; occupies all the empty space, is and on this subject a literary pemuch divided and subdivided, riodical thus expresses its opinion: and, as it also is detained in " The existing scientific journals its progress upwards, the time have, it strikes us, many grievous it is in contact with the water defects ; first, men of acknowis very considerable. The author ledged scientific talent rarely conof this invention supposes, that tribute to them, or at least do not it is more than three hundred put forth their strength in the contimes more efficacious in promoting tributions they transmit, Such the absorption of a gas than the persons are no doubt unwilling to ordinary apparatus. This he calls have the fruits of their most prothe absorbing cascade, and to it he found researches presented to the adapts another apparatus, which world mixed up with such a mass he calls the productive cascade. It of crude and frivolous speculation is intended to produce gas for a as we generally find in these jour

nals. Secondly, we think the Annals bears the name of Mr. editors mistake their proper voca- Children, as an additional editor, tion. Their leading object ought we presume that it has been placed to be to give us clear and popular inder a new administration, and accounts of the discoveries made that it has been found necessary at home and abroad, showing, to to put forth greater vigour, or the anlearned as well as the learn, quit the field. If the editors of ed, the effect, application, and true the Mechanics' Magazine and the value of each new truth added to Chemist, have no other gratifica, art or science. Instead of this, we tion, they at least know that their bave the original speculations (of- exertions have compelled other ten the mere sweepings of the editors to set about improvement. study) of fourth and fifth-rate men, The scientific literature of the upon subjects of ninth and tenth country will be benceforth much rate importance, repulsively ab- better, and for this beneficial struse, and forbiddingly technical; change the world will be greatly and, along with these, whole pages, indebted to exertions, which (we rough and round, from “the excel will not stoop to the common, lent work” of A., or B., or C.; place cant of zeal for the public) already in every body's hands, and were made for our own benefit, given without note or comment. We cannot, however, yet compli, The editors ought to know that ment the editors of the Apnals, half a sheet upon a subject easily much as we may be disposed to intelligible, and bearing on the imitate the parliamentary vice of business of life, such as steam na- sacrificing a principle to a flattervigation or gas light, is worth a ing phrase, with having made any volume upon the anatomy of goats* conspicuous improvement in the legs, or the double refraction of a matter of their journal. There is wren's eye. What is merely curious much the same quantity of what should not be excluded, but kept is merely curious, and nearly the in its proper place. Nor is a good same deficiency of what is really idea the worse for being new; but useful. We first meet with still it is better to be useful and A BIOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT OF Ass popular, than to be original and SESSOR JOHN GOTTLIEB GAHN. trashy. Philosophical journals Why Mr. Children, who we conought to be addressed not exclu- jecture is the author of this paper, sively to men of profound science, chooses to prefix Mr. Gahn's title, who are few in number, and will which is unusual in England, not be satisfied with the scraps though very common in Germany they get in such works, but to the and Sweden, we are at a loss to mass of persons whom business discover., What should we think or curiosity interest in scientific, of " Biographical Memoirs of Prepursuits, without having taste or sident of the Royal Society Davy," time for deep researches. Such or“Excise Collector Wordsworth?" journals should be considered as and if these modes of expression the links that connect the learned are strange, why, we ask, does Mr. with the industrious-the strainers Children introduce a similar mode, and digesters through which the because the man was a foreigner truths of philosophy must pass to and had his title prefixed to his fit them for assimilating with the name in his own country? But, system of active and busy life, not to be hypercritical, we shall The success of the Mechanics'Matake from the paper an outline of gazine, the Chemist, and other pe- Gahn's life. . riodicals of that description, shows. J. G. Gahn was one of the most how ample the field of usefulness distinguished chemists of the last is in this department, if our jour. fifty years. He was born on Aug. nalists of a higher class would get 17th, 1745, at Woxna iron works, into the right track.” -Scotsman. . in South Helsingland, and was the As the present Number of the son of Hanns Jacob Gahn, trea.

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