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We were sitting on the bench. In all his woe, he was resigned. The proof was wanting. Hand the lady her scarf. The canto contains about seven hundred lines. We heard the echo from the mountain. He took up his crutch. The monarch imposed a new tax. The brush was put in the safe. The book is on the shelf. The coach will be here immediately. They went out in a fly.

NOUNS HAVING NO PLURAL.

Many nouns have no plural form.

1. Those signifying a collective number or

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justice

moderation

temperance

obedience

vice

prudence

virtue

wisdom

fortitude ⚫knowledge sobriety

3. Concrete nouns, denoting substance or ma

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we can never gain much

These

Bread

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houses are built of

Give him a glass of

Four handkerchiefs at thirty shillings a

made of

three

is better than bread made of

is the passion of noble minds. His age is now years and ten. That man weighs fifteen Thirty and ten

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fence was made of

Of how many

marched. The

of the line

does the fleet consist? There is no excuse for Some locomotive engines will draw more than forty weight.

fields of

is the queen of virtues. We saw several He bore the pain with the greatest

This event occurred three

years ago.

NOUNS HAVING NO SINGULAR.

Many nouns are found only in a plural form;

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Supply the nouns of this form in the vacant spaces.

The

were placed in an urn. This event is

.recorded in the of the empire. Give poor. They took up

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to the

to defend their

country.

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Brighton. The nest is sheltered by the

house. They saved their

caught the

of the

from the fire.

The boy

from his brother.

The

will be

next week.

celebrated

have great influence.

are used for cutting cloth. We hope to hear good of your friend. What is the amount of his

?

IRREGULAR PLURALS.

Plurals in EN.

I. Some few English nouns of Saxon origin form their plurals in en; as, ox, oxen; man, men; woman, women; child, children; sow, sowen (now, swine); cow, cowen (now, kine, but more generally cows).

Strong Plurals.

II. Another, and a still smaller class, form their plurals by a change of the internal vowel of the singular number; such are,-goose, geese; foot, feet; tooth, teeth; mouse, mice.

Double Plurals.

III. A few nouns have two plurals, but used in different senses; as, 1. Pea, peas (individual grains), pease (the species of vegetable); 2. Brother, brothers (sons of the same parents), brethren. (beings of the same community); 3. Die, dies (for coining), dice (for gambling); 4. Penny, pennies (distinct coins), pence (collectively, to express a certain sum).

Uncertain Plurals.

The number of the following nouns is a subject on which grammarians are not agreed:

1. Alms: in Anglo-Saxon was ælmesse, a singular form; the word is now more frequently used in a plural sense.

2. Riches: in old French richesse (this word is also better used in a plural sense).

3. News: sometimes used as a plural noun; better, singular.'

4. Means: plural in form; either singular or plural in meaning (this means, or these means). 5. Pains properly used in a plural sense.

6. Amends: plural in form; singular in sense. 7. Gallows: plural in form; singular in sense.

EXERCISE.

Change the singular forms of the nouns used in the following sentences into their corresponding plurals.

The man drove the ox into the meadow. The woman was milking the cow. The child saw the sow lying in the mud. My tooth aches. The foot of the goose is webbed. The mouse was caught in a trap. He sowed four (peas, or pease?) in his garden. I have three (brethren, or brothers ? ) The police found nine (dies, or dice?) in the coiner's room. Can you give me four (pennies, or pence?) I have not enough money by four (pennies, or pence?) half-penny. The alms (was, or were?) given with a most benevolent intention. Riches is (or are?) desirable; but (it, or they?) (are,

1 The s in the word news is not a plural, but a neuter ending. Compare the German neues.'

or is?) not sufficient for our happiness. The news (were, or was?) received last night. By (these, or this?) means he accomplished his purpose. Great pains (was, or were?) taken with this task. Such amends as he can make (are, or is?) sufficient for the occasion. The gallows (were, or was?) erected for the execution of the prisoner.

Plurals of Compound Nouns.

The following compound nouns form their plurals by adding s to the first part of the compounded word:

1. father-in-law
son-in-law

aid-de-camp

knight-errant

court-martial

cousin-german

The following form their plurals by adding s to the second part of the compounded word:

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How many (son-in-law) has your friend? In the tenth century (knight-errant) were found in all parts of Europe. The general had several (aid-de-camp). Two (court-martial) have been held this year. Where are your (cousin-german)? The (church-warden) did their duty. Give the patient three (spoon-ful) of this medicine. He did not eat more than two (mouth-ful). (Man-trap) are set in these grounds.' How many more (et-cetera) will you add? He repeated ten (AveMaria).

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