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very easy for the gentleman, amid his grapes state of things was worse than before the and walnuts, sipping his wine in his cosy passing of the Bill. dining-room or at his club, to talk of Dun- Of the effect of the Maine Liquor law in kin Bills for his poor neighbour, and vote the State of Maine, I have heard the most away his glass of beer! Is it not class | conflicting testimony. But in the Mail I legislation practically? We commend that read that Mr. Dodds read an extract from Government which restrains its unruly citi- | the Portland (State of Maine) Argus, showzens ; but what are we to think of a Gov- | ing that, since the passage of the Maine ernment, which, not content with moderat- Liquor Law, the population of the State ing the wild passions and keeping then had stood still, while the amount of crime within decent bounds, actually turns on had increased, and the State Prison had every useful and self-controlled member of been enlarged four times in nine years, society, and puts an embargo on his inno- l during which time also no less than twentycent pleasures, robbing him of those small five amendments had been made in the comforts and satisfactions which help to Maine Liquor Law.' break the strain of his, too often, hard and | A short time since a clergyman was cheerless lot. The bow that is bent too far | staying with me, and hearing that some and too constantly, snaps at last ; and opium years before he had been in the State of and other worse stimulants may be had re | Maine for six weeks, I asked him what he course to, if, in our overstrained require knew of the effect of the Maine Liquor law ments, we demand too much. But the there. His reply was, that there was more whole course of human legislation is op- drunkenness there than he had ever witposed to the belief that so harsh and Dra nessed in any village of Canada of the same conian a law could ever, practically, be en population. But fearing that I might have forced-a law more stringent in this parti made a possible mistake, I wrote to him on cular than the requirements of Christianity the subject, and received by post his anitself, and which, though advocated by swer in somewhat stronger terms than those Christians on so-called Christian principles, I have above employed. And he added, if obeyed to the letter, supersedes the very 'there was no difficulty in getting liquor, command of Christ himself. I see that only it was of inferior quality and dearer there are some gentlemen actively engaged than in Canada. . . . . It was sold in neighin promoting this system of interference bouring villages in the same way. This with human liberty, from whose intellects | testimony is unimpeachable. I had hoped for better things; but it is Thus, one after the other, have English astonishing to what an extent the emotions Permissive Bills, Gothenburg systems, Maine often override the judgment.
Liquor Laws, Dunkin Bills all proved failFIDELIS was a strong and ardent supporter ures, because the fundamental principles of of the Dunkin Bill, when proposed in King- morality and of human nature have been ston, where the good sense of the commu utterly ignored and despotically trampled nity (and much else not so good) prevented on. And surely it must strike the Chrisits adoption. But can any place be tian advocates of prohibitory laws as singufound in which it has proved a plain, une lar and stumbling, that, throughout the quivocal success. I have not heard of any. whole course of the Dispensations, neither One man did say to me that he thought it had | Patriarchs, nor Lawgivers, nor Prophets, done good in a certain neighbourhood. This nor Apostles, nor the Founder of their is the sole testimony I have had in its fa Faith, ever dreamt of such a system-a vour; though I have heard and read much system which is wholly subversive of our which told terribly against it. But in the simplest ideas of the principles on which incorporated village of Portsmouth, near they acted and by which they were actuated, which I reside, I made it my business and that one of their greatest difficulties to ascertain how it worked, and the uni- to-day lies in the precepts and practice of versal testimony, including that of most Christ himself, against which all their argurespectable advocates of the measure, was ments break and recoil upon them, like that it had effected no good at all, while the the baffled waves of the ocean against the testimony of some of them was, that the granite cliffs.
But is there no remedy? None but
'the relentless forces of Nature,' eliminat- fostered in the children;—can we wonder at ing the weak, and the general prevalence the result. of truer and higher principles, and a differ 1 If it slips out at every turn that riches ent and higher teaching, and-time. and position are the one thing worth pursu
But if our children see their parents fre- | ing in the race of life, and that mental and quent the bar-room and the saloon; if moral wealth, if not for the sake of display, parents show that they think it mean not are not worth the seeking; if high and susto treat and be treated, in hotels and in tained excitement, which means wasted their private houses ; if it is thought hos nerves, be the order of the day in everypitable or gentlemanly to offer every one thing ;-then it is no wonder if men—and who enters something to drink ;—is it any women are to blame for much of this—seek wonder that our children drop insensibly in stimulants the momentary arrest of that into our habits, regard the taking of liquor decay of nerve element which, in many as a mark of good-fellowship and manli- cases, is so great and so sudden that the ness, and imitate their parents, till, before loss cannot be made up by the ordinary they are hardly aware of it, the occasional processes of the constitution through the action has grown into a habit, and the assimilated food. To all such, the experihabit into a disease; till, at length, the ment is fraught with the extreme hazard of nerve-element has become physically in (physical) nerve-degeneration. But still the volved and the case is next to hopeless, cry is ‘Hurry up.' The disappointed, too, and many a noble nature is lost for ever to to drown their disappointment, which, on the world.
its physical side, means likewise wasted If young men are not taught-oh, that nerve-matter, take to the stimulant to drown we had some of those old Persian schools their disappointment. And here again I and that grand old schoolmaster !—that say, oh, that we had our wise Persian uncontrol, instead of being masterful and schoolmaster to teach us to be wise ! manly and the sign of a high spirit, is, in But this question of a remedy is a long very deed, the proof of a very feeble and one, on which I have scarcely begun. Still degenerate and unmanly nature-only the I must close abruptly or weary my readers man-form of one who has thrown up the beyond endurance. reins of the will into the keeping of the In parting, however, let me again urge, passions, and who is, therefore, only the especially on our young men, that one of poor weakling and buffet of every momen- | the greatest duties in life is this,'to guard tary caprice, and not a man at all; and if the individual of whatever grade against parents, hurrying along and absorbed by trespasses upon his individuality.' Let their schemes of wealth and ambition, and incul- | motto in every campaign be- Pure principles, caring unconsciously, by their words and not probable consequences—then, as the sy actions, very questionable principles, aban- | singer says, don their children to others to be educated
"Si fractus illabatur orbis, -no, not educated, but—to be taught lan
Impavidum ferient ruinæ,' guages in schools in which the selfish ambition of the parents is re-ingrafted and
J. A. ALLEN.
JUVENILE PAUPER IMMIGRATION.
W H EN the history of colonization | New religions have been great fosterers
comes to be written, whạt a vast of colonization, not only after the Mahomesubject will the poet-historian find at his tan manner, sending out its apostles on disposal ! Setting apart those merely fan proselytising aims intent, but in the Chrisciful illustrations and parallelisms which a tian style also, which very effectively inocdivine of the old school would have worked ulated heathen Europe with new blood and out as an overture to his theme, there will new ideas from well defined missionary yet be many broad-searching and deep centres of immigration, the cell of the redelving roots to be traced out in all direc cluse often becoming the nucleus of a regutions, hidden beneath the mould and de lar nest of foreign monks and ecclesiastics. caying leaves of the vanished years. It And later on, too, the inevitable clashing would be a waste of time to suggest that the between opposing faiths has acted as a creation itself was a colonization, and | powerful centrifugal force, driving your Adam the pioneer' of the race, brought Huguenots from France, and drawing your hither he knew not whence, it matters not Puritans from England, with much energy whether from the mediæval limbo of souls and almost incalculable results. All these not yet endued with clay, or, according to phases of the question, and many more Sir W. Thompson's more modern theory, which I must leave untouched, will be carried along, potentially, on some moss treated upon by the future Gibbon or Maccovered fragment of aerolite.
aulay who will take up the subject, thankful Poets have sung that
that there yet remains a theme so vitally
interesting and so capable of picturesque • Though inland far we be Our souls have sight of that immortal sea
treatment and yet comparatively untouched Which brought us hither,'
upon by previous writers. When this work
is written, as some day it will be, the maand seem thus to countenance the idea terials I propose to bring forward in this that the human race are immigrants on a
paper may be found useful in elaborating large scale, having replaced the original
one small niche, as it were, in the entire apes by sheer force of numbers and organ
memorial edifice, one storied window in ization.
that grand series which will fitly depict the But apart from all this, it is undoubtedly
outward manifestations of the migratory a fact that colonization, properly speaking,
| instincts of our race. has played a most important part in the Juvenile emigration is an essentially reworld's history. What were most of the
cent idea, one of the most purely modern early historical wars but the outcome of the
plans than can be conceived. It presupemigrating instinct under unfavourable cir
poses a high state of civilization, not only cumstances ? Migratory Arabs driving their
| in the terminus a quo, but also in the flocks and herds to browse upon their
terminus ad quem, and lavish material applineighbours' more or less defined sheep-runs
ances to overcome the labour of transit. and cattle limits, or again, hurling their
Not only does it require this civilization to thousands under Caled, the sword of God,
supply the means in cash and philanthropy, upon effeminate Greek or degraded Roman.
without which the money would prove “The old must give way to the young, na inert metallic tokens, but it also, alas, postions like men, and men like leaves ;' and
tulates the existence of a degrading, crushthe 'swarming of the Northern hive' is a
ing poverty at the starting point. For it sufficiently correct by-word to describe
need hardly be said that only the most those warlike colonizations of Goths and
biting misery could supply the numbers that Huns, from which seed-bed modern Europe
have swollen the ranks of infant emigrants ; has sprung.
like emigrants who leave their native land
without any accompanying friends, such | ingincredible to the inhabitants of a country children must be paupers. It is not so practically without a pauper class and acmuch that distress and suffering loosen the tually without poor laws and poor-houses. natural bond of love between parent and Of course isolated cases of poverty and child, though that is the case too often, but want occur too often even here, but no that the want and pauperism among the one who has not seen the evil in all its regreat cities of the old world crush out the pulsive details could picture the hopeless, ablives of the parents by hundreds, or force a ject misery of a pauperised family or group desertion crueller than the separation of of families, -as shiftless in anything beyond death itself.
mere hand-to-mouth appliances as mere Out of some 1100 children and upwards babies, as destitute of moral fibre as blotwho passed through the hands of Miss Rye ting paper is of material fibre, and without (to whose work, as she has been the the faintest shadow of a chance to raise pioneer of this movement, I shall chiefly themselves without extraneous assistance. allude) up to the year 1874, about one-half For such as these the unions and workmay be set down as orphans. Between houses of England are the habitual home, three and four hundred of the other half the master and matron are their tutelary are set down in the returns as deserted by deities, their feeble remnants of indepenone or both parents, or in that worse dence and free-will are gladly bartered for a than deserted condition in which the un mess of pottage at the price of a slavish subnatural parent represents no longer the mission to the rules and regulations which loving and tender guardian, but has rather govern their most trivial actions. To one become the harsh task-master of the child who enters this land of the modern Lotosin iniquity and heavy labor. In this class eaters everything becomes degradingly easy. too are comprised those whose surviving | A sleepy submission to the Board of Guardparent is in gaol, or in some asylum or in | ians and its officers is all that is required, stitution which practically isolates the and in return the food comes in due season, child from its father or mother. The re- and that sense of having every thing done mainder of the tale is made up by those for one which saps the freeborn, forecasting of whom the parentage is unknown, either spirit of the man. The adult pauper, once from the neglect of the workhouse authori- | he has got to this stage, is generally given ties or by reason of the double cloud that up as hopeless; he resembles an insect which illegitimacy has thrown around their ante | by some miracle has made its transmutations cedents.
backward, and commencing in the free, Of these it may be safely surmised that winged condition, has developed downwards those who are orphans are the most happy, to the grub, whose large appetite and for they may have known a parent's care, sluggish movements no longer predict a whilst the others, unheeded from the sad fortunate future of activity. beginning of their lives, cannot even be said But while philanthropists have pretty to be deserted, which would imply that they generally given up the confirmed adult, great had once had homes and friends of their and praiseworthy has been the struggle own.
over the pauper children. Early in the atWe have put these figures forward here in tempt to introduce some element of finality order to show what a vast human machinery in this descent into the modern Inferno, was must be at work in England,* when out of the plan of separating the children from the the dust and refuse from under its wheels adults. The richer Métropolitan Unions, one woman can in a few years gather up so with laudable zeal, started branch institumany wasting lives. This aspect of juvenile tions in the country, where their boys and emigration, that is to say, what the children girls could at least, it was thought, acquire escape at home, is very clearly recognized healthy bodies and be isolated from the taint by all who have lived in London or any of of the infected habits that would otherwise the great commercial centres of English in surround them. With the best intentions dustry, but it must be comparatively speak in the world these institutions have been •
enlarged and improved,-every modern ap*The population of the United Kingdom in. | pliance that would at once save the ratecreases at the rate of 400 or 500 a day.
payers money and improve the sanitary
condition of the inmates has been eagerly de was a symptom not to be neglected. It vised and adopted. Ventilating apparatus, was obvious that the great district schools self-filling baths, steam-baking and cooking were only magnificent failures,and, singularly apparatus, patent mangles, and labor-saving enough, juvenile emigration and the boardcontrivances of every kind finally made these ing-out system were commenced simultabranch-institutions so perfect of their kind neously by Miss Rye in Canada and Miss that the middle-aged and not over well-to Florence Hill in England, though both sysdo ratepayer, who took a tour of inspection tems were doomed to experience the deterround the wards on visiting days, was mined opposition of the large army of offiastonished to find the little paupers enjoying cials whose only hold upon the ratepayer's advantages neither he nor his own children pockets was through the schools and instihad ever dreamt of. But alas for human tutions which they had managed with such nature! Too late it became evident that a persevering perverseness. The late Mrs. though these arrangements were well enough Nassau-Senior, fought a good fight against adapted to enhance the physical comfort of these evils, and her appointment by Mr. the children, and (theoretically at least), Stansfeld in 1873, as Inspector of the Fe. after the first heavy outlay, to reduce the male Workhouse Schools, was at once a expenditure to a minimum, yet the great great step towards the recognition of the end of the institution, viz., to educate a peculiar fitness of a woman for such a post, pauper's child into a self-supporting boy or and the means of a terrible exposure of a girl and eventually into a man or woman of mistaken system. Her report on the subject reasoning powers and decisive character, had | disclosed the unpleasant fact that the longer been entirely lost sight of. The children the girls were kept at these training schools, grew up, were taught and drilled by an army the less favourable were the results that were of masters, mistresses, pupil-teachers, and obtained after they were placed out, and that miscellaneous officials, and so long as they the smaller schools were more successful were within the four walls, all went well. than the larger district institutions, but that Some keen eyes noticed that after the tasks therate, even in those schools where most perwere over, the children seemed unable to sonal supervision was given, was far from en. play, and either lounged about purposelessly couraging. In the first place, 74 girls out of ors at listlessly in the sun, and did not augur 319 sent into service by the Metropolitan well from this as to their future working District schools, and 106 out of 351 sent out powers. When they were old enough and by the separate schools, could not be traced had cost the ratepayers $100 a head a year, at all,—had vanished, too probably by means for some five or six years each,* these of rapid subsidence into their original pauper children were placed out at service. Strange or vagrant element. This percentage (23 to say, girls who had always found that hot per cent. in one case, and 30 per cent. in the
er could be obtained spontaneously other) is sufficiently large, and we will com(and no doubt, on strict principles of poli pare it presently with the percentage among tical economy in such an institution, ought | Miss Rye's girls on this side of the Atlantic. to have been obtained) out of a tap, proved Out of the 245 girls in each class who had unequal to boiling a kettle, and soon found been traced, 62.28 per cent. from the Disor made an opportunity to return to the trict schools were reported as unsatisfactory participation of the proceeds of the model or bad, and only 11.42 per cent. good (the steam-bakery, rather than submit to the end balance being : fair '); while 46.11 of the less petty errands and shifty jobs of a maid-of separate school's girls were bad or unsatisall-work's place. With a roll-call in England | factory, and 20.81 per cent. good. of between seven and eight hundred thou We cannot here go into the merits or sand paupers, a disposition on the part of boys | demerits of the boarding-out system in Engand girls to consider these model institu land; it certainly appears open to the obtions as their homes, and to return to them jection that the weekly cash payment made at intervals of rapidly diminishing length, with each child to the poor man or woman
receiving it, is likely to be considered as a * The St. George's, Hanover Square, Schools at
regular source of income, and applied rather Ashford cost £120 or $600 a bed, independent of
| in the support of the whole family than keep,
| towards the boarded-out child alone.