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it is generally understood, but as a strong term of disapprobation; as, when he abruptly answered Mrs. Thrale, who had asked him how he did, "Ready to become a scoundrel, Madam; with a little more spoiling you will, I think, make me a complete rascal." He meant, easy to become a capricious and self-indulgent valetudinarian-a character for which I have heard him express great disgust.
Johnson had with him upon this jaunt "Il Palmerino d'Inghilterra," a romance praised by Cervantes; but did not like it much. He said he read it for the language, by way of preparation for his Italian expedition. We lay this night at Loughborough.
On Thursday, March 28th, we pursued our journey. I mentioned that old Mr. Sheridan complained of the ingratitude of Mr. Wedderburne and General Fraser, who had been much obliged to him when they were young Scotchmen entering upon life in England. JOHNSON: "Why, Sir, a man is very apt to complain of the ingratitude of those who have risen far above him. A man, when he gets into a higher sphere, into other habits of life, cannot keep up all his former connections. Then, Sir, those who knew him formerly upon a level with themselves, may think that they ought still to be treated as on a icvel, which cannot be; and an acquaintance in a former situation may bring out things which it would be very disagreeable to have mentioned before higher company, though perhaps every body knows of them." He placed this subject in a new light to me, and showed that a man who has risen in the world must not be condemned too harshly for being distant to former acquaintance, even though he may have been much obliged to them. It is, no doubt, to be wished that a proper degree of attention should be shown by great men to their early friends. But if, either from obtuse insensibility to difference of situation, or presumptuous forwardness, which will not submit even to an exterior observance of it, the dignity of high place cannot be preserved when they are admitted into the company of those raised above the state in which they once were, encroachment must be repelled, and the kinder feelings sacrificed. To one of the very fortunate persons whom I have mentioned-namely, Mr. Wedderburne, now Lord Loughborough-I must do the justice to relate, that I have been assured by another early acquaintance of his, old Mr. Macklin,' who assisted in improving his pronunciation, that he found him very grateful. Macklin, I suppose, had not pressed upon his elevation with so much eagerness as the gentleman who complained of him. Dr. Johnson's remark as to the jealousy entertained of our friends who rise far above us, is certainly very just. By this was withered the early friendship between Charles Townshend and Akenside; and many similar instances might be adduced.
1 Charles Macklin, whose real name was Mac Laughlin, was an actor, and the author of the comedy entitled "The Man of the World," also of the farce called "Love-à-la-Mode." He was born in Westmeath in 1690, and lived to the patriarchal age of 107.-ED.
He said, "It is commonly a weak man who marries for love." We then talked of marrying women of fortune; and I mentioned a common remark, that a man may be, upon the whole, richer by marrying a woman with a very small portion, because a woman of fortune will be proportionally expensive; whereas a woman who brings none will be very moderate in expenses. JOHNSON: "Depend upon it, Sir, this is not true. A woman of fortune, being used to the handling of money, spends it judiciously; but a woman who gets the command of money for the first time upon her marriage, has such a gust in spending it, that she throws it away with great profusion."
He praised the ladies of the present age, insisting that they were more faithful to their husbands, and more virtuous in every respect, than in former times, because their understandings were better cultivated. It was an undoubted proof of his good sense and good disposition, that he was never querulous, never prone to inveigh against the present times, as is so common when superficial minds are on the fret. On the contrary, he was willing to speak favourably of his own age; and, indeed, maintained its superiority in every respect, except in its reverence for government; the relaxation of which he imputed as its grand cause, to the shock which our monarchy received at the Revolution, though necessary; and secondly, to the timid concessions made to faction by successive administrations in the reign of his present Majesty. I am happy to think that he lived to see the crown at last recover its just influence.
At Leicester we read in the newspaper that Dr. James was dead. I thought that the death of an old schoolfellow, and one with whom he had lived a good deal in London, would have affected my fellow traveller much; but he only said, "Ah! poor Jamy." Afterwards, however, when we were in the chaise, he said, with more tenderness, "Since I set out on this jaunt, I have lost an old friend and a young one— Dr. James and poor Harry,” (meaning Mr. Thrale's son.) 1
Having lain at St. Alban's, on Thursday, March 28th, we breakfasted the next morning at Barnet. I expressed to him a weakness of mind which I could not help; an uneasy apprehension that my wife and children, who were at a great distance from me, might perhaps be ill. "Sir," said he, "consider how foolish you would think it in them to be apprehensive that you are ill." This sudden turn relieved me for the moment; but I afterwards perceived it to be an ingenious fallacy.2
1 Dr. Robert James was born at Kinverstone, in Staffordshire, in 1703. His "Medical Dictionary," to which Dr. Johnson materially contributed, was published in 1743, in 3 vols. fol. He is best known, however, by his valuable antimonial preparation, under the name of "James's Powder."-ED.
2 Surely it is no fallacy, but a sound and rational argument. He who is perfectly well, and apprehensive concerning the state of another at a distance from him, knows to a certainty that the fears of that person concerning his health are imaginary and delusive; and hence
I might, to be sure, be satisfied that they had no reason to be apprehensive about me, because I knew that I myself was well; but we might have mutual anxiety without the charge of folly, because each was, in some degree, uncertain as to the condition of the other.
I enjoyed the luxury of our approach to London, that metropolis which we both loved so much, for the high and varied intellectual pleasure which it furnishes. I experienced immediate happiness while whirled along with such a companion, and said to him, "Sir, you observed one day at General Oglethorpe's, that a man is never happy for the present but when he is drunk. Will you not add,-or when driving in a post-chaise?" JOHNSON: "No, Sir; you are driving rapidly from something, or to something."
Talking of melancholy, he said, "Some men, and very thinking men too, have not those vexing thoughts. Sir Joshua Reynolds is the same all the year round. Beauclerk, except when ill and in pain, is the same. But I believe most men have them in the degree in which they are capable of having them. If I were in the country, and were distressed by that malady, I would force myself to take a book; and every time I did it I should find it the easier. Melancholy, indeed, should be diverted by every means but drinking."
We stopped at Messrs. Dilly's, booksellers in the Poultry; from whence he hurried away, in a hackney-coach, to Mr. Thrale's, in the Borough. I called at his house in the evening, having promised to acquaint Mrs. Williams of his safe return; when, to my surprise, I found him sitting with her at tea, and, as I thought, not in a very good humour: for, it seems, when he had got to Mr. Thrale's, he found the coach was at the door waiting to carry Mrs. and Miss Thrale, and Signor Baretti, their Italian master, to Bath. This was not showing the attention which might have been expected to the "guide, philosopher, and friend"—the Imlac who had hastened from the country to console
has a rational ground for supposing that his own apprehensions concerning his absent wife or friend are equally unfounded.-MALONE.
1 The phrase "vexing thoughts," is, I think, very expressive. It has been familiar to me from my childhood; for it is to be found in the "Psalms in Metre," used in the churches (I believe I should say kirks) of Scotland, Psal. xliii. v. 5.
"Why art thou then cast down, my soul?
What should discourage thee?
And why with vexing thoughts art thou
Some allowance must, no doubt, be made for early prepossession. But at a maturer period of life, after looking at various metrical versions of the Psalms, I am well satisfied that the version used in Scotland is, upon the whole, the best; and that it is vain to think of having a better. It has in general a simplicity and unction of sacred poesy; and in many parts its transfusion is admirable.-BOSWELL.
2 Joseph Baretti was a native of Turin; but, having resided many years in this country, he wrote the English language with great purity, as evidenced by his controversy with Mr. Sharpe, the Italian tourist. Dr. Johnson procured him the situation of Italian master in Mr. Thrale's family. He was born in 1716 and died in 1784.-ED.
a distressed mother, who, he understood, was very anxious for his return. They had, I found, without ceremony, proceeded on their intended journey. I was glad to understand from him that it was still resolved that his tour to Italy with Mr. and Mrs. Thrale should take place, of which he had entertained some doubt, on account of the loss they had suffered; and his doubts afterwards appeared to be well founded. He observed, indeed very justly, that "their loss was an additional reason for their going abroad; and if it had not been fixed that he should have been one of the party, he would force them out; but he would not advise them, unless his advice was asked, lest they might suspect that he recommended what he wished on his own account." I was not pleased that his intimacy with Mr. Thrale's family, though it no doubt contributed much to his comfort and enjoyment, was not without some degree of restraint: not, as has been grossly suggested, that it was required of him as a task to talk for the entertainment of them and their company, but that he was not quite at his ease; which, however, might partly be owing to his own honest pride— that dignity of mind which is always jealous of appearing too compliant.
On Sunday, March 31, I called on him, and showed him, as a curiosity which I had discovered, his "Translation of Lobo's Account of Abyssinia,' ," which Sir John Pringle2 had lent me, it being then little known as one of his works. He said, "Take no notice of it," or "don't talk of it." He seemed to think it beneath him, though done at sixand-twenty. I said to him, "Your style, Sir, is much improved since you translated this." He answered, with a sort of triumphant smile, "Sir, I hope it is."
On Wednesday, April 3, in the morning I found him very busy putting his books in order, and as they were generally very old ones, clouds of dust were flying around him. He had on a pair of large gloves, such as hedgers use. His present appearance put me in mind of my uncle Dr. Boswell's description of him, " A robust genius, born to grapple with whole libraries."
I gave him an account of a conversation which had passed between me and Captain Cook, the day before, at dinner, at Sir John Pringle's; and he was much pleased with the conscientious accuracy of that celebrated circumnavigator, who set me right as to many of the exaggerated accounts given by Dr. Hawkesworth of his voyages. I told him that while I was with the Captain I caught the enthusiasm of curiosity and adventure, and felt a strong inclination to go with him on his next
1 Jerome Lobo was a Portuguese Jesuit, who went as a missionary to Abyssinia, and wrote an account of that country, of which Dr. Johnson published an abridged translation. He was born at Lisbon in 1593, and died at Coimbra in 1678.—ED.
2 Sir John Pringle was one of the most eminent physicians and natural philosophers of his time. He was born in Roxburghshire in 1707, and was, at this period, the President of the Royal Society, to which office he had been elected in 1772. He died in 1782.-ED
voyage. JOHNSON: "Why, Sir, a man does feel so, till he considers how very little he can learn from such voyages." BOSWELL: "But one is carried away with the general grand and indistinct notion of A VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD." JOHNSON: "Yes, Sir; but a man is to guard himself against taking a thing in general." I said I was certain that a great part of what we are told by the travellers to the South Sea must be conjecture, because they had not enough of the language of those countries to understand so much as they have related. Objects falling under the observation of the senses might be clearly known; but everything intellectual, everything abstract-politics, morals, and religion-must be darkly guessed. Dr. Johnson was of the same opinion. He, upon another occasion, when a friend mentioned to him several extraordinary facts, as communicated to him by the circumnavigators, slily observed, "Sir, I never before knew how much I was respected by these gentlemen; they told me none of these things."
He had been in company with Omai, a native of one of the South Sea islands, after he had been some time in this country. He was struck
with the elegance of his behaviour, and accounted for it thus: "Sir, he had passed his time, while in England, only in the best company so that all that he had acquired of our manners was genteel. As a proof of this, Sir, Lord Mulgrave and he dined one day at Streatham; they sat with their backs to the light fronting me, so that I could not see distinctly and there was so little of the savage in Omai, that I was afraid to speak to either, lest I should mistake one for the other."
We agreed to dine to-day at the Mitre tavern, after the rising of the House of Lords, where a branch of the litigation concerning the Douglas Estate, in which I was one of the counsel, was to come on. I brought with me Mr. Murray, Solicitor-General of Scotland, now one of the Judges
of the Court of Session, with the title of Lord Henderland. I mentioned Mr. Solicitor's relation, Lord Charles Hay, with whom I knew Dr. Johnson had been acquainted. JOHNSON: "I wrote some thing for Lord Charles; and I thought he had nothing to fear from a court