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A.u. 152«. That same night, being Wednesday, I circumambulated the tomb of Khwajeh Kiithed

April 25. Jj^ aa^ visited the tomb and palaces of Sultan Ghiaseddin Bilban, of Sultan Alaeddin Kilji, and his minaret, the Shems tank, the royal tank, the tombs and gardens of Sultan Behlul and Sultan Sekander; after which I returned into the camp, and went on board of a boat, where we drank arak. I bestowed the office of Shekdar (or military collector) of Delhi on Wali Kizil; I made Dost the Diwan of Delhi, and directed the different treasuries to be sealed, and given into their charge.

April 26. On Thursday we moved thence, and halted hard by Toghlakabad,1 on the banks of

the Jumna.

April 27. On Friday we continued to halt in the same station. Moulana Mahmud, Sheikh Zin, and some others, went into Delhi, to Friday-prayers, read the khiitbeh in my name, distributed some money among the Fakirs and beggars, and then returned back.

April 28. On Saturday we marched from our ground, and proceeded, march after march, upon Agra. I went and saw Toghlakabad; after which I rejoined the camp.

Arrives at On Friday, the 22d of Rcjeb, I halted in the suburbs of Agra, at the palace of Suli

BUv*4 m^n Fermuli. As this position was very far from the fort, I next morning moved and took up my quarters at the palace of Jilal Khan Jighat. The people of the fort had put off Humaiun, who arrived before me, with excuses; and he, on his part, considering that they were under no control, and wishing to prevent their plundering the treasure, had taken a position to shut up the issues from the place.

Bikermajit, a Hindu, who was Raja of Gualiar, had governed that country for upwards of a hundred years. Sekander had remained several years in Agra, employed in an attempt to take Gualiar. Afterwards, in the reign of Ibrahim, Azim Humaiun Sirwani invested it for some time, made several attacks, and at length succeeded in gaining it by treaty, Shemsabad being given as an indemnification. In the battle in which Ibrahim was defeated, Bikermajit was sent to hell.2 Bikermajit's family, and the heads of his clan, were at this moment in Agra. When Humaiun arrived, Bikermajit's people attempted to escape, but were taken by the parties which Humaiun had placed upon the watch, and put in custody. Humaiun did not permit them to be plundered. Of their own free will they presented to Humaiun a peshkesh, consisting of a quantity of jewels and precious stones. Among these was one famous diamond, which had been acquired by Sultan Alaeddin. It is so valuable, that a judge of diamonds valued it at half of the daily expense of the whole world. It is about eight mishkals.3 On my arrival, Humaiun presented it to me as a peshkesh, and 1 gave it haqk to him as a present.

Among the officers of superior importance in the fort were Malek Dad Kerani, Milli Surdek, and Firoz Khan Miswani, who, having been convicted of some frauds, were ordered for punishment. When Malek Dad Kerani was carried out, much intercession was made for him. Backwards and forwards, the matter was not settled for four or five days, when, according to the desire of his intercessors, I pardoned him, and

1 Toghlakabad stood to the south of Delhi, between the Kuth Minar and the Jumna. Its massy fortifications still testify its former greatness, but it is now totally deserted.

2 The charitable mode in which a good Musulman signifies the death of an infidel.

3 Or 320 ratis.

even conferred on him some marks of favour; I also permitted all his adherents to retain their property.

A Perganna of the value of seven laks1 was bestowed on Ibrahim's mother. Pergannas were also given to each of her Amirs. She was conducted with all her effects to a palace which was assigned for her residence, about a kos below Agra.

On Thursday, the 28th of Rejeb, about the hour of afternoon prayers, I entered May 10. Agra, and took up my residence at Sultan Rirahim's palace. From the time when I ten Agra. conquered the country of Kabul, which was in the year 910, till the present time, I had always been bent on subduing Hindustan. Sometimes, however, from the misconduct of my Amirs and their dislike of the plan, sometimes from the cabals and opposition of my brothers, I was prevented from prosecuting any expedition into that country, and its provinces escaped being overrun. At length these obstacles were removed. There was now no one left, great or small, noble or private man, who could dare to utter a word in opposition to the enterprise. In the year 925 I collected an army, and having taken the fort of Bajour by storm in two or three geris, put all the garrison to the sword. I next advanced into Behreh, where I prevented all marauding and plunder, imposed a contribution on the inhabitants, and having levied it to the amount of four hundred thousand shahrokhis in money and goods, divided the proceeds among the troops who were in my service, and returned back to Kabul. From that time till the year 932, I attached myself in a peculiar degree to the affairs of Hindustan, and in the space of these seven or eight years entered it five times at the head of an army. The fifth time, the Most High God, of his grace and mercy, cast down and defeated an enemy so mighty as Sultan Ibrahim, and made me the master and conqueror of the powerful empire of Hindustan. From the time of the blessed Reflections Prophet, (on whom and on his family be peace and salvation !) down to the present que»t of time, three foreign kings had subdued the country, and acquired the sovereignty of «indu«»n' Hindustan. One of these was Sultan Mahmud Ghazi, whose family long continued to fill the throne of that country. The second was Sultan Shehabeddln Ghiiri, and for many years his slaves and dependants swayed the sceptre of these realms. I am the third. But my achievement is not to be put on the same level with theirs; for Sultan Mahmud, at the time when he conquered Hindustan, occupied the throne of Khorasan, and had absolute power and dominion over the Sultans of Khwarizm and the surrounding chiefs. The King of Samarkand, too, was subject to him. If his army did not amount to two hundred thousand, yet grant that it was only one hundred thousand, and it is plain that the comparison between the two conquests must cease. Moreover, his enemies were Rajas. All Hindustan was not at that period subject to a single Emperor: every Raja set up for a Monarch on his own account, in his own petty territories. Again, though Sultan Shehabeddln Ghuri did not himself enjoy the sovereignty of Khorasan, yet his elder brother, Sultan Ghiaseddin Ghuri, held it. In the Tabakat-e-Nasiri2 it is said, that on one occasion he marched

1 Probably of dams, or about £1750.

* The Tabakat-e-Nasiri is an excellent history of the Musulman world down to the time of Sultan Nasir of Delhi, A. D. 1252. It was written by Abu Omer Menhaj al Jorjani. See Stewart's Catalogue of Tippoo's Library, p. 7.

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into Hindustan with one hundred and twenty thousand cataphract horse. His enemies, too, were Rais and Rajas; a single monarch did not govern the whole of Hindustan. When I marched into Behreh, we might amount to one thousand five hundred, or two thousand men at the utmost. When I invaded the country for the fifth time, overthrew Sultan Ibrahim, and subdued the empire of Hindustan, I had a larger army than I had ever before brought into it. My servants, the merchants and their servants, and the followers of all descriptions that were in the camp along with me, were numbered, and amounted to twelve thousand men. The kingdoms that depended on me were Badakhshan, Kundez, Kabul, and Kandahar; but these countries did not furnish me with assistance equal to their resources; and, indeed, some of them, from their vicinity to the enemy, were so circumstanced, that, far from affording me assistance, I was obliged to send them extensive supplies from my other territories. Besides this, all Maweralnaher was occupied by the Khans and Sultans of the Uzbeks, whose armies were calculated to amount to about a hundred thousand men, and who were my ancient foes. Finally, the whole empire of Hindustan, from Behreh to Behar, was in the hands of the Afghans. Their prince, Sultan Ibrahim, from the resources of his kingdom, could bring into the field an army of five hundred thousand men. At that time some of the Amirs to the east were in a state of rebellion. His army on foot was computed to be a hundred thousand strong; his own elephants, with those of his Amirs, were reckoned at nearly a thousand. Yet, under such circumstances, and in spite of this power, placing my trust in God, and leaving behind me my old and inveterate enemy the Uzbeks, who had an army of a hundred thousand men, I advanced to meet so powerful a prince as Sultan Ibrahim, the lord of numerous armies, and emperor of extensive territories. In consideration of my confidence in Divine aid, the Most High God did not suffer the distress and hardships that I had undergone to be thrown away, but defeated my formidable enemy, and made me the conqueror of the noble country of Hindustan. This success I do not ascribe to my own strength, nor did this good fortune flow from my own efforts, but from the fountain of the favour and mercy of God. Description The empire of Hindustan is extensive, populous, and rich. On the east, the south, stin. and even the west, it is bounded by the Great Ocean. On the north, it has Kabul,

Ghazni, and Kandahar. The capital of all Hindustan is Delhi. From the time of Sultan Shehabeddin Ghuri, to the end of Sultan Firoz Shah's time, the greater part of Hindustan was in the possession of the Emperors of Delhi. At the period when I Musulman conquered that country, five Musulman Kings and two Pagans exercised royal authority. Although there were many small and inconsiderable Rais and Rajas in the IiiHs and woody country, yet these were the chief and the only ones of importance. Kingdom of One of these powers was the Afghans, whose government included the capital, and exorof Delhi; tended from Behreh to Behar. Jonpur, before it fell into the power of the Afghans,

including washeld by Sultan Hussain Sherki. This dynasty they called the Purebi1 (or eastern).

kingdom!" Their forefathers had been cup-bearers to Sultan Firoz Shah and that race of Sultans.

After Sultan Firoz Shah's death, they gained possession of the kingdom of Jonpur.

1 Purebi, in Hindustani, has the same meaning with Sherki in Arabic or Persian, Eastern.

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Delhi was at that period in the hands of Sultan Alaeddin, whose family were Syeds. When Taimur Beg invaded Hindustan, before leaving the country, he had bestowed the government of Delhi on their ancestors. Sultan Behlul Lodi Afghan and his son Sultan Sekander, afterwards seized the throne of Delhi, as well as that of Jonpur, and reduced both kingdoms under one government.

The second prince was Sultan Muhammed Mozeffer, in Gujrat. He had departed Kingdom of this life a few days before Sultan Ibrahim's defeat. He was a prince well skilled in learning, and fond of reading the Hadis (or traditions). He was constantly employed in writing the Koran. They call this race Tang. Their ancestors were cup-bearers to the Sultan Firoz that has been mentioned, and his family. After the death of Firoz Shah they took possession of the throne of Gujrat.

The third kingdom is that of the Bahmanis in the Dekhan, but at the present time Kingdom of the Sultans of the Dekhan have no authority or power left. All the different districts n5* of their kingdom have been seized by their most powerful nobles; and, when the prince needs anything, he is obliged to ask it of his own Amirs.

The fourth King was Sultan Mahmud, who reigned in the country of Malwa, which Kingdom of they likewise call Mandu. This dynasty was called the Kilji. Rana Sanka, a Pagan, had defeated them, and occupied a number of their provinces. This dynasty also had become weak. Their ancestors, too, had been originally brought forward and patronized by Sultan Firoz Shah, after whose demise they occupied the kingdom of Malwa.

The fifth Prince was Nusrat Shah1 in the kingdom of Bengal. His father had been Kingdom ot King of Bengal, and was a Syed of the name of Sultan Alaeddin. He had attained Ben8althis throne by hereditary succession. It is a singular custom in Bengal, that there is Singular little of hereditary descent in succession to the sovereignty. There is a throne allotted for the King; there is, in like manner, a seat or station assigned for each of the Amirs, Vazirs, and Mansabdars. It is that throne and these stations alone which engage the reverence of the people of Bengal. A set of dependants, servants, and attendants, are annexed to each of these situations. When the King wishes to dismiss or appoint any person, whosoever is placed in the seat of the one dismissed, is immediately attended and obeyed by the whole establishment of dependants, servants, and retainers annexed to the seat which he occupies. Nay, this rule obtains even as to the royal throne itself. Whoever kills the King and succeeds in placing himself on that throne, is immediately acknowledged as King;2 all the Amirs, Vazirs, soldiers, and peasants, instantly obey and submit to him, and consider him as being as much their sovereign as

1 He reigned from A. D. 1507 to 1529. His father is called by historians in general Hussain Shah, the son of Ushraf al Hussaini. •

2 Strange as this custom may seem, a similar one prevailed, down to a very late period, in Malabar. There was a jubilee, every twelve years, in the Samorin's country, and any one who succeeded in forcing his way through the Samorin's guards and slew him, reigned in his stead. "A jubilee is proclaimed throughout his dominions at the end of twelve years, and a tent is pitched for him in a spacious plain, and a great feast is celebrated for ten or twelve days with mirth and jollity, guns firing night and day, so, at the end of the feast, any four of the guests that have a mind to gain a crown by a desperate action, in fighting their way through 30 or 40,000 of his guards, and kill the Samorin in his tent, he that kills him, succeeds him in his empire." See Hamilton's New Account of the East Indies, vol. I. p. 309. The attempt was made in 1695, and again a very few years ago, but without success.

they did their former prince, and ohey his orders as implicitly. The people of Bengal say, "We are faithful to the throne—whoever fills the throne, we are obedient and true to it." As, for instance, before the accession of Nusrat Shah's father, an Abyssinian having killed the reigning King, mounted the throne, and governed the kingdom for some time. Sultan Alaeddin killed the Abyssinian,1 ascended the throne, and was acknowledged as King. After Sultan Alaeddin's death, the kingdom devolved by succession to his son, who now reigned. There is another usage in Bengal; it is reckoned disgraceful and mean for any king to spend or diminish the treasures of his predecessors. It is reckoned necessary for every king, on mounting the throne, to collect a new treasure for himself. To collect a treasure is, by these people, deemed a great glory and ground of distinction. There is another custom, that Pergannahs have been assigned from ancient times to defray the expenses of each department, the treasury, the stable, and all the royal establishments; no expenses are paid in any other manner.

The five kings who have been mentioned are great princes, and are all Musulmans, Hindi and possessed of formidable armies. The most powerful of the Pagan princes, in point preius. oJp tej.jj^jy an(j army, js the Raja of Bijnager.2 Another is the Rana Sanka, who has attained his present high eminence, only in these later times, by his own valour and his sword. His original principality was Chitur. During the confusions that prevailed among princes of the kingdom of Mandu, he seized a number of provinces which had depended on Mandu, such as Rantpur,3 Sarangpur, Bhilsan, and Chanderi. In the year A. D. 1528. 934, by the divine favour, in the space of a few hours, I took by storm Chanderi, which was commanded by Meidani Rao, one of the highest and most distinguished of Rana Sanka's officers, put all the Pagans to the sword, and from the mansion of hostility which it had long been, converted it into the mansion of the faith, as will be hereafter more fully detailed. There were a number of other Rais and Rajas on the borders and within the territory of Hindustan; many of whom, on account of their remoteness, or the difficulty of access into their country, have never submitted to the Musulman kings. (reugraphi- Hindustan is situated on the first, second, and third climates. No part of it is in ca position. ^e fourt}j It is a remarkably fine country. It is quite a different world, compared with our countries. Its h Us and rivers, its forests and plains, its animals and plants, its inhabitants and their languages, its winds and rains, are all of a different nature. Although the Germsils (or hot districts), in the territory of Kabul, bear, in many respects, some resemblance to Hindustan, while in other particulars they differ, yet you have no sooner passed the river Sind than the country, the trees, the stones, the wandering tribes,4 the manners and customs of the people, are all entirely those of HinNonhem dustan. The northern range of hills has been mentioned. Immediately on crossing 'the river Sind, we come upon several countries in this range of mountains, connected

with Kashmir, such as Pekheli and Shemeng. Most of them, though now independent of Kashmir, were formerly included in its territories. After leaving Kashmir, these

1 This was Mozeffer Shah Habshi, who reigned three years. 2 In the Dekhan.

2 The famous fortress of Rantainbor, situated in latitude 26°, and longitude 76° 30'.
* The lis and Uluses.

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