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the organs of respiration, the stomach and This society has also commenced its the glands connected with them. There sittings for the season: Thomas Amyott. is also a little red spot called the punctum Esq. in the chair. Mr. Milne exhibited

saliens, which appears to flash with light some Roman remains, consisting of part

as it alternately contracts and expands. of a very large earthen vessel, a copper

From this is formed the heart. So, in the coin of Domitian in most excellent preser

egg, appears a floating, very minute, and vation, a hatchet, a gilt steelyard, &c. found

slightly opaque spot; so small that it would with several skeletons, buried in peat, near escape the casual observer; yet it is on this Ware in Hertfordshire.

insignificant platform that the mysterious A communication was read from Mr. superstructure, life, is raised. Stark, on the lordship of Thonock, in the

In proportion to the power, extent, and parish of Gainsborough. Lincolnshire, and a capacity of the organs of respiration depends Danish encampment and tumuli there. It the greater or less activity of the body. Thus entered into a long historical account of the birds are more energetic in their action, and owners of the lord ship from an early period, have a

period. have a freer motion than quadrupeds ; while and described the encampment as being some insects are, for the same reason, sunear Thonock Hall, of an oval form, and perior in those qualities to birds. The having a triple foss and a vallum, apparent- outward manifestations of laughter, sobbing. ly impregnable against any weapon of the panting, sighing, &c. were so many safety era to which it belonged, but as powerless valves or vents to relieve the lungs, overagainst an attack according to modern war

burdened by too great a distension ; and fare. In some of the tumuli were found a

those manifestations arose from the effort battle.axe. similar in form to an Indian of nature to accelerate the circulation, tomahawk, a key, a dagcrer, and other re- which, by the intense excitement of the mains. Mr. Stark then proceeded to the

ceeded to the mind, had been momentarily suspended. question, whether the camp was Roman or

Whenever that excitement is too overpowDanish ? and, in addition to the evidence

to the evidence ering, death must inevitably ensue; and on of tradition in favour of the latter, he stated,

this principle, perhaps, the death of persons that, in the ninth century, Sweyn, king of from tickling, and likewise from a forced Denmark, entered the Humber with a pow. suppression of the outward manifestations of erful army, and. having landed, carried his feeling, might be explained. To depict victorious arms to York, which he besieged with justness these manifestations required and took, and, after ravaging the country,

a consummate knowledge of the operation brought considerable spoils into Lincoln

of the internal emotions on the external shire, where he died. It was reasonable,

form. How just and beautiful were the he concluded. to suppose that one of the expressions of emotion embodied by Mrs. tumuli in the neighbourhood of the camp

Siddons in the character of Mrs. Beverley, was the burial-place of Sweyn.

in which the very distraction of despair and

grief was pourtrayed by that great actress ROYAL ACADEMY.

to the life! Thus did the lecturer throw Mr. Green has commenced, for the

life and spirit into the hitherto formal dis. season, his lectures on anatomy.

course on the principles of nature, as a

Pic. torial anatomy ought to lead men to in

source from whence to draw the principles

of art.- Atlas. quire more deeply into the springs and source of those actions which the peculiar

MECHANICAL INSTITUTION. art to which his lectures were subservient, was intended to perpetuate. Motion and At the Eighth Anniversary Meeting of feeling are the peculiar characteristics of the Institute, the following prizes were animal in contradistinction to vegetable life, awarded.-61. for the best, and 41. for the growth being common to both. The springs second best Essay on Political Economy, and organs from which they rise would be to Mr. Hunter, and to Mr. Price, a found in the brain, the viscera, and the mathematical instrument-maker, who had heart, those portions which occupy the three only recently attained his majority, great cavities of the frame, the brain being 101. for the best Essay on Emigration, to the organ of feeling, the viscera of growth, Mr. Francis Clifton. — 101. for the best and the heart of motion. The embryo ani- Essay on the Effects of the Distribution mal contains the rudiments of these three of the Revenue on the Condition and great systems; for it consists of distinct lay- Interests of the Working Classes, to Mr. ers of membranous substance, whereof the Ward, an engineer.- A prize for an archi. first becomes elevated until it forms the tectural drawing of the new London bridge spinal chord and brain; the second resolves was awarded to Mr. Colliver, a smith ; and itself into the bony and muscular systems for a drawing and elevation of Martineau's and the great viscera; and the third into steam-engine, to Mr. Curtis, an operative.

VARIETIES. Stillon Cheese.--Although Leicestershise be above 10,0001. per annum. Prebendal has acquired no national fame like Cheshire stalls are to be held by two of the profesand Gloucestershire for the excellence of its sors. The proposal has received the cordial cheese, it stands nevertheless, both as re- approbation of the present Administration, spects its superior quality and highest price, and will probably be carried into effect with the first in the kingdom, perhaps in the the least possible delay. world. Many of its best dairies invariably British and American Newspapers.-In fetch equal prices with the higher qualities America, where newspapers are not taxed, of those districts. This only puts it upon 555,416 advertisements are inserted in eight ad equality. But it is in this county that newspapers in New York, while 400 Eng. the truly English Parmesan (called Stilton lish and Irish papers contained, in the same cheese) was first made, and continues to be space of time, only 1,105,000. The twelve a standard article of production. This far New York daily papers contain more adverfamed delicacy is to be found on the tables tisements than all the newspapers of England of the highest ranks, and when of the best and Ireland ; and the numbers issued anquality and in the highest state of perfection, pually in America is 10,000,000, while in independent of its exquisite relish, it pro. Great Britain it is less than one-tenth of bably contains the greatest concentration of that number. Advertisements which in nutriment of any artificial preparation of England cost seventeen dollars, are inserted food. The secret of its make was for some in America for about a dollar (fifty cents.); time confined to the family of the original and an article which costs annually for ada inventors, who were under an engagement vertising in the United States twenty-eight to sell all they could make to the famous dollars, is liable in England to a charge of Cooper Thornbill, of Stilton, and being thus 900 dollars. to be obtained of him alone it received the At a recent meeting of the Society of Anappellation of Stilton cheese, when it ought tiquaries, a paper was read on the history to have been named Wichcote cheese, being of Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, who fell a first made in that small village on the east- victim to his obstinate adherence to the ern side of Leicestershire, bordering upon Pope's supremacy in the reign of Henry the Rutlandshire, and about thirty miles from Eighth. It gave an affecting account of the Stilton.

arbitrary persecution and hardships which Self-made Gas.-During the last summer the unfortunate prelate suffered. In a letter a bore was put down at Johnstone, to the addressed to Cromwell during his confinedepth of 150 feet, for the purpose of procur- ment in the Tower, he says, “I have neither ing water. The boring was mostly through shirt nor sute, nor yett other clothes that ar shale or till. At the depth of 125 feet, or necessary for me to wear, but that bee ragthereby, the workmen heard a noise proceed- ged and rent to shamefully. Notwithstonding from the bore, which they supposed to ing, I myght easyly suffer that, if thei wold be from water rushing upwards, but which keep my body warm. And, ass our Lord proved to be from gas. The bore was sunk knoweth, I have no thyng laft un to me for 25 feet deeper, when an abundant supply of to provyde eny better, but ass my brother of water was procured, so as nearly to rise to his own purs layeth out for me, to his great the surface. The supply of gas, how- hynderance." Yet such was the barbarous ever, did not fail. It continues to ascend mode of treating prisoners in those days, through the superincumbent column of water that Fisher does not appear to have been with a hissing noise, and when a light is worse provided for than Sir Thomas More applied, burns with a blue flame. No ana- and others, who were confined in the Tower lysis has been made of the gas, but from the at the same time. The unhappy prelate accounts of the workmen it may safely be was so enfeebled by age and hardships (beconcluded that it is hydrogen. The quan- ing nearly eighty), that he could scarcely tity is so considerable as nearly to be suffi- walk to the place of his execution; and a cient to supply two or three gas-burners of chair was carried by him, on which he the ordinary size. It gives out little light rested several times.. in combustion, probably from the absence Wonderful Tree.-A curious production of carbon in its composition

of the ocean was washed up by the tide Northern University. - The Dean and above low-water-mark on the sea-beach at Chapter of Durham, taking into considera- Crosbie, Liverpool, on November the 4th. tion the distance of the two Universities from It consists of the trunk of a tree, 39 feet in the North of England, have, it is said, set length, from which are appended millions apart a considerable portion of their revenues of a singularly-strange shell. fish, sufficient for the foundation and endowment of a col- to fill the bodies of two or three carts. The lege. The revenues of the above establish- upper part sticks with the tenacity of a leech ment, at its commencement, are intended to to the wood, and is a sort of a wormy sub





stance, many of them being at least three Steam Carriages.— The Select Committee feet in length, as thick as a piece of rope, appointed last session, on the motion of and terminate with a shell of a half-conical Colonel Torrens, conclude their report with form, of a delicate light-blueish hue, contain the following summary of the result of their ing a black fish, having a slit or orifice inquiries : edged with a bright-yellow colour on the i. That carriages can be propelled by upper side, which the animal opens and steam on common roads at an average rate shuts at pleasure, and by which it obtains of ten miles per hour. 2. That at this rate its nutriment. They are all distinct in their they have conveyed upwards of fourteen formation, all alive, and as thick upon the passengers. 3. That their weight, includ. wood as the leaves upon a tree, or clusters ing engine, fuel, water, and attendants, may of grapes; indeed the point of a pin cannot be under three tons. 4. That they can be inserted between them, and from a small ascend and descend hills of considerable inbit cut from the end of the wood, of only clination, with facility and ease. 5. That half an inch square, there hung no less than they are perfectly safe for passengers. 6. thirty of different lengths.

That they are not (or need not be, if proBenefit Societies. The following is the perly constructed,) nuisances to the public. number of Benefit Societies in the different 7. That they will become a speedier and counties of England, together with the cheaper mode of conveyance than carriages amount of their deposits in the Savings'

drawn by horses. 8. That as they admit of Banks :

greater breadth of tire than other carriages, No. of Amount and as the roads are not acted on so in

Societies. of Funds. juriously as by the feet of horses in common Bedfordshire . . . 38 £1,816 draught, such carriages will cause less wear Berkshire . . . .

10,819 of roads than coaches drawn by horses. 9. Bucks . . . .


That rates of toll have been imposed on Cambridgeshire . . . 46 5,728

steam carriages which would prohibit their Cheshire . . . . . 104 20,516

being used on several lines of road, were Cornwall...

93 17,960 Comberland ....


such charges permitted to remain unalDevonshire



Derbyshire .
123 16,406

Eclipses in 1832.-During the year 1832
Dorsetshire . .

14,176 there will be but two eclipses, both of the Durham . . .

5,946 sun. The first will take place on February Essex . . . .

163 21,862 Ist, and will be invisible at Greenwich; Gloucestershire ...


the second takes place on July 17th, visible Hampshire . .

104 18,007

at Greenwich ; begins 2 hours 31 min. p.m. Hertfordshire .

83 14,226

ends 2 hours 28} min., digits eclipsed oneHerefordshire ..


fifth. On the 5th of May the planet MerHuntingdonshire .. 30

2,443 Kent . . .. ..

171 27,168

cury will appear, like a black spot, to move Lancashire . . . .. 374 49,638

over the sun's disc. Leicestershire ...


New London Bridge.-A report has been Lincolnsbire...

9,507 made by Messrs. Telford, Walker, and London .....

1,442 Clark, the engineers, respecting the state of Middlesex. ....

17,347 the new London Bridge. We have not Monmouthshire. . .


room to give the report entire, but it is, Norfolk . . . .


upon the whole, of a satisfactory nature ; Northampton . .


for though the engineers admit that there Northumberland

13,053 Nottinghamshire . . 256

are some irregularities in the bridge, yet

16,812 Oxfordshire ....


they give an opinion that they arose prinShropshire ....

42,345 cipally from the difficulty of the underSomersetshire . . .

36,162 taking, and that, from the goodness of the Staffordshire . . . . 172 26,593 materials, they will not affect the stability Suffolk .....

14,267 of the structure. Sir John Rennie, in a Surrey ...... 77 9,814

letter to the engineers, states, that no alteraSussex . . . . . . 51 13,319

tion has taken place since the removal of Warwicksbire .

59 7,921

the old bridge, and that every part of the Westmoreland


bridge stands as firm as possible. Sir Worcestershire ... 74 7,284

Edward Banks has given a similar opinion, Yorkshire . . . . . 298 65,763

--The report also recommends the formation Charitable Societies. 1,787 136,760 of a new line of streets, direct from the bridge Wales Friendly So.

to the western extremity of Cornhill, in precieties . . . . 161 22,968 ference to the street leading from the MonuIreland . . . . . 171 11,966 ment to the Custom House. This recom

mendation, it states, has received the sanction



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of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer having concurred, it recommends that the necessary

notice be given of the intended application to Parliament to carry the recommendation into effect.

FOREIGN VARIETIES. Turkey Newspaper.-The prospectus of a archives of the crown, 23,500f. Treasury paper, to be published under the auspices of of the Crown; treasury, 320,000f.; superthe sublime Porte, has recently been re- annuated fund, 860,000f. ; reliefs and penceived in this country. It is a document of sions, 1,500,000f. Garde Meuble ; furnigreat interest, and is pregnant with instruc- ture and repairs, 1,200,000F.; manufactory tion for the absolutists of the country. The at Sevres, 320,000f.; Gobelin manufactory, following are extracts from the prospectus : 288,000f. ; Beauvais manufactory, 78,000f. " When the daily events of the present age are

Fine arts; the fine arts and museums, not publicly notified at the time of their occurrence,

450,000f. ; objects of art, 500,000f.; mint and their real causes remain thereby unknown, the and medals, 406,000f. Domains and buildpeople, acting in the spirit of the old proverb, ings; forests and domains, 1,100,000f.; " that man dislikes whatever is strange to him, buildings and repairs, 3,050,000f. The are accustomed to resist every thing the occasion faculty and medical service, 80,000f. Ex. and necessity of which they do not comprehend. traordinary expenses ; travelling expenses, Thas has it hitherto happened that the people, 1,000,000f.; festivals and ceremonies, viewing the internal and external relations, the 400,000f.; presents, 150,000f.; reserved official cbanges, and other affairs of the Sublime

fund for building, 200,000f. ; sundries, Porte, as things altogether enigmatical, have often

100,000f.–Total, 18,691,300f. referred political transactions to intentions very different from the views of the Government. And

Discovery in Surgery.- Messrs. Taimich as it is intended to communicate to the public in and

and Halma-Grand, on the 26th September,

alma-Grand, on the 26th September, formation on new inventions, the fine arts, the deposited at the academy of Sciences a prices of the necessaries of life, and, in general, packet, containing the ingredients of a whatever relates to trade and commerce, this, in styptical liquor, which will be opened when every repect, useful and salutary nndertaking, these physicians have completed the expecannot fail to be regarded as a new and striking

riments which they are pursuing with untestimony of the liberality, justice, and enlighten.

remitted care and observation. Each of ed foresight of our sublime ruler, and of his earnest

these experiments, we understand, are more endeavours to promote general prosperity and happiness. However, as it would be difficult to

and more conclusive. The carotid arteries communicate all the above intelligence in manu.

of fifteen sheep have been opened, four of script, it has been thought advisable to establish a

which were cut lengthwise, and nine across, regular printing office, from the presses of wbich and from two of them an oval piece of the a new gazette, in different languages, will issue. substance has been taken out, and yet, in Indeed, oor high-minded and sublime monarch, four or five minutes, the effusion of blood being not only a benevolent and gracious ruler of has been stopped, and, in a few days afterhis own people, bot an upright friend to all na

wards, the wound has been completely tions which maintain the relations of peace and

healed. The same result followed a similar amity with the Porte, it is desirable that the publication of this journal should be rendered more

operation upon the carotid artery of a horse, useful by separate printing in other languages, and

a few days ago, at the Abattoir of Mounttherefore an experienced European, well skilled

fauçon. In order to stop the hæmorrhage, in foreign languages, has been selected to carry it is only necessary to apply a pledger of this object into effect.”

lint, saturated with the liquid, which it is French Civil Lisi.-The King: personal not required to fasten round the neck, in expenses, 100,000f.; privy purse, 300,000f.; order to prevent its falling off by its proper cabinet, 60,000f.; iibrary and subscriptions weight. In the last experiment, half the to engravings, 250,000f.' The Queen, and lint dropped off ten minutes after its apchildren under fifteen years of age ; per- plication, while the sheep was eating, and sonal expenses and gratuities, 1,000,000f. though a portion of the artery had been Military service; aides-de-camp, 360,000f. taken away, the hæmorrhage was not reService of the chamber ; chamber, 230,000f.; newed. chapel, 40,000f.; music, theatre, and bene- Ruins of an ancient City.—Lieut.-Col. fits, 300,000f. Service of the household; Galindo, Governor of Poten, in Central wages, 650,000.; Jiveries, 200,000f.; America, has discovered the ruins of an exlinen and laundry, 160,000f.; firing, tensive city, called Palenque, which extends 250,000f.; lighting, 370,000f.; buttery and for more than twenty miles along the summit confectionery, 750,000.; cellar, 180,000f. of the ridge which separates the country of Service of the stables ; stable (three hun. the wild Maya Indians (included in the dred horses) 900,000f.; the stud at Meu- district of Poten) from the state of Chiapas. don, 120,000f. Intendance and Sous-in- These, in the words of the discoverer, “ must tendance; intendance generale, 410,000f.; anciently have embraced a city and its

suburbs. The principal buildings are erect- Transport of Edifices. - In May last ed on the most prominent heights, and to M. Gregori alluded to a circumstance men. several of them, if not to all, stairs were tioned in a late number of the “Journal des constructed. From the hollows beneath, Artistes,” of a rock of granite, forty-two feet the steps, as well as all the vestiges which long and twenty-seven high, having been time has left, are wholly of stone and plas- trarispoited from the Bay of Finland to St. ter.” The stones of wbich all the edifices Petersburgh, to serve as a pedestal to a statue are built, are about eighteen inches long, of Peter the Great. He stated that a much nine broad, and two thick, cemented by more remarkable fact had occurred at Cresmortar, and gradually inclining when they centino in 1776, when a common mason, form a roof, but always placed horizontally; named Serra, succeeded in transporting a the outside eaves are supported by large brick belfry, which he had contrived to cut stones, which project about two feet. (These from its base without injuring the walls, are precisely similar, from the description, from one church to another, at a considerable to the stone-roofed chapels, three or four in distance. While it was being moved, a number, at Cashel, Glendalough, St. Doo- man inside rang the bells. A model of the logh's, near Dublin, and we believe one machine employed in the transport was deother, still existing in Ireland.) The wood. posited in the library of the Institute. work has all disappeared : the windows are New Mineral.-In the month of August many, subject to no particular arrangement, 1830, the Academy of St. Petersburgh was being merely small circular and square per- presented with a new mineral, found in some forations. Human figures in alio relievo government lands in the province of Perm. are frequent on small pillars; and filagree It has received the name of Volkonskoite, work, imitating boughs and feathers, is per- in honour of Prince Volkonsky. The spot ceptible in places. Some of the sculptured in which the vein was found is in the mounornaments look very like the Corinthian tain called Efimiatskaïa, in the district of foliage of the ancient architects. The ruins Okhausk. The bed does not consist of are buried in a thick forest, and the adjacent regular veins, but in bits of from one to four country, for leagues, contains remains of verschocks thick, by a quarter to three-quarthe ancient labours of the people-bridges, ters of an archine long ; sometimes ten of reservoirs, monumental inscriptions, &c. those bits or patches are found in tl The natives say these edifices were built by of a single sagene, and sometimes there are “ the devil.”

three sagenes without a single one. The The Emperor Nicholas has ordered that mineral, in colour, approaches the grassa granite column, in imitation of the cele- green ; it divides in longitudinal plates, and brated Trajan column, eighty-four feet high, breaks on the slightest pressure. When and twelve in diameter, should be erected plunged in water, it separates with a loud in the square of the Winter Palace, in me- noise into angular pieces, on which, when mory of his brother Alexander ; it has been dried, the water no longer takes any effect. cut from a granite rock in Finland, and 600 This mineral may be employed as a colourworkmen have been employed in cutting it ing matter to replace some of the most exduring two years; its weight is estimated at pensive colours, such as malachite and verabout 9,676,000lbs.

digris. The fine orange-colour of chrome Palm Tree.—The palm-tree, known by may also be chemicaily obtained from it, as the name of the Palma Japonica, which it contains about seven per cent. of extract flowered and produced fruit in the garden of chrome. It is easily worked, and at a of Schoenbrunn, at Vienna, last year, and small expense. which is now 123 years old, has again blos- New Islands in the Pacific. Captain somed this year, as has likewise another of Warden, of the American service, has pubthe same species, 75 years old. The foreign lished an account of a group of six newlyand rare plant called the Arbor Draconis discovered islands he fell in with in 1830, Clusii has likewise blossomed, and the fruit on his return from New Zealand to Manilla. about the bigness of a cherry, and of an He has given them the name of Westerfield. orange yellow colour, bids fair to ripen, The inhabitants are black, of good stature, which, it is supposed, is the first time they and robust, and their manners apparently have arrived at such perfection in Europe. pacific. They had no arms, were quite

Earthquake.- A letter from St. Gall, in primitive in their habits, fancied their own Switzerland, states, that a mountain near group of islands the whole world, from one Bregenz split asunder, with a frightful noise, of which they imagined Captain Warden to and an opening of fifty feet in width was have come; they evinced a desire for thievformed. Forests of fir were overthrown, and ing, and the captain having sent some of his large rocks removed from their places. A crew on shore to punish them, they attacked brook had entirely disappeared, and it was the party, in number 21, and killed all exfeared that its collected waters would cause cept five, who regained the ship. He gave great mischief. Many families left Bregenz the island the name of Massacre Island, on through fear.

account of this carnage. Six months after

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