« 이전계속 »
under the charge of an individual sufficiently versed in Chemistry to be competent to make the necessary analysis of ores, soils, &c. and to suggest the means of turning those analyses to account. To this individual might also be assigned the care of the Mineralogical records deposited in the Museum, which will probably in no long time become so voluminous as to be altogether useless, unless properly classified and arranged. In our despatch of the 27th May, (No. 5,) 1840, we anticipated the necessity of the appointment of such an officer, and we shall not object to your assigning a moderate salary to any individual who may be found competent for the discharge of the duties of such a situation.
No. 14 Of 1841.
Our Governor of the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. In continuation of our dispatch in this Department, (Museum of Economic Geology,) dated the 8th September last, (No. 13,) we transmit for your information copy of a letter (dated 9th Sept. 1841,) which we have received from Mr. Delabeche, and of the Memorandum which accompanied it, on the subject of the establishment of a Museum of Economic Geology in India.
Your loving Friends,
„ J. L. L.U8HINGT0N,
„ H. Lindsay,
„ John Loch,
,, H. Shank,
„ J. Petty Muspratt,
„ C Mills,
„ J. W. Hooo,
„ F. Warden,
„ John Cotton,
„ Archdeacon Robertson,
„ Henry Alexander,
London, the 2d Nov. 1841. „ Henry Willock.
Ordnance Geological Survey, Haverfordwest,
South Wales, 9th Sept., 1841. Jambs Melvill, Esq. &c. &c. &c.
Sib,—I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 2d instant, accompanied by the report to which it refers of Mr. Piddington, on a collection of specimens taken to India by Captain Tremenheere, as a basis for a collection for a Museum of Economic Geology in India.
As the Court of Directors of the East India Company were pleased to say that they would be happy to receive any communication on the subject which I might make, I have ventured to send the accompanying memorandum, and have therein given a brief account of the Museum of Economic Geology, established under Her Majesty's Government, for the information of the Directors.
Permit me through you to return the Directors my sincere thanks for their kind offer of sending specimens from India to our Museum. Every thing which relates to the Metallurgical processes of India would be highly valuable: specimens of steel, such as is used for arms, would be particularly so. Ores of the useful metals, and any information relating to their mode of occurrence would be very acceptable. Models, or drawings from which models could be constructed, of any of the native mining machinery, methods of reduoing the metals, or tools used hi mining, would be valuable, however simple these contrivances may be.
Perhaps you will do me the favour to assure the Dirrectors, that if they may consider any service I can render in the formation of the proposed Museum at all desirable at any time, I shall esteem myself fortunate in being able to afford it.
(Signed) H. F. Dblabkchb, Director, Ordnance Geological Survey.
Memorandum respecting a Proposed Museum of Economic Geology in
Not being aware of how far the Directors of the East India Company may be desirous of forming in India a Museum of Economic Geology, similar to that established under Her Majesty's Government in this country, modifying it only to suit the difference of conditions existing in the respective countries, or may be informed of the exact character and design of the Museum of Economic Geology in London, perhaps it may be useful, and not altogether out of place, briefly to state the objects for which the latter were founded, and to shew the manner in which we endeavour to attain them, before I venture to offer any observations which Mr. Piddington's Report may have suggested on the proposed establishment in India.
The Museum of Economic Geology was founded, in order to obtain a more perfect and general knowledge of the mineral wealth of the United Kingdom and its colonies than now exists,* and to render the knowledge thus obtained readily available to the public, endeavouring to promote an increase in the advantages to be derived from our mineral wealth, by shewing where and in what manner mineral substances at present untouched in particular districts may be profitably worked ; by pointing out that by adopting the mode of working elsewhere either in this or other countries, mineral substances may be more profitably raised than they now are in certain districts, and by preventing an useless expenditure of time and capital in researches which can only end in disappointment.
Another chief object is to shew the application of Geology to Agriculture, and to afford to the public the facility of obtaining correct analysis of soils at a rate so moderate, as to bring them within the means of the many, and thus, by obtaining a multitude of facts relating to soils, be enabled to arrive at conclusions which may be of very material benefit to the agriculture of the country, and which might not otherwise hare been rendered so readily apparent.
In fact, the Museum may be considered, without further detail, as an establishment founded to shew and promote the application of Geology to the useful purposes of life in a variety of important ways, and thus aid in advancing the general welfare of the country.
Though the establishment is termed a Museum, from containing collections of mineral and metallurgical specimens, models, &c, these collections only constitute a part of the general whole, and are solely intended to render that whole effective. Under the same roof, there is a well appointed Laboratory, an office for the accumulation and preservation of the mining documents of the United Kingdom, and a work-shop
• Itself an object of great national importance, as even at present it is known tW the annual value of the Coals (taken at the pit mouth, and of the metals, and of afc» other mineral products) in their first merchantable conditions raised in the United Kingdom, exceeds i'2U,OU0,0UU.
for the construction of models from working drawings, both British and foreign. Mr. Richard Phillips, F. R, S., long distinguished as an analytical chemist of the first order, has charge of the Laboratory and of the mineral and metallurgical collections, and Mr. Jordan, a gentleman of considerable ability, and previously Secretary of the Polytechnic Society of Cornwall, superintends the Mining Record Office and the Model Department. Both gentlemen receive pupils under certain regulations, the former in analytical chemistry, metallurgy and mineralogy; the latter for mining, section and plan drawing, and mining machinery; it being considered a great object to teach as much as possible by aid of the establishment, its collections of mineral and metallurgical specimens, models, &c. being freely employed for the purpose, and not intended for mere shew, though eventually the public will be admitted to view them CTatuitously in the same manner as the collections of the British Museum are exhibited.
The establishment may be considered as formed to a certain extent of distinct parts, though they are necessarily much blended with each other, and may be said to consist of the Mineral and Metallurgical Collection, the Laboratory, the Model Department, and the Mining Record Office.
The Mineral and Metallurgical Collections are divided into,
a. —The various ores of the useful metals at present raised in the United Kingdom and its Colonies.
b. —Specimens to illustrate the mode in which these ores occur, and the general conditions under which they are found.
c. —A metallurgical series, shewing the mode of reducing the ores to the metallic state, as practised in the United Kingdom or Colonies.
d. —The foreign ores of the useful metals, in order to accustom the eye of the British miner to all known appearances of the ores of the useful metals.
e. —Specimens illustrative of the mode of occurrence of these foreign ores, so that the British miner may see wherein this may differ from, or agree with, the manner in which ores are found in the United Kingdom.
/.—A series illustrating the manner in which the ores are reduced to
the metallic state in foreign countries.*
• The British specimens of ores and metallurgical processes are kept distinct from the Foreign, to shew at one glance what is really known or done in the United King'lom, and therefore what more or less is known, as relates to the same subjects in other countries.
g. —A series illustrating the manufacture of steel, brass, and other metallic compounds or alloys.
h. —An extensive series, illustrating the rocks which either have been or may be advantageously employed for Architectural or Engineering purposes.
i. —The various cements, bricks, tiles, or other artificial mineral compounds which may be, or have been, employed for the same purposes.
k.—A series of the substances used in the manufacture, and illustrating the manufacture itself of British porcelain, earthen-ware, and the coarser potteries.
/.—A series of soils, with their analysis attached, and a notice of such circumstances connected with the climate and the situation of the localities where they occur as can be obtained, accompanied by such specimens of the subsoils or rocks in which they rest as can be procured.
In the Laboratory, analyses of mineral substances, such as ores, rocks, soils, &c. are made at a regulated price for the public, who not only thus obtain correct information without fear of fraud from interested motives, but also do so at moderate cost. Analyses are also executed for such Government Departments as may desire them ; and pupils, as above mentioned, are received.
The Model Department will consist (and numerous important models are already in the collection) of models to illustrate mining operations, from the most simple conditions up to the most complicated of mining machinery, and of such operations connected with mines as can be well shewn by models, not only British but foreign, and of furnaces and other works for the reduction of the metals. The tools and instruments used in mining in different countries, with specimens of the ropes, chains, &c. employed, form also part of this collection.
In the Mining Record Office, not only will the plans and sections which relate to British mining be accumulated, but all documents relating to foreign mines which can be obtained, will be added to the collection, and it is expected, from the arrangements which have been made, that much important information will thus be brought together. Geological maps and sections of various countries will be here assembled, and it is intended eventually to form a Library, containing works in