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in several places they light only on some very mean copper mines, but intermixed with a little gold and silver, five hundred weight of ore scarce yielding an ounce of metal; neither understood they how to make the separation of metals. But the king of Siani, to make this mixture more precious, caused some gold to he added to it: this is called tambac. It is said that the mines of Borneo do naturally produce it very rich ; the scarcity of it augments its price, as formerly that of the Corinthian brass: but the quantity of gold may be believed to make its true value; for when the king ordered crucifixes to be made to present to the christians, the most noble and smallest part, •which is the Christ, was of gold, the cross alone of tambac. Vinceut le Blanc relates, that the Peguers have a mixture of lead and copper, railed ganzc, or ganza, of which they make statues, and a small money, which is not stamped with the royal mark, but which every one has a right to make.
From Siam we brought away Mr. Vincent, who had come from France with the bishop of Babylon to go into Persia: understanding the mathematics and chemistry, the king of Siam had retained him some time to work in his mines.
He informed me that he had rectified the labours of the Siamese in some things, so as to render them more profitable. He shewed them a mine of very good iron at the top of a mountain. He discovered to them one of crystal, one of antimony, oneofemeril (emery), and some others, with a quarry of white marble. Besides this he found out a gold mine, which to him appeared very rich, but he has not shewed it them. Several Siamese, mostly Talapoins*, came secretly to consult him about the art of purifying and separating metals, and brought divers specimens of very rich ore: from some he extracted a very good quantity of fine silver, and from others a compound of several metals.
As for tin and lead, the Siamese have long since obtained it from very plentiful
mines, and though not very skilful, yet they cease not to raise a considerable revenue by it. This tin, or calin, is sold throughout all India; it is soft and badlypurified; a specimen may be seen in the common tea boxes or canisters from this country. To render it harder and white, like the metal of the finer tea boxes, they mix it with cadmiaf, a sort of mineral, easily reducible to powder, which being melted with the copper makes it yellow: but it renders both these metals more brittle, and it is this white tin which they call toutiuague.
In the neighbourhood of the city of Louvo they have a mountain of loadstone. They have also another near Jonsalan (Junksilaii), a city seated in an island of the gulpli of Bengal, which is not above the distance of a man's voice from the coast of Siam; but the loadstone dug at Junksllan loses its virtue in two or three months. I know not whether it is not the same in that of Louvo. In the mountains they find very curious agate; and Mr. Vincent has seen, he tells me, in the hands of the Talapoins, some samples of sapphire and diamond from the mine.
I have already said, that the city of Campeng-pell is famous for mines of excellent iron. The inhabitants forge arms of them after their fashion, as sabres, poinards, and knives. The knife they call pen is used by all, and is not looked upon as arms, although it may serve upon occasion: the blade is three or four fingers broad, and about a foot long.
They know how to melt the iron of their mines, but have very little of it, and are besides bad forgemen. For their gallies they have wooden anchors, and to the end that these anchors may sink they fasten stones to them. They have neither pins nor needles, nor nails, chisels, nor saws. They use pins of bambu in building their houses, even as our ancestors used thorns.
• Talapoin is a name given to the priests or Raha arts.—Editor.
t Cadmia is the name given by the Latins to brass ore, but brass is itself a compound of copper and zinc, the latter metal is therefore most probably that intended,—Editor,
CHINESE CIVIL KALENDAR AND IMPERIAL REVENUES.
By W. Huttmann.
A Civil and a Military Kalendar are printed quarterly in China. The Civil Kalendar for the Autumn of 1814, was lately presented to the East India Company's library by Mr. Reeves, assistant inspector of teas at Canton. It is entitled Ta tsing tsin chin tsuen chu, and consists of four small octavo volumes.— Editions are published in a larger form, and more elegantly printed.
The preface is succeeded by the titles of the nine orders of Mandarines, each divided into two classes, their distinctive badges, which are described by De Guigues, Voyage a Peking, torn. 2. 470474, and salaries independent of appointments, descending from 180 leans, at 6s. Bd. each, and 1800 ho of grain to 33tctb1j leang and 30 ho. Kang hys Dictionary states the ho at 10 bushels, but two systems of arithmetic state that now it contains only 5, and sometimes only 2*.
The number of Mandarines of each denomination, distinguishing the Mantchous, Mongals, Tartarised Chinese, and Chinese, in the supreme council and superior tribunals.—An imperfect and underrated statement of their numbers was published by Pere Amyot, in the sixth tome of Mlmoires concernant lea Chinois, 280-282.
Edicts, prescribing the mddes of salutation, &c. among the Mandarines, and miscellaneous regulations.
Tables of distances between the court aud capitals of provinces, &c.
The number of Kuu jin licentiates elected trieunially in each province, amounting to 1241.—See Seniedo's History of China, 41-45.
The names and titles of the Officers composing the principal tribunals.—See Magellan's Nouvelle Relation de la Chine, 190-243.
Extent and boundaries of the provinces, number of cities, establishment of Officers and revenues.
The following table exhibits the gross amount of taxes, part of which is ex
pended in salaries, &c. part retained in the provincial treasuries, and the remainder remitted to Peking
CTDa?Sg" »—«—" 38,708 Tchy ly taxes Land- - -2,334,475 Coal - - - .32,520 Miscellaneous 42,093 Salt - - - 437,949 Chun tien fou,
or Peking- 154,173 Customs Tsonguengate,
Peking - 102,480
Chang hay - 28,200
Tien tsin - - 40,460
Kiang Nan—composed of Kiang
Sou and Ngan Ouey.
Taxes Salt - - 2,085,282
Customs - - 789,584
Kiang Sou Taxes—land 3,116,826
Vegetables - 38,584
Nigan Ouey taxes Land - -1,718,824
Vegetables - 59,895
Kiang sy taxes Land - -1,878,682
Salt - - - 5,150
Customs Kieou kiang
and Ta kou
tang - - 173,880
Kan tcheou - 46,471
Tchc Kiangtaxcs Land - . 2,914,946
Salt - - - 501,034
Customs PeSin - - 122,660
Nan Sin - - 26,500
Ningpo - - 32,030
Fo kien taxes Land- - -1,074,489
Salt - - - 85,470
Customs Fo kien - - 73,549
Houpe taxes Land - -1,174 no
Provisions - *32,640
Customs King tcheou 9,644
• The first of these items is scarcely legible; the second entirely illegible.
Hou nan taxes Laud - - - 882,745
Provisions - *20,350
Ho van Land - -3,164,758
Chan tong Land- - -3,376,165
Salt - - - 120,720
Customs Lin Tsing Tckeou 29680
Chan sy Taxes Laud - - - 2,990,675
Salt - - - 507,028
Customs Cha hou Keou 10,919
Chen sy Taxes Land - - - 1,658,700
Kail sd Land - - - 280,652
Sse Tchouen Land ' - - - 631,094
Kouangtong Land - - - 1,264,304
Salt - - - 47510
Customs Youe hay - - 43,750
Tay ping bridge
at Chao Tcheou 53,670
Taxes Land - - - 416,399
Miscellaneous - 52,660
Salt - - - 47,150
•Vun nan Land - - - 209,582
LIST OF MINERALS OBSERVED AT THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
(Communicated by Dr. Hegne, of Madras.)
1. Granite of the principal rock of the Table Mountain.
2. Granite found in large masses, detached at the foot of the mountains, or in the slate rock of the Lion's Back; during the rains it is quite soft.
3. Granite with a considerable quantity of hornblende found west of the Lion's Head.
4. Sandstone, on the Table Mount. It caps in large layers, horizontally and vertically divided, the granite of that mountain, and forms tremendous mural precipices.
5. Coarse red sandstone, on the top of the Table Mount.
6. Bed sandstone, on the higher parts e-f the Lion's Head.
7. Drusic quartz crystallizations oil sandstone, found in many places of the Table Mountain, on and near the top of it.
8. Quartz crystallization found on the Lion's Head.
9. Bluish grey day slate, found in quarries at the foot of the Lion's Hi id.
10. Cellular quartz, found near the Toot of the Lion's head.
11. Quartz and greywaebe slate, in the valley of the Table Mountain, in large depositions.
12. Greywacke slate, in the Table Valley near the Lion's Head, in small depositions.
13. Quartz, at the foot of the Table Mount.
14. Ferruginous greywacke sla,te, between the Table Mount ami the Lion's Head.
15. Conglomerated ironstone, in large layers, at the foot of the Table Mount, called " Yzerklip."
16. Slate traversed by veins of quartz, from the rocky reefs near Green Point.
17. Coarse pipe clay with pieces of lithomarge, used as mortar at the Cape, found In large depositions near the sea.
18. Corroded or cellular calceclony, from the bed of the Orange River.
19. Striped calcedouy, from ditto.
20. Wack amygdaloa with nodule* of zeolite, from the bed of the Orange River.
21. Egyptian jasper, from the bed of the Orange River. %
22. Serpentine (pypsteen of the Dutch) from the Namaqua country.
23. Calspar, from the inland country.
24. Amianth, between layers of greywacke slate, from an inland Cape country.
25. Galena, from an inland district of the Cape.
THE FOUR SIMPLE BRAHMANS.
(From VAbbi Dubois' Description of the People of India.)
Is a certain district, proclamation had t>eeu made of a Samaradaiium being about to be held. This is one of the public festivals given by pious people, and sometimes by those in power, to the Brahmans; who, on such occasions, assemble in great numbers from all quarters. Four individuals of the cast, from different villages, all going thither, fell in upon the road; and, finding that they were all upon the same errand, they agreed to walk in company. A soldier happening to meet them, saluted them in the usual way by touching hands and pronouncing the words, always applied on such occasions to BrahmanSjOf dandam art/a, or health to my lord. The four travellers made the usual return, each of them pronouncing the customary benediction of asirvadam; and, going on, they came to a well, where they quenched their thirst, and reposed themselves in the shade of some trees. Sitting there, and finding no better subject of conversation, one of them asked the rest, whether they did not remark how particularly the soldier had distinguished him, by his polite salutation. "You," says another, " it was not you that he saluted, but me." "You are both mistaken," says a third, for you may remember that, when the soldier said dandam-arya, he cast his eyes upon me." "Not at all," replied the fourth, " it was me only he saluted; otherwise should I have answered him as I did, by saying asirvadam?"
Each maintained his argument ul>stinately; and, as none of them would yield, the dispute had nearly come to blows, when the least stupid of the four, seeing what was likely to happen, put an end to the brawl by the following advice: "How foolish it is in us," says he, " thus to put ourselves in a passion! After we have said all the ill of one another that we can invent, nay after going stoutly to fisticuffs, like Sudra rabble, should we be at all nearer to the decision of our difference? The fittest person to determine the controversy, I think, would be the man who occasioned it. The soldier, who chose to salute one or the other of us, cannot be yet far off. Let us therefor* run after him as quickly as we can, and we shall soon know for which of us he intended his salutation."
The advice appeared wise to them all, and was immediately adopted. The whole of them set off in pursuit of the soldier; and at last overtook him, after running a league, and all out of breath. Ai soon as they came in sight of him, they cried out to him to stop ; anil, before they had well approached him, they had put him in full possession of the nature of their dispute, and prayed him to terminate it by saying, to which of them he had directed his salutation. The soldier instantly perceiving the nature of the people he had to do with, and being willing to amuse himself a little at their expenee, coolly replied, that he intended his salutation for the greatest fool of all the four; aud then, turning on his heel, he continued his journey.
The Brahmans, confounded at this answer, turned back in silence. But all of them had deeply at heart the distinction of the salutation of the soldier, and the dispute was gradually renewed. Even the awkward decision of the warriorcould not prevent each of them from arrogating to himself the pre-eminence of being noticed by him, to the exclusion of the others. The contention therefore now became, which of the four was the stupidest; and, strange as it was, it grew as warm as ever, and must have come to blows, had not the person who gave the former advice, to follow the soldier, interposed again with his wisdom, and spoken as follows.
"I think myself the greatest fool of yo u all. Each of you thinks the same thing of himself. And, after a fight, shall we be a bit nearer the decision of the question? Let us therefore have a little patience. We are within a short distance of Dliarmapuri, where there is a choultry, at which all little causes are tried by the heads of the village ; aud let ours be judged among the rest."
All agreed in the soundness of the advice; and having arrived at the village, they eagerly entered the choultry, to have their business settled by the arbitrators.
They could not have come at a better season. The chiefs of the district, Bralimans and others, had already met in the choultry; and no other cause offering itself, they proeeeded immediately to that of the Brahmans. All the four advanced into the middle of the court, and stated, that a sharp contest having arisen among thorn, they were come to have it decided with fairness and impartiality. The court desired them to proceed and explain the grounds of their controversy.
Upon this, one of them stood forward, and related to the assembly all that had happened, from their meeting with the soldier to the present state of the quarrel; which rested on the superior degree of stupidity of some one of them over the others.
The detail created an universal shout of laughter. The president, who was of a gay disposition, was delighted beyond measure to have fallen in with so divert
ing an incident. But he put on a grave face, and laid it down, as the peculiarity of the cause, that it could not be determined on the testimony of witnesses, and that in fact there was no other way of satisfying the minds of the judges, than by each, in his turn, relating some particular occurrence of his life, on which he could best establish his claim to superior folly. He clearly shewed that there could be no other means of determining towhich of them the salutation of the soldier could with justice be awarded. The Brahmans assented, and upon a sign being made to one of them to begin, and to> the rest to keep silence, the first thus commenced his oration.
"I am poorly provided with clothingas you see; and it is not to day only that I have been covered with rags. A rich aud very charitable Brahman merchant once made me a present of two pieces of cloth to attire me; the finest that had ever been seen in our /tgragrama.* I shewed them to the other Brahmans of the village, who all congratulated me on so fortunate an acquisition. They told me it must be the fruit of some good deeds that I had done in a preceding generation. Before I put them on, I washed them, according to the custom, in order to purify them from the soil of the weaver's touch ; and hung them up to dry, with the ends fastened to two branches of a tree. A dog then happening to come that way, run under them, and I could not discern whether he was high enough to touch the clothes or not. I asked my children, who were present; but they said they were not quite certain. How then was I to discover the fact? I put myself upon all fours, so as to be of the height of the dog; and, in that posture, I crawl, ed under the clothing. 'Did I touch it ?* said I to the children who were observing me. They answered 'No:' and I was filled with joy at the news. But after reflecting awhile, I recollected that the dog had a turned up tail; and that, by elevating it above the rest of his body, it might well have reached my cloth. To ascertain that, I fixed a leaf to my rump, turning upwards; and then, creeping again on all fours, I passed a second time under the clothing. The children immediately
* Village inhabited by Brahmans.