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of the master and his men, partly by the local tradition." In the chapter which treats of the business aspects of plantation slavery the author states that the system had at least as many drawbacks as it had attractions. It "kept money scarce, population sparse, and land values accordingly low." The opportunities of both races were restricted and many natural resources of the South were neglected. On the other hand, it maintained order and harmony in the community and "kept the main body of labor controlled, provisioned and mobile." He concludes that “in the large it was less a burden than a life; it made fewer fortunes than it made men."

TIPTON R. SNAVELY.

University of Virginia.

Trade and Navigation between Spain and the Indies in the Time of the Hapsburgs. By CLARENCE HENRY HARING. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press; London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press. 1918. Pp. xxviii, 371. $2.25.)

Since about the beginning of the present century, the writing of Hispanic American history, especially in the United States, has been passing through a real evolution. This is distinctly the period of original, painstaking research, and scholars are showing an increasing tendency to elucidate intensively a single period or a single phase of the history of Hispanic America. Basic work this, and work that is absolutely necessary for the generalizations that some master historian in the future must make. Narrative, biographical, political, institutional, and economic history—all these are presented in works published since 1900, with an increasing tendency toward the two last.

In the writing of these monographic histories, the vast archival depositaries of Spain, as well as of some Hispanic American countries, have been called into requisition, and their treasures ransacked for secrets unknown to former writers. It has, indeed, become almost a recognized part of the training of historical students who elect to work in the Hispanic American field, to make original investigations in the archives. Thus, the Archivo de Indias, which contains the greater part of the Americana in Spain, has become as well known as the British Museum, and like the latter still has its secrets to disclose. So it was not strange that Professor Haring should deem it necessary to visit Spain before

publishing a volume on Spanish colonial trade, a subject on which so little had been previously done. And that his research therein, especially in the Archivo de Indias, was of advantage is evidenced by the numerous citations to documents throughout his book; although he has by no means limited himself to manuscript material.

In his preface, the author touches on the themes that form the subject-matter of his volume-the impetus given to commerce by the discoveries of the Spaniards through the finding of new sources of wealth, especially metallic wealth; the "painstaking seriousness" with which Spain "accepted the task of colonization," "with high ideals of order and justice, of religious and political unity" extending "to its ultramarine possessions, its faith, its language, its law, and its administration"; building churches and monasteries; founding schools and universities; in short, endeavoring "to make its colonies an integral part of the Spanish monarchy." The volume "is a description of the trade and navigation between Spain and the New World, of the commerce which made possible the creation of . . . Spanish American civilization."

The text is preceded by an excellent critical bibliography with which the reader will usually agree, and in which are indicated archival manuscript sources, source collections, and prime and secondary works consulted by the author. In citing Blair and Robertson's The Philippine Islands, the names of the editors are reversed; and it is with surprise that the absence is noted of all mention of Artiñano y de Galdácano's Historia del Comercio con las Indias durante el Dominio de los Austrias (Vilanova, 1917), which is practically identical in title with the present volume. The student will approve the criticism with reference to the Recopilacion de Leyes de los Reynos de las Indias (p. xviii), and applaud avoidance of its use as a sole authority and reference thereto only for lack of better source. Very great use has been made throughout the volume of Veitia Linaje's treatise Norte de la Contratacion de las Indias Occidentales, and Antuñez y Acevedo's Memorias Históricas, the former, indeed, sharing with manuscript documents as a main source of information.

In successive chapters, the author treats of the Seville monopoly; the Casa de Contratación; organization versus efficiency; registers and customs; emigration and the foreign interloper; the Spanish monopoly; the precious metals; the Isthmus of Panama; galleons and flotas; corsarios Luteranos; and ships and naviga

tion. In the first of ten appendices, he tells something of the history of the Casa Lonja, the home of Archivo de Indias; the eight following appendices are statistical compilations of considerable value that are not found elsewhere; and the last is the ordinances of the Consulado of Seville relating to marine insurance, reproduced in the original Spanish.

The volume is a needed contribution to Spanish colonial economic history. Stepping aside from the customary narrative and political history which have attracted most writers, Dr. Haring has undertaken to introduce his audience behind the scenes and into the laboratory of Spanish colonial economic legislation and administration. With a wealth of material he has demonstrated that the economic efforts of those charged with the administration of the Indies originated from much the same motives that urge trade across seas today. The story in its various ramifications shows that the Spanish trade restrictions of the Hapsburg period were not so different after all from some restrictions discernible in modern times. Let one remember that it was only tardily and reluctantly that the United States granted the boon of free trade between this country and the Philippine Islands. Spanish economic history in the Indies reveals, amid all the corruption and commercial ignorance that existed, a groping after an equitable policy toward its colonies and an attempt to reconcile interests that pulled in multifarious directions. Little wonder that the result was not always a happy one and that Spain was blind to its best interests largely through the fact that it was not primarily a trading nation, and had, in fact, won too hardily its right to be a nation at all.

All this and more is seen in the absorbing story as told by Dr. Haring. The division of the book into two parts, one treating of trade and the other of navigation, has made necessary some duplication that might have been avoided with different treatment. On page 35, Charles V is characterized as "the ageing Emperor," the author losing sight of the fact that Charles died at the age of 58. The trade with the Philippines, a part of the Indies, is told in only seven pages, although it merits much more, for the Chinese trade which was thus opened up caused great consternation among traders in Spain, lest the American markets be lost to them, and led to restrictions that cannot always be defended on the side of justice. "Cities," the second word on page 130, is a misprint for "cites." No new evidence is offered in regard to such

matters as the buccaneers and smuggling, but a book on trade could not be written without discussing these. The great contributions are in the new evidence brought forward on the form of trade and shipping, the actual trade together with its restrictions and privileges, the wealth of the New World, and, notwithstanding Spain's most excellent intentions, the gradual loss of trade through lack of an economic background.

JAMES ALEXANDER ROBERTSON.

NEW BOOKS

BACHI, R. L'Italia economica nel 1918. Le ripercussioni della guerra mondiale ed italiana sull'economia nazionale. (Rome: Soc. Ed.

Dante Alighieri. 1919. Pp. xv, 352.)

This is the tenth in the valuable series of Bachi's yearbooks. An introductory survey succinctly describes the national problems which confronted Italy in the year of Caporetto. Then are detailed the important statistical and other data dealing with Italian foreign trade, the output of manufactures, the condition of agriculture, prices, the developments in banking, public finance, and labor. What gives these chapters a special value is the author's interpretative comment, partly accompanying the statistics, partly following after (in an elaborate section dealing with the year's events). The concluding pages list the significant new publications. Bachi in these volumes has established himself as the contemporary chronicler of his country's economic and social changes. R. F. F. BARRON, C. W. A world remaking. (New York: Harper. 1920. $2.25.)

BLOUNT, D. L. Belgium's recovery. An example of what industry and political stability can accomplish. (New York: Guaranty Trust Co. 1920. Pp. 18.)

BOEHLER, E. Der Wirtschaftskrieg: Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika. (Jena: Fischer. 1919. 37.50 M.)

BRODNITZ, G. Englische Wirtschaftsgeschichte. (Jena: Fischer. 1918. Pp. vii, 516. 24 M.)

COREY, G. E. The rise of South Africa; a history of the origin of South African colonisation and of its development towards the east from the earliest times to 1857. (New York: Longmans. 1920. Pp. xvii, 474. $9.)

The third volume of a history which was begun in 1913.

Fox, E. L. The American Colonization Society 1817-1840. Johns Hopkins University studies in historical and political science. Series XXXVII, no. 3. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. 1919. Pp. vii, 231.)

Fox, D. R. The decline of aristocracy in the politics of New York.
Columbia University studies in history, economics, and public law,
vol. LXXXVI; whole no. 198. (New York: Longmans.
Pp. xii, 460. $3.50.)

1919.

This analysis of New York politics between 1801 and 1840 is a test and a confirmation of the theory of the economic interpretation of political parties. With a literary power rare in modern historical studies, the author not only tells the political history of these years but penetrates to the social and economic causes for the transformation of Federalists into Clintonians and later into Whigs. He shows that as soon as certain New York Federalist merchants and lawyers became landed proprietors of enormous baronial estates in the western counties, they opposed taxation on land, initiated the Erie canal scheme, and voted solidly for Clinton. The resulting consciousness within the Federalist ranks of divergent economic interests led to an uncertainty in aim that helps explain the political ineffectiveness of that party in this period (p. 127). With the growth of manufacturing and of industrial profits, the Clintonians also grew in friendliness toward the industrial leaders whom they had formerly considered merely "glorified mechanics," and a menace to the established order (p. 322). They finally reorganized, uniting capital and business enterprise and the learned professions into a business party, named the Whigs. Proof of the economic basis of this new political group is set forth in the last chapter. Examination of subscription lists of various newspapers, and of election maps and property statistics, shows conclusively that, for the most part, the term "Whig" coincided with large means and "Democrat" with small. These valuable tables giving statistics of party politics and economic interest are included as an appendix.

Other matters such as the strong Federalist sympathies of the Episcopal Church and Columbia College, the pioneer work of the New York gentry on the state's frontiers, the brilliant account of the convention of 1821, and the critical estimate of Clinton, deserve extended comment. The book is a noteworthy contribution to all the social sciences. AMELIA C. FORD.

GIDDES, P. and BANFORD, V. The coming polity: a study in reconstruction. New and enlarged edition. (London: Williams & Norgate. 1920. 6s. 6d.)

GRESHAM, M. Life of Walter Quintin Gresham. Vols. I and II. (New York: Rand McNally. 1920.)

HAMMOND, J. L. and B. The skilled labourer, 1760-1832. (New York: Longmans. 1920. Pp. x, 397. $4.50.)

HASSE, A. R. Index of economic material in documents of the states of the United States: Pennsylvania, 1790-1904; prepared for the department of economics and sociology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Part I, A to E. (Washington: Carnegie Institute. 1919. Pp. 810. $9.)

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