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students without pay, so often as others were found superior to the existing incumbents: we proposed to excite a general emulation, and to secure the services of the best informed only.
.With reference to the second paragraph of the letter from government, to which we replied, we begged lepve to remark that, although we proposed to make a certificate of qualification a necessary preliminary to the appointment of a pleader, we did not intend to confine this office, like that of a law officer, to those who qualified themselves at the college. In compliance with the orders of government, we proposed to leave it open to all, as at present, merely requiring that their competency should be ascertained by an examination at. Madras. preference, however, to the list of students already admitted into the college, as given in the previous part of our letter under notice, would we thought satisfactorily demonstrate, that the natives of • Madias and its neighbourhood were not likely to predominate in the law classes, for out of twenty-four persons whose names were there specified, only five were inhabitants of the presidency.
'We stated that we should proceed immediately to form the class of law-students in the vernacular languages according to the plan laid down in the 12th and the following paragraphs of our letter dated the 12th of May last, from which the pleaders in the several courts were hereafter to be selected, but until we could report that a sufficient number had rendered themselves competent to discharge the duties of that office, we proposed to defer the proposal of permanent regulations for this class, or for the mode in which the appoiutment of pleaders from it should take place. In this regulation, when submitted, we stated that we should introduce such provisions as might be considered necessary for regulating the conditions under which natives of the provinces, who had not studied at Madras, should be admitted as pleaders, and for determining the examination they should undergo, and the nature and form of the certificate they should be required to obtain.
We took this occasion to submit a list of. books for the use of the Mnhammadan law students attached to the college, and as these books were not procurable at this place, we recommended that it might be forwarded to Bengal, and that the Supreme Government might be requested to cause thesuperiutendance of the Muhammadan college in Calcutta to procure the books in question, aud to forward them at an early period to this presidency. The Bight Honourable the Governor in
Council, in reply, highly approved our proceedings in the formation of the different classes of native law students, and sanctioned the expense of one hundred aud thirty six pagodas per mensem which would be incurred on their account.
The Governor in Council, we were Informed, learut with much satisfaction that the public officers in the interior, and particularly those mentioned by us had afforded us their best assistance ou the present occasion.
An application it was observed would be made to the Government at Fort William for the books specified in the list which accompanied our letter.
STATE OP THE COLLEGE PRESS.
Before we proceed to recite our correspondence with the government, on the subject of the several oriental worksbrought under our review during the last year, we beg leave to subjoin a list of the books printed, printing, or preparing for the press, at the College.
Printed.—A Latin Grammar of the low Tamil, entitled Grammatka Latino-Tamulica, in qui de Vulgari Tamulicx Linguae Idiomate fusius tractatur.
This is a complete Grnmmarof the law, and an excellent key to the high dialect 5 it coutaius moreover in a supplementary chapter, " De variM quotidiano usui pracipue necessariis," a variety of information of the greatest practical utility to those who, by their situation, are compelled to daily intercourse with the Tamil natives. This Grammar was printed for the first and, we believe the last time, at the Protestant Missionary Press at TYati<quebar in the year 1738; the college edition has been formed partly from thi3, and partly from manuscripts written about the time of the author.
Preparing for the Press.—A Latin Grammar of the high Tamil, entitled Grnmmatica Latino-Tamulica ubi de elegantiore Linguae Tamulie;e dialecto tractatur; cui adduntur Tauiulics Prosee Rudimenta." This is not an entire and independent Grammar of the high dialect, but rather a supplement to the preceding" work; the two form together a complete Grammar of the two dialects, for, when the student has mastered the former, the latter coutaius all that is requisite for the perfect understanding of the high dialect; though without this previous study, it would be scarcely intelligible, the two in fact are the inseparable parts of an excellent system of Grammar.
Printing. -A Tamil andLatin Dictionary. This work Is complete as far as respects tht low dialect, and, like the two Grammars before mentioned, forms with the Sadur Agaradi, a perfect Dictionary of thewhole language, the illustration of the different meanings of words by appropriate phrases, and the explanation of peculiar observances, manners, and opinions, dispersed throughout it, arc not the least of its excellencies.
Printing.—The Sadur Agaradi, a Dictionary of the superior Tamil dialect, composer! entirely in that language. This work in fact consists of four distinct dictionaries; the first, Peijer, shews the several meanings of every word—the second, Porul, the several words bearing the same meaning—the third, Togei, shews the subordinate species of the technical and general terms of science and literature —and the fourth,Todpe, is a rliiming dictionary. It is compiled from the various dictionaries of the high Tamil of which there exists a great number, and is the only one which is entirely arranged jn alphabetical order; the words in the others (a few sections excepted in which the alphabetical form Is used from necessity) being collected into general classes and resembling therefore, vocabularies rather than dictionaries, except that they are more copious—I,ike the former, this work, as far as we are aware, has never beeu printed; the manuscript copies of it are, however, very numerous, and its perspicuous arrangement, gives it a preference over all other Tamil dictionaries.
The author of the whole of the foregoing Tamil works, which form a most complete set of elementary books on that language, was the Rev. J. C. Benchie, an Italian Jesuit, attached to the Mission at Madura, who arrived in India about the commencement of the 18th century, and is particularly celebrated in this part of
.India for the great knowledge he acquired of the Tamil language.
Printed.—A translation from Sanskrit into Tamil of the Tttara Khandara of the Ramayana of Valmiki, by Sidambala Vadyar, the head Tamil muster at the college. This is a class book for the use of the Junior civil servants attached to the college, and contains an account of the transactions 'previously to the commencement of the fable of the poem) of Havana and his relations, Hanuman and other personages of note, mentioned therein.—In addition
'to the original, the author has introduced an abstract of the story of the Kamayana, from the period of Hama's quitting Ayodhya, until his-return to it after the defeat and death of Ravana.
Printing.—A treatise on Tamil Grammar for the use of the earlier native students at the college, by Sidambala Vadyar, head Tamil master at the college. The rules of the Tamil Grammar are comprised in short verses, called Sutras, written in the superior dialect, in a brief and
abstruse style ; they are consequently difficult to comprehend, and the difficulty is by no means removed by the numerous commentators on them, all of whom differ from each other, and often from them^ selves; the originals also often disagree in doctrine. To reconcile the differences, whether of the texts or of the commentaries, and to render the knowledge of Tamil Grammar an acquirement easy to all, this treatise has been written in easy prose ; it is not intended to supersede the use of the Sutras, but to facilitate the comprehension of them after they have* as usual, been committed to memory by the student.
Prepared for the press.—A translation into Tamil from the Sanskrit of theViva*hara Khandani of Rita Mitakshara; by the late Purur Vadyar; completed and revised by his brother Sidambala Vadyar, the head Tamil master at the college. The original of this work is the commentary of Vighnaswara, on the text of Yagnyavalkya, and may he considered a general treatise on Hindu law—it is already known to the European world by the translation made of that part of it which relates to the law of inheritance, Dayabhaga, by H. T.Colebrooke, Esq.In the Tamil translation, the texts of Yagnyavalkya, and those quoted from other smritis, are. as in the original, in verse, accompanied by the usual explanatory gloss; but the commentary is in easy prose, thus enabling the students to commit the precepts of the law readily to memory, aud facilitating the general comprehension of therm
Printing.—A Grammar of the Telugu language, (commonly termed Gentoo,) peculiar to the Hindus inhabiting the northern provinces of the peninsula, by A. D. Campbell, Esq. of tlie Hon. East In<dia Company's Civil Service on the Madras establishment. Member of the Board of Superintendence for the College of Fort St. George.
This very laborious and most useful work supplies a want that has long been felt, both by the Civil and Military servants of the East-India Company on the coast, and by others, in habits of constant intercourse with the inhabitants of those extensive provinces, in which the Telugu is the only medium of communication with the great body of the people.
The author, although he has collected the substance of the original native Grammars, to which he has had recourse, has very judiciously deviated from the form observed in those treatises, the arrangement of the work being similar to that generally observed by European Grammarians: it is divided into six chapters.
The first treats of the Telugu Alphabet ; the second of the elision, insertion,
courage the composition of similar books by learned natives, the copyright has been purchased by the government at a very liberal price.
Preparing for the Press.—A vocabulary English and Telugu, the words of the common being distinguished from those of the classical dialect. By J. M'Kirrell, Esq. of the Hon- East-India Company's Civil Service on this establishment, Telugu Translator to Government, and "ex-officio" member of the Board of Superintendence.
Preparing for the Press.—1st. A Grammar of the Carnataca language commonly called the Canarese, founded upon an approved treatise, in the classical dialect.— 2d. A Vocabulary, English aud Carnataca, to which isadded, alist of Carnataca books, by .1. M'Keirell, Esq of the Hon. EastIndia Company's Civil Service on the Madras Establishment, Telneu Translator to Government, and "ex officio" Member of the Board of Superintendence.
The above-mentioned valuable works on the Carnataca language, peculiar to the Hindus inhabiting the middle provinces of the peninsula, are, perhaps, the first in any European language that treat of the elements of this useful tongue; and, when completed, will prove a great acquisition to the college, as constituting a set of elementary works on one of the three grand dialects of the peninsula, at present less known than either of the other two.
So soon as a fount of Carnataca types shall have been formed, it is expected that the Carnataca Grammar aud Vocabulary will be ready for publication.
BNGiisn Works. .
Preparing for the press.—Dissertations on the several modes of computing time observed by the inhabitants of the Indian peninsula, and on the method of converting time, computed according to any of these modes into European time, aud vice versa. By Captain John Warren, of H. M. 5Gth Regiment of Foot.—The copyright to this work has lately been purchased by the Government. The modes of computing time generally prevalent in the peninsula are, 1st, the computation among the Musulmans by the lunar year, dating from the epoch of the Hejira, or flight of Muhammad from Mecca.—2nd, The computation among the Hindus by the solar year, by which civil time is adjusted to the true beginning of each mouth and year, accordiug to the course of the sun; aud the use of leap-years is consequently precluded. This system dates from the Saka, or epoch of Salivihana, which period is divided into cycles of sixty years each. It prevails generally throughout the southern provinces under *he presidency of Madras, and wherever the Tamil language is spoken. 3d, The computation amongst the Hindus by the luni-solar year, of which the months are reckoned according to the course of the moon; but the years adjusted to the course of the sun, by the intercalation of months at particular periods. This system dates also from the epoch of Salivahana, divided into cycles of sixty, and prevails generally throughout the northern provinces under •he presidency of Madras, and wherever the Telugu language is spoken.
The first of Captain Warren's dissertations contains rules and tables for converting any given year, past or future, of the Hejira, into the corresponding year of the Christian sera; and the Christian year being given for finding the corresponding one of the Hejira, various examples of the application of these rules are added.
The second dissertation contains a translation of a tract by the Rev. J. C. Beschie, on the Hindu computation of time by the solar year, according to the respective methods of theVakyaand the Siddhanta, the two most reputed treatises in Tamil on astronomy, and various rules, tables, and examples, treating of the mode of converting such time, at any period, past or future, into European time, or European time into the solar time of the Hindus.
The third dissertation, not yet finished, is to treat in a siinilarTnanner of the lunisolar time of the Hindus.
To these dissertations the Board of Superintendence propose to add such information on the general subject, as will bring under one view all that relates to these several methods of computing time, thus affording to the public officer, and to the literary inquirer, a manual calculated to shorten their labors, and to assist their pursuits.
In concluding this list, we cannot omit the mention of a work which, although not preparing for the college press, is about to be published in communication with the college, and under the immediate patronage of the Government;—we allude to a Lexicon Of That Peculiar
"DIALECT OF THE HINDUSTANI LANGUAGE WHICH PREVAILS IN THE DEKHAN, OB
South Of India; by H. Harris, M. I). Second Member of the Medical Board at this Presidency.
In this very extensive, laborious, and valuable work which Dr. Harris will soon, we hope, have it in his power to lay before the public, every derivative, compound, and phrase, in general use or ac
- ceptation, that occurs in this useful and popular language, is carefully referred to
- Its proper theme or root; and the whole, thus analysed and distributed, arc ranged
■ la classes, after the manner of Scapula and
Golius in their celebrated Lexicons of theGreek and Arabic.
Primitives are accompanied as fur as practicable with the roots from which they are considered to spring, or to which they seem to approach, by striking affinities and analogies, each expressed in the proper character of its own language, whether of the Hebrew, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Arabic, Persian, Greek, Latin, &c. &c.
The different interpretations of each word will be given in English, and generally in Latin also, which will enable the learned author to define and fix the meanings, and shades of meaning of words, with additional precision and accuracy,and will render this work of utility to Europeans of every nation.
To the Lexiou three Indexes are subjoined :—1st, A general Hindustani Index, including every term and phrase in the Lexicon, referred to its proper root. —2d, A summary Latin Index.—3, A detailed English Index, which may be considered as the reversed portion of the work abridged.
Dr. Harris's Lexicon is confined to that particular dialect of the Hindustani which; has currency in the British possessions under the Presidency of Fort St. George. The author, therefore, has rejected a very considerable number of words, which, although to be found in every dictionary of the Hindustani language that has hitherto appeared in Bengal, are totally unknown in the peninsula. At the same time many primitives, and considerably more compounds and phrases, than tihe number of words, thus excluded, peculiar and indeed essential to the dialect of the south of India, are introduced into the columns of this Lexicon.
The great experience of the learned author eminently qualifies him for the laborious and important task which he has undertaken to execute. This work if already very far advanced, and the zeal, perseverance, talents, and research by which he is distinguished render it probable that the Lexicon will be ready for the press within fifteen mouths from the present date.
We had the honor, on the 2d of November last, to submit a detailed report on the merits of the Telugu grammar composed by Mr. A, I). Campbell,the first of the Telugu works enumerated in the foregoing list. Various circumstances, we observed, had combined to delay this report beyond the period at which we hoped originally to have submitted it; but this delay, we remarked, had afforded us au opportunity of entering into a more minute examination of the work, and we trusted that the result of our labours, as contained la onr report, would meet the approbation of the Right Hon. the Goveruarin Council.
In forwarding our report, we had been directed to state whether we would recommend the immediate printing of this work; a perusal of our report, we observed, would shew the opinion we entertamed of its merits ; the suggestions which we had made for its improvement, might, we thought, be fairly left to the discretion of Mr. Campbell; we felt confident that they would not be rejected without due consideration; and however we might differ from the author in minor points, our opinion of the general execution of the work was such, as enabled us to recommend that it should be immediately printed at the college.
As our remarks on Mr. Campbell's grammar are too voluminous to be admitted into the body of this address, we subjoin a copy of them as an appendix to the present general report.
The Right Honorable the Governor in Council was pleased on the 8th of November, 1814, to transmit for our consideration and report, a copy of a letter from Mr. M'Kerrell, Telugu translator to Government, with a Telugu vocabulary which accompanied it.
In reply to this communication, we observed, that in our present annual report we should state particularly the progress we had made in preparing elementary works for the use of the students in the college; in the mean time we confined our observations to the Telugu vocabulary composed by Mr. M'Kerrell.
The very considerable acquirements of Mr. M'Kerrell in Telugu and its cognate dialect the Cairarese, and the desire manifested by this gentleman to apply these acquirements to objects of public ■utility, were, we observed, already too well knowu to require particular remark; the present we considered another instance of laudable zeal in promoting one of the great objects for which the college was established; and which, under that encouragement which Government had always shewn themselves so willing to afford in similar cases, would, we trusted, be often imitated, When the talents of many who had benefitted by the institution should have attained greater maturlty.and elementary books should by degrees be provided for all the languages of Southern India.
We thought that the following remarks on Mr. M'Kerrell's work, would convey to the Right Honorable the Governor in Council a knowledge of the plan on which it was written, and the manner in which it was executed, and thereby enable him to form a judgment of its value to the public. The work, we observed, was a vocabulary, English and Telugu, ar
ranged alphabetically, and confined to the common dialect of the latter language; the meaning, or meanings of the several words were simply given, without explanation of their general or particular use^ and without examples of any kind: thi» plan, though possessing the advantage of brevity, might, we thought, in some case* be productive of inconveuience; for when two or more meanings of a word occurred, the student, without the assistance of a teacher, could not know which to select. '1 be execution of the work was, we added, in general correct; there were some mistakes in orthography, arising from too strict an adherence to common practice, and syuonymous terms might often be multiplied with advantage; but the defect of the greatest importance, was one which was, we remarked, insc-t parable from first productions of this kind; we meant the difficulty of rendering with precision abstract terms, or the names of objects or attributes familiar in one tongue, but unknown, or of unfrequent occurrence in the other.
Such defects, we observed, were not, however, more frequent than might be expected in a compilation in which little or no assistance could be derived from the labors of preceding writers; and there were none which might not be easily removed. As a whole, we considered the work calculated to afford assistance to the Telugu student, especially if it should receive that improvement of which some parts were susceptible, and we recommended, therefore, that it should be printed for the use of the college.
On the 15 th of February we had the honor to lay before the Right Honorable the Governor in Council a letter from Captain Warren, of His Majesty's 56th regiment of foot, a gentleman well known by his scientific acquirements and productions, forwarding to us a dissertation ou the solar computation of time, as practised through the whole of the southern provinces under this presidency, and in other parts of India, containing rules and tables for the ready conversion of European time into Indian solar time, and vice ver&A; also another dissertation on the lunar time observed by the Mubaunnadan nations, containing rules and tables for ^ascertaining the commencement of the year of the Hijira at any period, and for the reciprocal conversion of European and Mubammadan time. , , t
On the great utility of these rules and tables to the service in general, and to the students on the establishment under oyr charge in particular, we deemed it unnecessary to enlarge, it was, we observed, clear that it was a point of the first necessity, that the executive officers under this government should have a distinct knowledge of the several methods of computing time in ate among the inhabitants of