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on account of having penned his majesty's declaration against the Covenanters, fled to Oxford* and from thence into Wales, where he died at Chirk castle. From this period the see and episcopal government of Durham may be considered as virtually dissolved, for though bishops and deans and chapters were not yet formally voted useless, the whole revenues of the see and cathedral were seized by the Scots, the bishop's officers fled or were displaced, and the administration of the county passed entirely into the hands of the invaders, who were, after no long interval, succeeded by the parliamentary commissioners for treating with the second Scots army, under Leslie. The successful adventure of the Scottish Covenanters was not lost on their friends in England. A regular system of parliamentary encroachment on the prerogative was established; and Charles, equally misjudging and unfortunate in his opposition to popular rights, and in his concessions to popular clamour, saw his authority daily weakened, and his best friends exiled, disgraced, and persecuted, without feeling that his enemies were either satisfied or conciliated. The principle of steady and hereditary loyalty existed, perhaps, nowhere more pure and uncontaminated than in the northern counties; and when, after the stormy session of 1641, the king left his capital in the power of his enemies and threw himself on the fidelity of his northern subjects, the gentry aud yeomanry eagerly crowded round the royal standard, to offer their lives and fortunes in support of the crown and the royal person,f

• The precipitate flight of the dean gave rise to a proverb still in use—" Runaway Doctor Bokankic."—Sharp's Bishopric Garland, page 74.

t Surtees's History of Durham, vol. i., part i., page 97.

In the month of March, 1641, a bill passed the commons for removing the bishops from their seats in parliament, and on the 27 th of May following, it passed the house of peers. On the 15th of June, the commons voted, that all deans, deans and chapters, archdeacons, prebendaries, chanters, canons, petty canons, and their officers, shall be utterly abolished; that all the lands taken from deans and chapters shall be employed to the advancement of learning and piety, provision being made that hia majesty be no loser in his rents, first-fruits, and other duties; and that a competent maintenance shall be made to the several persons concerned, if such persons appear not to be delinquents.*

In August, 1641, the Scottish army having received sixty thousand pounds for disbanding, quitted Newcastle: they were to pass over the Tweed into their own country before the 25th of the same month. King Charles passed through Newcastle on the 10th of August, on his way post to Scotland. Mention occurs of his majesty's return by the same route on the 19th of November following.

In the same year, Thomas Morton, Bishop of Durham, was accused of high treason by the house of commons.

March 22nd, 1642, there is an order of parliament for suppressing tumultuous assemblages of the inhabitants of the county of Durham, who were pulling down enclosures [on the commons and moors].f About the same time advertisements were given out, of dangers from neighbouring princes ; upon which the Earl of Northumberland, Lord Admiral, was commanded to fit out all the Royal Navy for sea, and private owners of ships were persuaded to do the like. Beacons were new made, sea marks set

• Hutehinson's Durham, vol. i., page 505. t Diurnal Occurrences.

up, and great posting up and down with pacquete; all symptoms of the ensuing war.*

In November, 1642, the Earl of Newcastle formed the counties of Northumberland, Durham, Cumberland, and Westmorland, and the town of Newcastle, into an association for the king's service. On the 1st of December, the same year, the Earl being ordered to draw his forces towards York, began his march from Newcastle, and next day crossed the Tees at Piercebridge, where Captain Hotham disputed the pass for several hours. with a small party of Fairfax's horse, and two pieces of cannon. In this skirmish Colonel Thomas Howard, of Tursdale, son of Lord William Howard, and several other officers of the royal party were killed. The Earl of Newcastle, after forcing the passage, continued his march to York, whilst Hotham retreated to Lord Fairfax's quarters atTadcaster; and the county of Durham was not subsequently the scene of any action of importance till the second entry of the Scots army into England in 1644. Previous to this event the town and port of Sunderland, which was rising rapidly into importance, appears to have been garrisoned for the king.f On the 14th of January, 1642-3, "The Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, taking into their consideration the number of Shipps, and quantity of Money, that is every yeare imployed from London and other parts and places in this Kingdome, for the fetching of Coales and Salt from Newcastle, Sunderland, and Blyth; And finding that since the beginning of the pre

• Whitelocke's Memorials, p. 54.

t William SummerbeH, garrison soldier, and Margaret Moody, married June 18, 1642;" again, " Adam Thompson, souldier of the garrison, and Ursula Bee, of this parish, August 27, 1642."—Bishopvpearmoulh Par. Reg.

sent Troubles, that Towne of Newcastle, being possessed by forces raised against the King, and Parliament, hath beene, and is the Principall In-let of Forreine Ayde, Forces, and Ammunition, for the strengthening of that Force that intends Destruction to the Parliament, and thereby to the Religion, Lawes, and Liberties of this Kingdome; And taking into Consideration, that sufficient Coales be supplyed from other Parts, for the use of this Kingdome, doe Declare, that they are inforced, for the safetie of the Kingdome, and for the better hindering of the supporting of the said Forces, and of the reducing of the Towne of Newcastle, and the Parts Adjacent, to yeeld obedience and submission, to the Commands of the two Houses of Parliament, Are constreined for the present, to hinder the repairing of Shippes to Newcastle, Sunderland, and Blyth, lest those Shippes and Money which are intended to procure Fewel, for the supportation of the Kingdome, be improved to give vigour and mainteinance to the Warre, raised to the Destruction thereof; For prevention whereof, we the Lords and Commons doe Ordaine, That no Shippe, Shippes, or Barques, shall from henceforwards, make any Voyage for the fetching of Coales, or Salt, from Newcastle, Sunderland, or Blyth, or carrying of Corne, or other provision of Victuall, Vntill that Towne of Newcastle shall be freed of, and from the Forces there now raised, or mainteined against the Parliament, and the Towne be reduced into such hands, and condition, as shall declare themselves for King and Parliament; And the Masters, Owners, and Saviors of Ships, and Barques, are hereby required, not to presume to goe that Voyage contrary to this Ordainance: And it is further Ordained, and Ordered, that if any Ship,

Vessel], or Barque, shall at any time after the first day of February next comming, Import, or bring into any Port or Place in this Kingdome, any Coales or Salt Laden from Newcastle, Sunderland, and Blyth, or any of them, untill further Order be taken by both Houses of Parliament, that every such Ship, Vessell, and Barque, and the Master and Saylors in the same, shall be seized upon, and stayed in such Port and Place where they come in, Vntill the two Houses of Parliament being thereof Informed, shall take further Order and Direction therein."*

On the 3rd May, 1643, Cheapside Cross and other crosses were voted down: and on 28th August following, both houses passed an ordinance for demolishing and removing all monuments of idolatry and superstition out of all churches and chapels in England and Wales.f

Sunderland still retained its loyalty as will appear from the following "Ordinance," dated the 5th June, 1643.

"Whereas the greatest part of this Kingdom, and more especially the City of London and most Maritime towns are served and furnished with Coales from the Town of Newcastle upon Tine, and the adjacent parts of Northumberland, and the Bishopricke of Durham, which being now kept by Forces consisting of Papists and other ill affected persons, under the command of the Earle of Newcastle, the City of London and all the greatest part of this Kingdome are like to suffer very deeply in the want of that Commodity so absolutely necessary to the maintainance and support of life; and which is like to be of

• A Declaration of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, &c. Printed for John Wright, iu the Old Bailey. Ian. 16, 1042.

t Whitelocke's Memorials, Jijj. 0G, 68.
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