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disagreed to, postponed, or recommitted to the committee.1 chapter Resolutions which have heen recommitted to a committee

of the whole house, and reported, have been again recom- from

... j , ... a committee

mitted to the committee/ 0f SUppiy,

In the Commons, the principal proceedings in committees see P- 628of the whole house are in reference to bills (see p. 483), and the voting of supply, and ways and means (see p. 603); of which a description will be found in the chapters relating to these matters.

Grandcom- Since 1832, the annual appointment of the ancient grand committees for religion, for grievances, for courts of justice, and for trade, has been discontinued. They had long since fallen into disuse, and served only to mark the ample jurisdiction of the Commons in Parliament. "When they were accustomed to sit, they were, in fact, constituted like committees of the whole house, but sat at times when the house itself was not sitting.8

Committee The ancient committee of privileges is also analogous to

of privi

legei. a grand committee, consisting of certain members specially
nominated, of all knights of shires, gentlemen of the long
robe, and merchants in the house; and " all who come are
to have voices." This committee is still appointed at the
commencement of each session: but it is not nominated or
appointed to sit, unless there be some special matter to be
referred to it, as was the case in 1847.1
Entry of In the Commons, the proceedings of committees of the
in the mgS whole house have been entered in the journals since the
journals. 23r(1 j'ei)ruary) 1829, when the Speaker submitted to
the house that arrangements should be made to effect
that object, to which the house assented.5 In the "Votes

1 112 C. J. 227; 119 ib. 333; 75 843; 14th April, 1641; 2 ib. 120, &c.
ib. 379 ;76ib.440; 95 ib. 169; 77 ib. * 103 ib. 139 (West Gloucester
314; 83 ib. 509; 77 ib. 314; 119 ib. Election). In 1904 and 1905 the
122. committee, which was ordered to

2 83 ib. 533. consist of seven members, was nomi

3 1 ib. 220. 822. 873. 1042, &c.; 2 nated, but as no matter arose for
ib. 8. 153. 202. 821, &c.; Lex Pari, its consideration it did not sit, 159
339; Scobell, 35-38; 4 Kushworth, ib. 258; 160 ib. 60.

Col. 19; see also 3 Lord Colchester's 8 84 ib. 78.
Diary, 481; 3rd April, 1626, 1 C. J.

and Proceedings," all amendments in committee on bills, upon which divisions arise, are entered: but other amendments are only referred to in general terms.1 And the Lords have more recently adopted a similar form of entry in their journals. In a committee of the whole house, it is customary for the clerk assistant to officiate as Clerk. The transaction of public business in the House of Com- standing

, committees

mons was forwarded by the appointment, during the session on law, of 1883, pursuant to resolutions agreed to on the 1sttrade'&c' December, 1882, of standing committees for the consideration of bills relating to law, courts of justice, and legal procedure, and to trade, shipping, and manufactures. These committees, on the one hand, are, in procedure and method, assimilated to select committees, and are, on the other hand, in the number and choice of members, more representative than a select committee, and follow in many respects the method of business adopted by committees of the whole house.2 The resolutions of 1st December, 1882, for the appointment of the standing committees, were not, until the 7th March, 1888, placed among the standing s. o. 4«, orders of the house, when it was ordered that bills relating Appendlx ■ to agriculture and fishing be deemed bills relating to trade.

Two standing committees are accordingly appointed y°TMJ,nfa" during each session, pursuant to standing orders Nos. 47. standing 48. and 49, for the consideration of such bills relating to tees, law and courts of justice and legal procedure, and to trade, s- 0.47. shipping, manufactures, agriculture, and fishing, as may be pendsx' tv committed to them.8 These standing committees, consisting

1 191 H. D. 3 s. 574; 110 Pari. vention of Crime (Ireland) BiU

Deb. 4 s. 1073. thirty-one sittings.

* The appointment of standing 3 In sessions 1894 and 1895 a committees was an attempt to meet standing committee was appointed the demand made upon the time of for the consideration of all bills the house by the consideration of introduced by a minister of the bills in a committee of the whole crown relating exclusively to Scothouse. For example, in 1879, the land, which might by order of the committee on the Army Discipline house be committed to it. The and Regulation Bill held twenty- committee consisted of aU the two sittings; in 1881, the com- members representing Scottish mittee on the Irish Land Bill constituencies together with fifteen thirty-nine sittings, and the Pre- (in 1895 twenty) other members of not less than sixty, nor more than eighty, members, are chapter nominated by the committee of selection, -who are in their XIT'

nomination to regard the classes of bills committed to the Committee

of Selec

committees, the composition of the house, and the qualifi- tu>n, see p. cations of the members selected.

The committee of selection has the power of adding not more than fifteen members to a standing committee in respect of any bills referred to it, to serve on the committee during the consideration of such bill; and of discharging members serving on the standing committees, and of appointing others in substitution for those discharged, chairmen's The committee of selection also nominates a chairmen's panel" panel, consisting of not less than four, nor more than six, members, of whom three are the quorum; and the chairmen's panel appoint from among themselves the chairman Adjoumof each standing committee, and may change the chairman, so appointed, from time to time.1 The quorum of a stand- p^^566 ing committee is twenty. Procedure The rules and standing orders applicable to select comcomm?td-1DS mittees are, by standing order No. 47, made applicable to '"' standing committees, unless the house shall otherwise order. Members have the right of access, as in the case of select committees (see p. 408), to the room occupied by a standing committee; and strangers are admitted, except when chairman's the committee shall order them to withdraw. The chairman of a standing committee also, following the rule in select committees (see p. 411), can only vote when there is an equality of voices.2 As is the rule regarding all committees, a motion for the previous question would be out of order in a standing committee. Standing committees cannot sit

nominated by the committee of panel was empowered to ask any

selection, 149 C. J. 106; 150 ib. 232. other member of the panel to take

For a proposal to commit a bill his place in case of necessity, 157

relating to London to a com- ib. 90.

mittee of all the members repre- J When the chairman states his

scnting London constituencies and reasons for his vote they are entered

fifteen members nominated by the on the Minutes of Proceedings;

committee of selection, see 149 ib. Standing Committee on Law, etc.;

318. Trades Unions and Trades Disputes

1 The chairmen's panel resolved Bill, 5th April, 1905, Pari. Paper,

in 1902 that any member of the No. 154, p. 9.

Chapter
XIV.

Instructions to standing committees, see p. 481.

Previous question not permissible, see p. 284.

after three o'clock whilst the house is sitting, -with-
out the order of the house, which is obtained before
the commencement of public business, upon a motion,
made without notice given, by the chairman, or by a
member in his behalf.1

No notice is required of a motion to commit a bill to a
standing committee, and this motion can be made though
the bill is under consideration by a committee of the whole
house (see p. 499). Upon this motion, debate must be
restricted to the effect of the reference of the bill to a
standing committee, or to its expediency; and general
debate upon the merits or clauses of the bill is not per-
mitted.2 An amendment to insert at the end of the motion
the words, "upon this day six months," has been ruled to
be out of order.3

Notice of an instruction to a standing committee can stand upon the notice paper, either after the motion for referring a bill to the committee, or as an independent motion.4

The proceedings of a standing committee are assimilated, as far as possible, to those of a committee of the whole house. The doors of the room in which the committee sits are locked during a division, and every member present when the question is put must vote, and if he has not heard the question, the chairman will again state it to him. A standing committee has also the power of determining the

Reference of bills to stnnding committees.

Proceedings of standing committees.

1 39 Pari. Deb. 4 B. 1362. Orders so obtained bave referred to the day upon wbich they wero made (158 C. J. 342, etc.), or to every day on which the committee might sit until tho conclusion of a specified bill, 150 ib. 209; 151 ib. 113; 152 ib. 229; 153 ib. 112; 154 ib. 162; 156 ib. 256. Standing committees have also been enabled to sit on future days during the sitting of the house until the conclusion of a bill upon a motion made (with notice) at the commencement of public business by a minister of the crown, 147 ib. 269; 151 ib. 167; 155 ib. 310. On

20th July, 1904, the standing com-
mitteo on trade met, but adjourned
immediately, as the sitting of the
house of the previous day had not
been concluded.

'Criminal Code (Indictable Of-
fences) Bill, 16th April, 1883, 278
H. D. 8 s. 338. 335. 841; 287 ib.
1870; 4 Pari. Deb. 4 s. 305, 1310.

» 278 ib. 394.

'Standing committees have been empowered by instruction to consolidate two bills into one bill, 188 C. J. 141; 145 ib. 418; 146 ib. 254; 156 ib. 824; 158 ib. 280.

question of a personal interest in a vote.1 Notices of Chapter amendments, given in the house, are printed and circulated!

with the "Votes," and stand referred to the committee, although the member who gives the notice is not a member of the committee. The members address the chair standing; amendments are proposed under the rules in force in the house; and the minutes of proceedings are printed and circulated, with the divisions upon every question.2 Closure cannot be moved in a standing committee, but the chairman possesses an inherent right, when he sees that the transaction of business is becoming impossible, to shorten discussion.8 Thus chairmen of standing committees, when they have considered that an amendment has been discussed adequately, have proceeded to put the question thereupon without allowing further debate4 They have also declined to accept a motion for the adjournment of the committee,5 or have put the question upon such a motion without permitting debate.6 Duties of It is the duty of standing committees, as it is the duty of all committees, to fulfil, as far as possible, the duty laid upon them by the house, and to give to the matters referred to the committee due and sufficient consideration. The following examples of procedure show that, whilst a stand- Powers of

... . , committees

ing committee can, without an infraction of this rule, over bills,
report a bill to the house in an incomplete Btate, a motion 91'
intended to obtain that object, moved to prevent the further
progress of the bill in the committee, was not permitted.

1 99 O. J. 447. 5 Standing Committee on Law,

8 144 ib. 160; 145 ib. 248. Aliens Bill, 27th June, 1904, Pari.

3 10 Pari. Deb. 4 8. 912. Paper No. 242, p. 12; Labourers'

« Standing Committee on Law, (Ireland) Bill, 26th July, 1904, Pari.

Clergy Discipline (Immorality) Bill, Paper No. 284, p. 9. Standing Com

23rd and 24th May, 1892, see Times, mittee on Trade, Compensation for

24th and 25th May. Places of Damage to Crops Bill, 21st March,

Worship Enfranchisement Bill, 1905, Pari. Paper, No. 97, p. 7.

28rd March, 1893; Marriage with Standing Committee on Law, Trade

a Deceased Wife's Sister Bill, 18th Unions and Trado Disputes Bill,

May, 1903, Pari. Paper No. 218, p. 8th May, 1905, Pari. Paper No. 154,

8; Standing Committee on Trade, p. 20.

Compensation for Damage to Crops "Standing Committee on Law,

Bill, 21st March, 1905, Pari. Paper Marriage with a Deceased Wife's

No. 97, p. 7. Sister Bill, 18th May, 1903.

standing committees.

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