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II. Methods. Principles involving the discussion, first, of man as an educable being, and to knowledge, or science as a force to be employed in his education; and second, to Methods, or the manner of this application.
These Methods again assume a twofold character, as general and special; general, in the wise adjustment of forces to be employed, in the subsequent management of the school; and special, in the working out of those details belonging more especially to classes.
The first of these, or general Methods, would include among other things, SCHOOL ORGANIZATION, including what may be called, first, the Temporary Organization, or that affecting an arrangement, for the purpose of testing the qualities of the material, and for reducing it to proper order.
This implies (a) the Preliminaries or business necessary to be transacted between the parties to the school, such as (1) the contract for teaching, (2) the repairs that may be needed, (3) the janitor's work, by whom performed, &c.; (b) the Examination preparatory to proper classification, determined, (1) by the pupil's own estimate of his proficiency, (2) by previous advantages, and the estimate of others, wiser than himself, and (3) by the teacher's estimate, determined (c) by Tests or Trials, (1) in class recitations for a few days, (2) in formal examinations, and (3) by the age, size, temperament, and capacity, of the pupil; (d) the Classification, including (a') the kinds, as (1) close, as applied to cities and towns, where the same grades may occupy the same divisions, in all studies, (2) the loose, or that kind of classification best suited to the wants of country schools where more latitude must be given to the pupils as respects studies; (b') the advantages of classification (1) in the economy of time and expense, (2) the care in the preparation of lessons, (3) the stimulating effect, of a community of interests; (c) the danger of a too rigid classification, (1) in ignoring a diversity of gifts, or any predilections to special studies, or a gift to excel in any particular branch, (2) interfering with individual development, (3) the tendency to encourage habits of dependence, by relying upon others to do the work of preparation of lessons; (d') the obstacles to a good classification, considered, among which may be named (1) a diversity of text-books, (2) irregular attendance, either daily absences or tardiness, (3) indifference or penuriousness of parents, and patrons, both as to books and attendance.
The methods for overcoming these "obstacles," and indeed many other points that seem, in a brief outline, to have but little significance, will be noticed in “ Special Methods,” and the “ Incentives to Study,” &c.
Our next topic, and the last to be noticed, under the head of " Temporary Organization,” is SEATING A SCHOOL. Much skill may be exhibited here : and much subsequent mischief and other annoyances may be avoided, if the proper precautions are taken. The methods usually adopted, and those claiming attention here, are as follows: (a) The Promiscuous Seating, or that which allows the pupils of a school to select their own seats, without respect to size, age, or other considerations such as (1) the advantages, (2) dangers, (b) in classes, (1) advantages and (2) dangers, (c) according to size, age, or any other peculiarities, (1) the advantages, and (2) the dangers or disadvantages. These several methods are to be carefully weighed, and so much of each to be adopted, as the circumstances shall demand.
The temporary organization may now be considered complete. It should be so carefully managed as not only to prevent idleness during the process--which is most readily done by hearing classes and examining and testing the proficiency of candidates and classes in the various ways--but also to put things in such shape, that, at the expiration of the time-let that be a day or a week and the latter is better if the school is a strange one), it shall readily glide into the permanent organization; or that the temporary organization may after a given time, simply be satisfied, and become the permanent, the teacher, meanwhile reserving the privilege to suggest or order any changes that may appear necessary. But no changes should be made after the first week of a term, except for the most urgent reasons, so that when the machinery is once thoroughly put in motion, it may not, for slight cause, be interrupted. Ohio Central Normal School.
JOHN OGDEN. Worthington, Ohio.
-We may learn something from the Swedes. It is said they provide schools in which neglected children are taught. An English traveller noticing this fact inquired whether the schools were not costly. The answer given him was, “Yes; they are costly, but not dear. We Swedes are not rich enough to let a child grow up in ignorance, misery, and 'crime, to become a scourge to society as well as a disgrace to himself.” This is a doctrine that the favorers of compulsory education may use with telling effect.
-The Inaugural Address of the Hon. M. A. Newell, delivered at the last meeting of the National Educational Association, in Louisville, has been published in pamphlet form. This address discussed in a vigorous manner the live question of “Education and Labor." We presume that copies of the address may be obtained by addressing Mr. Newell at Balti
Prof. L. S. Thompson's excellent paper on Drawing read both at Put-in-Bay before the Ohio Teachers' Association in July and at Louisville before the National Educational Association in August, has also been published in pamphlet form. Prof. Thompson has had the paper published at the request of many prominent educators who think its general circulation will do much good. It is just such a paper as Superintendents ought to get for distribution among members of Boards of Education. Copies may be obtained at cost of Prof. L. S. Thompson, now of Lafayette, Ind. As the publication of the paper is of no personal value to Prof. Thompson it is hoped that there will be a sufficient demand made for the pamphlet to cover the expense of printing it.
-The most unique of our exchanges is the Atheneum published at Springfield, Ill. It is a monthly “devoted to Elocutionary Literature, Original and Selected Articles adapted to the purposes of Literary Societies, Elocutionists and Public Readers.” We cannot give our readers a better idea of it than by mentioning the contents of No. 5, vol. I, Sept., 1877, now before us. “Scene from “Edward the Second,” Prairieland, John and Tibbie's Dispute, The Lost and Found, Only a Woman, The Last Banquet, Baby's Shoes, Katydid, Wedding Scene, The Suliote Mother, Balaklava, Reuben and Rose, The Farewell to the Dead, The Chestnut Horse, The Warrior's Gift, and Editorial Budget.”
-One of the chief features of our journal is the attention given to personals. Occasionally there may be readers who care very little for such items, but the great majority of teachers, some of the ablest in the country, are sure to glance over the personals feeling sure that they will
meet a reference to some person whose career is of interest to them. We were glad to notice that the Atheneum appreciates our efforts in the matter of personals as is evidenced by the following:—“The Ohio Educational Monthly and National Teacher published at Salem, O., by W D. Henkle, keeps its readers posted as to the changes of location of the numerous teachers and graduates of the various colleges and schools of the State. This is a feature deserving the attention of other similar journals.”
-We attended, the week beginning August 27th, the City Institute of Dayton. Sup’t Hancock resolved to depart from the usual routine and introduce some new features. In this he was successful. Many of the teachers expressed themselves highly delighted with the week's work. We were allowed to talk about what we chose, and Mr. Hancock gave one suggestive lecture each day. Penmanship was presented daily by Mr. A. D. Wilt, of the Miami Commercial College, and T. J. McAvoy. Forty minutes were given each afternoon to singing under charge of Mr. Myers. On several days, at the request of the High-School teachers, we met them during the time of the singing exercises and talked to them upon Algebra and General History. The peculiar feature of the Institute was the requisition made by Mr. Hancock upon each teacher to propose a practical question for discussion. These questions were excellent, having no similarity to the trivial questions often proposed at Institutes, and the discussions were very instructive. After the first day Miss Jane Blackwood, of the Normal School, took charge of one division of the Institute during the question exercises. Able afternoon addresses were delivered by Robert Steele, Esq., Dr. J. C. Reeve, and Prof. Robert of Cooper Seminary. The Institute closed on Friday afternoon with a short and stirring address by the Rev. Theodore Cuyler, of Brooklyn.
-The last of the printed sheets of the Proceedings of the National Educational Association will be sent to the binder in a few days. It is hoped that the bound volumes will reach the Treasurer in Washington City so that he can begin to send them out to members by the middle of next month. The volume will contain many valuable papers. We shall give in our next issue full particulars as to contents, and prices for single copies sent free of expense, and wholesale price for lots sent at the expense of purchasers.
-Now is the time of year for teachers to decide as to the periodical literature that they will read next year, beside the Ohio Educational Monthly and Educational Notes and Queries. Our country is now supplied with a large number of excellent periodicals which do much to educate teachers and families. Of the 4-dollar periodicals we may name, in the order of their age, Harper's Magazine (1850), Atlantic Monthly (1857), Galaxy (1866), Lippincott's Magazine (1868), and Scribner's Monthly (1870). Among the 5-dollar periodicals are the Popular Science, Monthly, the
North-American Review, and the International Review. Littell's Living Age ($8) comes weekly. The prominent juvenile periodicals are the Youth's Companion ($1.75), weekly, and the monthlies, St. Nicholas ($3), Wide Awake ($2), and Our Young Folks' Magazine, edited by a Catholic Priest, ($1.60). The Sanitarian ($3), a monthly, often contains articles valuable to a teacher. To those fond of metaphysics we commend the Journal of Speculative Philosophy, edited by W. T. Harris, of St. Louis, The Naturalist and the Analyst are just the things for students of Natural History and Mathematics. In this list we have made no reference to the English periodicals reprinted in this country by the Leonard Scott Publishing Company. Next month we hope to be able to give a full list of educational periodicals published in this country.
-We expect next year to give short comments at different times upon details relating to branches and school work. We know that many teachers will read such editorials with interest. We shall be glad to receive suggestions as to the points that teachers would like to have discussed in
a brief way.
-A COMMITTEE consisting of Prof. Eli T. Tappan, of Gambier, Prof. L. D. McCabe, of Delaware, and Pres. J. B. Helwig, of Springfield, has been appointed by the Association of Colleges of Ohio, to prepare a report showing what High Schools in Ohio are preparing students for college.
Principals and Superintendents are requested to assist the committee by sending to the undersigned printed reports, showing the course of study and text-books used. Where there are no printed reports, please send a written statement showing the course of study in either Latin, French, Greek, or German, the text-books used, and the school year in which such instruction begins.
ELI T. TAPPAX, Chairman. GAMBIER, O., October 12, 1877.
-When notified that a subscriber has failed to receive any number of this journal due him, we always remail it. All changes of address should reach us by the twentieth of the month preceding the one in which the change is to take effect. If a subscriber should delay the order for change of address until after a number shall have been sent to his former address, he should forward a two-cent stamp to the postmaster to pay for forwarding the number. Subscriptions should begin with January, April, July, or October.
-We send the Parents and Teachers' Monthly with the Ohio Educational Monthly for $1.90 a year.
-THERE are 500 pupils in the Worcester (Mass.) High School.