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Price of Stocks, London, March 23. Ditto Metallic 5 per Cents. with dividend from 3 per Cent.Cons.80311
1 pm. par 3 pm.
March, 78. 804 Ditto, £500, 1 4 2 pm.
Austrian Metallic 5 per Cents. with div. from 5 per Cent. Navy, 1033 Ditto, small, 47 pm.
1st inst. 77 to 773 Lott. Tickets, 221. 188. Columbian 10 per Cent. with div. from August, India Bonds, 46 43 pm Bank for Acc. 2510
1820, 115. Ex. Bills, 2d., £1000, Cons. for Acc. 801 IŠ Average Price of Grain per Quarter, for the 12 Prices of Foreign Stock in London, March 26.
Districts, from the Gazette. French 5 per cent. with div. from Mar. 22, 90f. Wheat. Barley.(Oats. Rye.Beans.Peas. Exch. 25f. 20c. to 25c.
s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d.) s. d. Prussian 5 per cent. with div. fr. Oct. 1, 914
Feb.23.47 7 19 4 15 423 3 22 3 23 11 Danish 5 per cent. with div.fr. Jan. 1,863 to
Mar. 2.46 11 19 2 15 623 5 22 8 23 4 Neapolitan ditto, with div.fr. Jan. 1,71 to 1
9.46 10 18 8 16 020 821 9 23 4 Spanish ditto, with div. from Nov. 681
16.45 11 18 3 15 721 11/21 7 23 1 Spanish 5 per cent. Bonds, of 100 Dollars each,
Number of Bankrupts. with div. from Oct. 30, 68) American 3 per Cents. with div. from Jan. 1, 70. Average Prices of Sugar Jan. 26, 18 Ditto 5 per Cents. with div. from Jan. 96 to 961 Feb 27, 328. 41d. cwt. Mar. 2, 5, 23 Ditto 6 per Cents. with div.fr. Jan. 1, 97 to 99. Mar. 6, 33 18
9, 12, 23 Ditto Bank Shares, with div. fr. July, 221. 15s.
12, 33 6
16, 19, 43 Russian 6 per Cents. with div. from Jan. 1, 82. 20, 34 03
23, 26, 14 Exchange, 12d. per rouble.
COMMERCIAL REPORT, LIVERPOOL, 25th MARCH, 1822. The trade of the Port in general is bat languid, nor can we expect a decided improvement until the proposed alterations, recommended by the Committee for Foreign Trade, come into operation. So far as they are known, they appear to be on a large and liberal scale; and whilst they will afford some facilities and advantages to foreign nations, the benefits to this country will be decisive, and will tend to restore to us the transit trade, and several other branches which had nearly left as since the general peace.
It is, however, consoling to observe, that our manufactures are in a very flourishing condi. tion; the exports within the last six months were never known to have been so large, and though there may be a danger that some places will be overstocked, yet the demand appears likely to be good for some time to come. The Manufactories in this county, Yorkshire, and Staffordshire, seem to be in full activity. The Iron Trade in the last mentioned county is the only branch which is at a low ebb.
The operations in our market, and the present state of prices, will be best seen from the transactions of the last week, in the subsequent notices.
Sugars.-Only two sales of British Plantation Sugars were brought forward last week, which sold at full prices. 300 tons of strong brown and yellow Sugar, just arrived from Bourbon, have been taken by a refiner, at 24s. per cwt. in bond. Bengals have found buyers at 69s. for fine yellow, to 745. 9d. for middling white, duty paid.
Coffee.--The transactions have been very trivial, at former prices.
Rums.-The market is not so active as might have been expected, considering the probability that our West-India Colonies would partially be thrown open to the Americans-40 puncheons Leewards, common strengths, have sold at 1s. 4d. to 1s. 5d. 180 puncheons 25. 32. OP. 2s. 3d. to 2s.6d per gallon. 40 puncheons Jamaicas, 2s. 1d. per gallon, for 16 OP. Owing to the large stock on hand, the whole advance has only been 1d. to 2d. per gallon.
Cottons.--There has a good inquiry been experienced all the week from the dealers, who have purchased freely in Boweds ; a trifing speculation has likewise appeared for this kind of cotton, but no improvement can be noticed in prices. Sea-Islands still continue in request, and the quantity going out of the market is considerable, yet the prices remain stationary. In Brazils, and others kinds, there is no alteration. The sales amount to 8155 packages.
Tobacco.-The transactions for home use are extremely limited; previous prices however are steadily maintained.
Dry Saltery Goods, &c.—The sales in Ashes have been at former prices. American Tar of inferior quality fetched 13s. per barrel ; 800 barrels of Turpentine 12s. 6d. to 12s. 9d. per cwt. Quercitron Bark is in limited demand. 30 tons of Nicaragua wood have been disposed of at £35. to £39. per ton. Cuba Fustic £14. Campeachy Logwood £11. to £11. 11s. Jamaica £10. 10s. per ton. American Beeswax £12. per cwt. Malaga Sumac 18s. 3s. to 19s. 6d. per cwt. 60 casks of Cocoanut Oil obtained only Žls. to 32s. 6d. per cwt.
The sales of Hides have this week been very extensive, and Horse Hides have improved 3d. per Hide. 9000 Buenos Ayres dry Cow and Ox, at 8df. to 100}. per. Ib. 1600 Bulls 7d}. to 8d3. 500 salted at 6d. per lb. 21,000 Horse 6s. 9d. to 7s. 6d. per hide. 1800 salted North American Cows at 5df. per lb.
Tallow very dull and declining.
Corn Market.- At our last market day the business was very trivial, and prices may be considered almost nominal. Nearly all the sweet American Flour in bond, has been sold for export at 28s. to 30s. per barrel. Rice is dull of sale at 16s. to 18s. per cwt. in bond. New York Flax Şeed 49s. to 50s. per barrel. Clover Seed, American red, 60s. per cwt.
LONDON : PRINTED AT THE CAXTON PRESS, BY H. FISHER.
OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.
“ SOCIAL REFINEMENT HAS NO EXISTENCE wnERE LITERATURE IS UNKNOWN.” [1822.
THE PIfYSICAL AND MORAL WORLD. sidering one subject, we have at the
same time to take into view at least No. 5.-Examination of the respective three, if not four. If our attention be
Steps of the Seven-fold Scale of the called, in the first place, to the vegeUniverse.
table kingdom itself; it will, secondly, ( Continued from col. 310.)
be attracted to the soil or chemical
kingdom, with which it stands corAnd first, of the
nected; it will, thirdly, be drawn to 3 4
5 consider the influence of the sun, upon Chemical, Vegetable, and Animal, which the growth of vegetables de
pends; and, fourthly, their use in being the
serving for the sustenence of animals, Province of the Senses. wbich rank next to the vegetable kingFrom the method laid down, of pro- dom on the right of the scale. ceeding from the centre towards the Thus, by investigating one subject, extremities, our first object will be to we are necessarily led to extend it to treat of the fourth or central step of three or four. And, supposing our the scale, which is the organic vege- | knowledge were perfect as it respecttable. But here it must be observed, ed all the particulars of each, then that it is not a minute botanical de- should we be qualified to form a perscription that is intended ; but only fect system ; for our systems must such a description as accords with our always correspond with our knowplan of approximating towards a ge- ledge ; and for want of perfect knowneral system of things.
ledge, how upright soever may be our We have chosen the fourth or cen- intentions, our systems must partake tral step, as the natural point whence of imperfections. to set out in our examination of the In the investigation of the subject seven-fold scale, which comprehends in hand, therefore, we must begin all science; and from this point or with the glorious luminary the Sun, centre, we are to travel, as it were, to a the centre of the solar system, and circumference, and proceeding in the soul or animating principle of the vegecourse of the circumference, we can table kingdom. This glorious luminever, properly speaking, come to a nary is to be considered under the termination or resting place : but con- various aspects of his diversified opestantly, in all our scales, we have to rations on the material world. These, set out from this point or centre, pro- we conceive, may be comprehended ceeding towards the circumference, under three heads. 1. His influence and as constantly to return by way of on the organic structure of vegetables, the circumference, to the centre or which occupy the centre of the scale. point whence we set out.
2. His influence on the chemical kingFor example: Though we begin with dom, which ranks next on the left the vegetable kingdom, yet so involv- and, 3. His influence on the animal ed is it with the other parts of the sys- kingdom, which occupies a similar tem of tbis globe, and of the universe station on the right. in general, that it is impossible to In order to account for the influence treat of the one without treating of the of the solar phenomena on the three other. The vegetable kingdom stands kingdoms of nature, which evidently not insulated in the scale of existence. differ in their properties, as far as It stands connected with the earth by animate differs from inanimate, and roots and fibres; as also with the hea- organic from inorganic, we must avail vens in respect of their influence on ourselves of the now established fact its vegetating powers. Hence, in of the three-fold radiance of the Sun, treating of vegetables, instead of con- | which appears in the following invaNo. 40.--VOL. IV.
como riable order, in the prismatic spec- tion, and if the oxygen is always abtrum. In the centre are the colorific or sorbed or consumed during these proseven-coloured rays of light. To the cesses ; is it not agreeable to analogy, left, and answering to the chemical to think that there must be another kingdom, are rays which give neither substance generated and given out, light nor heat, but possess the pro- possessed of properties the very oppoperty of reducing the metallic oxydes, site of oxygen, or vital air ; for in and are thence cailed rays of deoxidu- each process, is there not as much air tion. To the right, and answering to given out as what is absorbed ? Yes, the animal kingdom, are, on the con- this is actually the case ; and experitrary, rays which produce neither of ence has proved that this opposite the above effects, but heat only, and principle is carbon in its gaseous are thence called calorific rays. Each state. class of rays thus presides, as it Observe, then, the influence of the were, over its respective kingdom of Sun over the vegetable kingdom, as it nature.
respects the circulation of this vital By means of the rays of light, com- principle. In animal respiration, there bined with the other two kinds of solar | is a conversion of oxygen into that of radiance, (for they cannot be com- carbon, at every respiration of the pletely separated, without destroying animal. In combustion, also, there the whole) we can account for almost is a continual conversion of the one all the phenomena of the vegetable into the other, going on throughout kingdom. Its verdure, or beautiful the whole process. Now if matters green, so grateful to our organs of were to go on in this manner for any vision, depends upon the orb of day; length of time, absorbiny all the vital for subterraneous plants, or plants part of the air, and imparting in its which grow in the dark, put on a room a material of a directly opposite weak and sickly appearance ; they quality, what would become of the are abominable and loathsonie to the world? The three kingdoms of nasight.
ture, the animal, vegetable, and cheBy means of thic solar rays, there is mical, must become extinct, from the a circulation established and main-waste of this sole supporter of their tained among the three above-men-existence. tioned kingdoins. Through the intu- As things exist in the present world, ence of the Sun, the vegetable king- this fatal termination must undoubtdom receives something from the edly have been the case, had there chemical, to which it is attached by not been provision made for counterroots and libres, which causes it to acting the effects, in the Sun, the grow till it advances to maturity, and glorious luminary of day, and the veimparts to it the principle of animal getable kingdom over which he prenutrition. We know that the vature sides. The vegetablekingdom, through of this circulation has been in part the influence of that luminary, during detected; and that oxygen has been the whole period of his shining upon assigned, as bearing a conspicuous it, is caused to exhale and pour forth share in it. Oxygen, or vital air, as from every pore of her immense surit has been called, is equally essential face this vital principle. And even to the operation of each of the princi- during his absence in the dark and pal processes in the three kingdoms of silent night, she is not idle ; for if she nature ; namely, organic vegetation, is not pouring forth the principle of chemical combustion, and animal respi. vital air, she is diligently absorbing ration. Without this, vegetables will and drinking it in, evidently for her not grow, combustion ceases, and life own nourishment; and the deadly becomes extinct.
impregnation which the atmosphere But, is it merely to the want of this receives from the processes of respiravital principle, that such phenomena tion and combustion going on in the are owing? Or is it not rather to two kingdoms on her right and left, something of a positive noxious qua- as well as from her own circulation lity, which, in these processes, is during the night, she converts into generated in its stead? If there is a oxygen in the day time, pouring it substance, such as oxygen, which forth afresh; thus continually preservmaintains the life of animals and vc- ing the equilibrium between the vital getables, and the process of coinbus- and other parts of the atmosphere, all over the globe, by counteracting the Nothing, surely, can be clearer deadly pollutions introduced by her than this. We may, therefore, conself and her sister kingdoms.
sider the three middle steps, as our Such is the important province of author further remarks, (art. 49,) as the Sun, the soul and centre of the including the whole compass of Naworld, over the three kingdoms of tural History,” while the two lateral, nature ; and such is the important namely, the Mechanical and Intellecstation the vegetable kingdom holds tual, compose the sciences of “ Natuamong the other two, that through the ral and Moral Philosophy.” influence of the Sun, her lord and Suppose us then to be exercising ruler, she not only supports all that our senses upon such phenomena of has life belonging to the kingdom on matter as cannot be reasoned out a priher right, by being the medium of ori, we shall then be considering nutrition between it and the kingdom | matter, according to the distinction on her left; but continually, by a of our author, whether this matter process which preserves herself in life, belongs to the chemical, vegetable, or she corrects and renovates the deadly animal, steps of the scale, in that prepollutions of a substance which is dicament which he terms Chemical. alike essential to the existence of both Now, if we attend strictly to the the other kingdoms.
great object of chemical research, wo The phenomena of the three central shall find that our author's notion is steps of the scale, viz. the chemical, not so very distant from the truth. vegetable, and animal, are said, by One principal object of chemical inour author, to be perceived by the vestigation, is to discover the compoSenses ; and in this respect to be dis- sition of bodies. Now this applies tinguished from the mechanical and equally to the matter of which all bointellectual, the phenomena of which dies are composed, whether they beare inferred or deduced by Reason. long to the animal, vegetable, or miWe are aware that such a distinction neral kingdoms. The whole taken is liable to objection, arising from the together, can be subjected to the present vague notions entertained on same chemical analysis of their comthese subjects. “ But do I attach a ponent parts. Again, it is a principal meaning to these terms, (says our au- object of chemistry to observe what is thor,) in answering to such objection, the nature of the results arising from somewhat different from that in which thc chemical union of two or more they are understood by other writers ? bodies; but this can never be deterBe it so.
Has not every author a mined before-hand, nor be reasoned right to use what terms he pleases, out a priori, nor deduced by arguprovided he in the first place informis ments from any premises. Nay, withhis readers of the sense in which he out actually perceiving them by sense understands them, and afterwards and experience, we can never know adheres throughout to what he at first them: which is very different in regard lays down? Instead of Chemical and to many of the phenomena of mechaMechanical, I might have called these nical philosophy. In all our systems two steps A and B, or P and Q,- of chemistry, so far as they go, wc where then would be the objection? perceive that this sort of experiment
“I dispute not about property or is made upon all bodies, without reaccident, inherent or poninherent in garding the classes or kingdoms to matter. All that I say is, that when which they belong. From the constiwe exercise our understanding upon tuent principles of air and water, on such phenomena of matter, as may be the one hand, to the most minute parts calculated, computed, numbered, va- of organized animal substance, on the lued, or estimated, by a process of other, all have either been, or may reasoning a priori, we survey that pre- be, subjected to the trials of chemical dicament which I call Mechanical.- analysis and synthesis. Nay, further, But when we exercise our senses upon whether man makes the experiments such phenomena of matter as cannot or not, the substances comprehended be this reasoned out a priori, but are in these three steps of the scale, go on only discovered by actual experience, and act upon each other spontanewe survey the predicament which I ously ; forming compositions and decall Chemical; to these meanings I compositions, in every possible variadhere throughout."
ety, for there is nothing in a state of absolute rest or quiescence in nature ;| Fuller, in his “Gospel its own witthough the motions between the inte ness,” ably refutes the infidel objecgrant particles of matter, in the com- tion against the gospel, drawn from pounds they form, cannot be ascer- the comparative insignificance of this tained in the same manner that we globe, by a similar mode of reasoncan ascertain and demonstrate the ing. “ Let creation be as extensive phenomena of mechanical and intellec- as it may, (he observes,) and the tual philosophy.
number of worlds be multiplied to the There appears, therefore, the best utmost boundary to which imagination of reasons for the distinction of our can reach, there is no proof that any author. And, in our opinion, by of them, except men and angels, have tracing the boundaries, and distin- apostatized from God.” Hence, no guishing between things that differ, other part of his vast empire stood in what he has advanced, tends to dissi- need of the same, or of a similar interpate much of the mist with which the position, that was vouchsafed to man. subject has been involved.
The earth being the only part of his He goes on with the extension of dominions which cast off its allethe analogy in these three middle giance, and the only spot on which steps of the scale, to the visible uni- redemption was wrought, it served as verse ; and observes, that in our own a theatre to exhibit transactions by world, our senses inform us that the which the whole universe might learn three kingdoms of nature are tainted obedience. Hence the whole creation with evil :- That this disagreeable is called upon to rejoice on account of truth is only forced upon us by experi- the redemption of man: and all the ence, when we philosophically investi- works of the Lord, in all places of his gate the three kingdoms belonging to dominions, to bless his name*. the centre of the scale. He alludes Very different, however, is the docto the chemical changes which take trine of a celebrated philosophical place in these three kingdoms in our Theologiciant of these times. Admitworld, as, for instance, the rapid oxida- ting the infidel objection in its fullest tivn or rusting of metals, and a stop- latitude, contrary to the doctrine of page of the circulation of oxygen and scripture, he reasons in the following respiration ; which phenomena, he manner: 'Is it likely, says the infithinks, convey a striking analogy of del, that God would send his Son to corruption and death, being a kind of die for the puny occupiers of so insigvictory or preponderance of the physical nificant a province in the mighty field over the spiritual side of the scale. of creation ? Are we befitting of so But as in the other worlds of the sys- great and so signal an interposition ? tem, we see not the condition of their Does not the largeness of that field three kingdoms of nature; but only which astronomy lays open to the view things incorruptible, viz. 'light and of modern science, throw a suspicion mechanism, he reckons them to be un- over the truth of gospel history? And tainted with evil; and as light and how shall we reconcile the greatness mechanism belong to the first and se of that wonderful movement which cond steps of the scale, he infers the was made in heaven for the redempcorresponding seventh and sixth, i. e. tion of fallen men, with the comparamoral and rational creatures; but tive meanness and obscurity of our which is of a nature to us utterly un- species??:-Yes, perfectly can we re
concile it. • Even so Father,” said Whether these conjectures have any the divinely Anointed himself, “ for so foundation in truth, it is difficult to it seemed good in thy sight.” But such determine; at any rate it appears an answer, though it be preposterous reasonable to admit the opinion re- in man at least to spurn it, is too specting physical and moral evil, as plain and homely to be received. It not extending to other parts of crea- is thought better to say, in the hightion; but that the whole visible uni-sounding language of this celebrated verse, to the utmost boundaries of the author-"For any thing he can tell, fixed stars, may be reckoned incor- sin has found its way into these other ruptible, all excepting this gangrenous worlds—For any thing he can tell, spot, as our author terms it. Mr.
* Psalm ciij. * Theory, art. 113, 115.
+ Dr. Chalmers' Discourses op Astronomy.