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ation to that date in the following language to which what has been quoted will serve as comment.
"Aguinaldo,” cabled Dewey,85 "insurgent leader, with thirteen of his staff arrived May 19, by permission on Nanshan [McCulloch). Established self Cavite, outside arsenal, under the protection of our guns, and organized his army. I have had several conferences with him, generally of a personal nature. Consistently I have refrained from assisting him in any way with the forces under my command, and on several occasions I have declined requests that I should do so, telling him the squadron could not act until the arrival of the United States troops.... Aguinaldo has acted independently of the squadron, but has kept me advised of his progress. . . . My relations with him are cordial, but I am not in his confidence. The United States has not been bound in any way to assist the insurgents by any act or promises, and he is not to my knowledge committed to assist us.”
To the Schurman Commission he gave the following written statement:36
"I never directly nor indirectly promised the Filipinos independence. I never received Aguinaldo with military honors or recognized or saluted the so-called Filipino flag. I never considered him an ally, although I did make use of him and his natives to assist me in my operations against the Spaniards."
After the arrival of General Anderson with the first expedition Admiral Dewey had very little to do with Aguinaldo. His relations with him had been pleasant because there had been no occasion to antagonize him. After the arrival of the army the relations with the insurgents changed for the worse.
In the meantime while Dewey was waiting for the arrival of the troops, Consul Williams was exercising his diplomatic powers upon Aguinaldo and his associates. On May 12 he was confident that the Filipinos hoped that the United States or Great Britain
85 Autobiography, Appendix E, p. 312.
36 Rept Phil. (Schurman) Com., 1900, I, p. 121. See also his letter to Senator H. C. Lodge, Cong. Rec., 56th Cong., Ist Sess., p. 1329.
would acquire the islands. "Officers and cabinet ministers of the Philippine Republic” had visited him and expressed their desire to swear allegiance to America. He reported that when he and the British consul visited Cavite they moved for over a mile through a shouting crowd, anxious to shake the hand of the representatives of the great American Republic. He believed that it would be easy to organize a civil government which would be gratefully accepted by the people.87 On May twenty-fourth he informed the secretary of state that Filipino officers had visited him during the darkness of the night to inform him and the fleet of their operations. Aguinaldo executed a power of attorney before him under which the money in the Hong Kong bank was made available for the purchase of arms. At Aguinaldo's headquarters he saw soldiers enlisting and was informed that almost thirty-seven thousand insurgents were ready to join the American forces.38 He was endeavoring to maintain harmonious relations with the insurgents in order to be able to exercise greater influence when "we reorganize the government."39 He declined an invitation to attend a council that on June 12 organized a provisional government and was commended for his good judgment by the department.40 He reported that the insurgents had organized a form of government but that “Aguinaldo told me to-day that his friends all hoped that the Philippines would be held as a colony of the United States of America.”41 Immediately after his arrival General Anderson, according to Williams, asked the latter “to treat with General Aguinaldo as to American interests."42
About a month after Anderson arrived Williams wrote that "for ultimate objects” he had made it his study to keep in pleasant relations with the insurgents.
37 "Few United States troops will be needed for conquest, and fewer still to occupy,” Mr. Williams to Mr. Day, May 12, 1898. Sen. Doc. 62, p. 327.
38 Mr. Williams to Mr. Day, May 24, 1898. Sen. Doc. 62, p. 328.
"Your course while maintaining amicable relations with the insurgents in abstaining from any participation in their so-called provisional government is approved."
41 Mr. Williams to Mr. Day, June 16, 1898. Sen. Doc. 62, p. 329. 42 Mr. Williams to Mr. Day, July 2, 1898. Sen. Doc. 62, p. 330.
"My argument with General Aguinaldo has been,” he wrote, "that the conditions of government by the United States in the Philippines would be vastly better for him and his people in honor, advancement, and profits than could exist under any plan fixed by himself and Filipinos. I have traversed the entire ground of government with him in council, and he has called his officials from fifteen provinces to meet me for their discussion, all stated as friendly but unofficial on my part. Our relations are cordial while certain antagonisms have arisen between the General and certain other Americans. I hope to bring about harmony and cooperation."48
Immediately after his arrival, General Anderson with Admiral Dewey called unofficially on the Filipino leader.44 Aguinaldo immediately asked the general whether "the United States of the North” had or intended to recognize his government. Anderson had brought the first news to Dewey that there was a sentiment in the United States in favor of conquering and retaining the islands and he appreciated the political importance of his dealings with the insurgent leader. His orders required him “to effect a landing, establish a base, not to go beyond the zone of naval cooperation, to consult with Dewey and to wait for Merritt.”45 To Aguinaldo's question he replied that he was acting in a military capacity only; that he had no authority to recognize a government; that "we had come to whip the Spaniards and that if we were successful the indirect result would be to free them from Spanish tyranny.” To this he added, "As we were fighting a common enemy, I hoped that we would get along amicably together.”
Aguinaldo was not satisfied. “The fact is,” says General Anderson, “that he hoped and expected to take Manila with Admiral Dewey's assistance and he was bitterly disappointed when our soldiers landed at Cavite."
43 Mr. Williams to Mr. Day, August 4, 1898. Sen. Doc. 62, p. 331. For Aguinaldo's answer, see Sen. Doc. 62, p. 397.
44 Sen. Dọc. 33I, P. 2776.
45 For General Anderson's orders, see his letter (Chicago Record-Herald for July 11, 1902) in reply to Admiral Dewey's criticisms. Sen. Doc. 331, pp. 2976-80.
Aguinaldo on May 23, 1898, had announced himself as absolute dictator. On June 12 he issued a decree proclaiming the independence of the Philippines. Invitations to the ceremony were sent to Admiral Dewey and his officers but no one attended.46
A few hours after the interview with Dewey and Anderson on July 1, two of the latter's staff officers while walking through the streets of Cavite were arrested and taken before Aguinaldo, who informed them that strangers could only visit the town by his permission, which permission, however, he graciously granted to them. After this incident the troops were immediately landed.
Aguinaldo declined an invitation to witness a parade on the Fourth of July because he had been invited as general and not as president. Immediately thereafter Anderson wrote to him that, while he hoped to maintain amicable relations, he had taken Cavite as a base for operations and requested that Aguinaldo instruct his officers not to interfere with American officers in the performance of their duties and not to assume that American officers or men could not visit Cavite without permission from the Filipino leader.
Soon after receiving this notice Aguinaldo, with his cabinet, military staff and the inevitable band, called on General Anderson and presented to him the plan of an autonomous form of government which it was said Spain was willing to grant the islands. It had been prepared by certain Filipino leaders and was accompanied by an open letter from Don Pedro Paterno, to the Filipino people advising them that Spain, rather than the United States, was entitled to their trust and confidence. To General Anderson's inquiry whether this scheme was agreeable to the Filipinos, Aguinaldo replied by asking whether the North Americans intended to hold the Philippines as a dependency. The general stated that he was not informed on that subject, but ventured the not wholly accurate statement that in one hundred twenty years the United States had established no colonies. Aguinaldo replied that he had studied attentively the constitution of the United States and had found in it no authority for colonies. He therefore had no fear as to the future. 47
46 "Invitations to the ceremony of the declaration of independence were sent to Admiral Dewey, but neither he nor any of his officers were present. It was, however, important to Aguinaldo that some American should be there whom the assembled people would consider a representative of the United States. 'Colonel Johnson, ex-hotel keeper of Shanghai, who was in the Philippines exhibiting a cinematograph, kindly consented to appear on this occasion as Aguinaldo's Chief of Artillery and the representative of the North American nation. His name does not appear subsequently among the papers of Aguinaldo. It is possible that his position as Colonel and Chief of Artillery was a merely temporary one which enabled him to appear in a uniform which would befit the character of the representative of a great people upon so solemn an occasion.” Taylor, II (71, Ly.), p. 338.
General Anderson arrived in the islands after the insurgents had organized and proclaimed their government and determined to try for absolute independence. Dewey knew, and evidently cared very little about what was going on in Filipino politica! circles. Anderson on land was brought into closer relations with the insurgents and soon learned of their real designs. Early in July he reported to Washington that the Filipinos expected independence and that an attempt to establish a provisional government would probably lead to a conflict.
The opponents of the policy of annexation very generally accepted as true the claim of Aguinaldo and his followers that the American consuls at Hong Kong and Singapore, and Admiral Dewey and General Anderson at Manila, in return for the mili
47 For General Anderson's account of his relations with the insurgents, see his article in the North American Review (Feb., 1900), and his letter published in the Chicago Record-Herald for July 11, 1902. The correspondence with Aguinaldo is in Sen. Doc. 62, pp. 399-403; Rept. of Maj. Gen. Com. Army, 1899, Part 2, pp. 335-44; and Sen. Doc. 208, 56th Cong., Ist Sess., Part 1, pp. 4-20. The omissions shown by stars in General Anderson's letter of July 9, 1902 (see Sen. Doc. 208) relate to criticisms of the transport service. This document contains all communications with Aguinaldo to March, 1900, and also Aguinaldo's proclamations and other manifestos.
With reference to the Anderson-Aguinaldo correspondence, General Merritt in his statement to the Peace Commission at Paris said: “It is correspondence between General Anderson and Aguinaldo, and relates largely to Aguinaldo's growing views. The whole correspondence was deprecated by Admiral Dewey before I got there, and I suppressed the whole thing after I arrived, because it was not the wish of the government to make any promises to the insurgents or act in any way with them.” Sen. Doc. 62, p. 366.