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ed by E. J. H. Münch (Berlin, 1821-7). An heat is the principal agent of the great operations Index Bibliographicus Huttenianus was pub- of nature. Later researches in geology have lished by Böcking at Leipsic in 1858, and a new strongly confirmed many of Hutton's views. edition of his works in 7 vols. in 1859. Among HUXLEY, Thomas HENRY, an English natthe most recent and best lives of Ulrich von uralist, born about 1800. He was educated for Hutten is that by Strauss (Leipsic, 1857). the medical profession, and applied himself to
HUTTON, CHARLES, an English mathemati- the study of natural history, became an assistcian, born in Newcastle-on-Tyne, Aug. 14, ant surgeon in the naval service, accompanied 1737, died Jan. 27, 1823. He received but an Capt. Stanley's expedition to the eastern archiindifferent education, and acquired his knowl. pelago, and made observations on the natural hisedge of mathematics without the aid of an tory of the sea, particularly on the anatomy and instructor. At the age of 18 he became an affinities of the medusæ and mollusca, on which usher in the village of Jesmond, and some years subjects he has written extensively. He suclater the master of the school.' In 1760 he re- ceeded Prof. Edward Forbes in the chair of pamoved to Newcastle, where, while teaching, he læontology in the government school of mines, wrote his “Practical Treatise on Arithmetic and in connection with which he delivers an annual Book-Keeping” (1764). His " Treatise on Men- course of lectures on general natural history. suration" (1771), and “Principles of Bridges, He is also Fullerian professor of physiology at and the Mathematical Demonstration of the the royal institution. He has recently published Laws of Arches" (1772), attracted much at- a large work with illustrations, entitled “A tention, and led to his being chosen in 1773 History of the Oceanic Hydrozoa." professor of mathematics in the royal military HUYGHENS, CHRISTIAN, a Dutch astrono academy of Woolwich. He was elected fellow mer, born at the Hague, April 14, 1629, died of the royal society, Nov. 10, 1774, and was there, July 8, 1695. His father instructed him foreign secretary of that body from 1779 to till he was 16. From 1645 to 1648 he studied 1783, when he resigned, owing to an unjust the mathematics and civil law at Leyden and charge that he neglected his duties. While con. Breda. His first work, Theoremata de Quadranected with the royal society, Hutton published tura Hyperboles, Ellipsis, et Circuli, published a large number of papers in its "Transactions," in 1651, attracted the attention of Descartes and and made all the mathematical calculations for all the mathematical scholars of France. This Maskelyne's experiments for determining the was soon followed by De Circuli Magnitudine mean density of the earth. About 1795 he Incenta Nova (1654). In 1655 he went to undertook, aided by Drs. Pearson and Shaw, France, and received the degree of LL.D. from the labor of abridging the “Philosophical Trans- the Protestant faculty of Angers. On his reactions.” The work was completed in 1809, Hut- turn he turned his attention to the construction ton receiving £6,000 for his share in it. Being of lenses for telescopes. Assisted by his brocompelled by bad health to resign his profes- ther, he succeeded in making one with a focal sorship at Woolwich, he received from the distance of about 10 feet. With this instrument, board of ordnance a retiring pension of £500. more powerful than any that had been used beHis principal works, in addition to those above fore, Huyghens discovered the 1st, now called mentioned, are: “Tables of the Product and from its position the 4th, satellite of Saturn. Powers of Numbers” (London, 1781); “Mathe- He also first gave a scientific explanation of the matical Tables” (1785); “ Course of Mathemat- ring of that planet. Galileo had said that Satics” (3 vols., 1793); "Mathematical and Philo- urn was sometimes attended by two globes, one sophical Dictionary" (1795). He was also for on each side, having no relative motion, and at many years editor of the “ Ladies' Diary." regular periods entirely disappearing and leav
HUTTON, JAMES, M.D., a British natural ing the planet single. Huyghens discovered philosopher, born in Edinburgh, June 3, 1726, that these appearances arose from the broad died March 26, 1797. He entered the univer- ring of Saturn being seen obliquely from the sity of Edinburgh in 1740, and began the study earth. In 1656 he published a work on the of law, which he subsequently abandoned for calculus of probabilities, afterward translated medicine, attending the requisite classes for 6 into Latin by Schooten, his instructor in geomyears in Edinburgh, Paris, and Leyden, where etry, and reprinted in his Exercitationes Mo he took the degree of M.D. in Sept. 1749. He thematicæ under the title of De Ratiociniis in then engaged in the manufacture of sal ammo- Ludo Alex. In 1657 he constructed an instraniac from coal soot, which was carried on in ment to measure time acourately by applying the Edinburgh for many years with considerable pendulum to clockwork. His first pendulum success. Having inherited from his father a clock he presented to the states-general of Holsmall estate in Berwickshire, he next betook land, and asked a patent for his invention. He himself to agriculture. He finally removed to discovered the solution of the problem of findhis native city in 1768, where he devoted him- ing the centre of oscillation of a compound self exclusively to scientific pursuits, especially pendulum, or the length of a simple one vithe study of geology, and while thus engaged brating in the same time with it, without made several important discoveries. In 1795 he which solution no conclusion concerning the published the results of 30 years' study in his pendulum could be applied to those clocks in “Theory of the Earth,” in which he assumes that which the pendulums were necessarily com. pound. In his Horologium Oscillatorium (Pa- October, after they have ripened, or in the folris, 1673) there is a full account of his cy- lowing March. The new plants usually flower cloidal pendulum, an interesting treatise on the in about 6 years from the time of sowing. The properties of the cycloid, and a paper De Motu hyacinth as seen in cultivation is of two sorts, Corporum ex Percussione. During the years piz., single and double flowered. The single 1655–63 he made several journeys to France hyacinth is preferable in many respects, as it and England. In 1666 be went again to France, flowers earlier, and its blossoms or belís are and received at this time a pension from Louis sweeter scented and more regular in shape. XIV., who also assigned him a room in his li. The double hyacinths greatly vary in size and brary. He stayed in Paris about 15 years, and multiplicity of petals, and some are in this reafter some absence returned there again, and spect of extraordinary beauty. Their cultivawrote many papers, some of which are still in tion is simple and easy, requiring essentially a manuscript in the archives of the institute. At soil of sandy loam and vegetable mould 2 feet the revocation of the edict of Nantes, however, deep; the bulbs should be planted early enough being a Protestant, he left France, and even de- in October to insure a good supply of fibrous clined to keep up his correspondence with the roots before the winter; the beds thus prepared academy of sciences, writing only for the royal and planted should be protected with leaves, society of London, of which also he was a mem- which are to be carefully taken away in the ber. In 1689 he went to England, principally spring when the plants issue from the earth. with a view to make the acquaintance of New. Some sort of protection from the rain and sun ton. In 1695 he lost his mind, so that he had is well, as very warm weather in May is apt only occasionally lucid moments. To almost all to injure the blooming. The hyacinth does the physical sciences, to mechanics, optics, and well too in the parlor; and the bulbs, placed in astronomy, Huyghens contributed some valu- large deep pots in good soil in November and able discovery or some interesting contrivance. kept cool in the cellar until the next February, The glasses of his telescopes were all made and will blossom finely when brought into the light polished by himself, and he used the most pow- and warmth. Such bulbs are of little value, erful instruments of his time. He was the first however, for another season's use. When used to discover the nebulous spots in the sword of for flowering in water, the water should be kept Orion and in the constellation of Andromeda fresh and pure in the bulb glasses; and when the in 1656. He also was the first to adapt the bulbs are first ipserted, the glass should be put telescope to the measurement of small angles, in some cool, dark place to promote the growth converting it in fact into the instrument since of the fibrous roots, without a strong supply of called a micrometer. In his Systema Satur- which the blossoms are worthless. This proninum he gives a full account of the discovery cess, however, is so unnatural that the plant is and mechanism of this instrument. In his destroyed at the end of flowering. It will be Traité de la lumière (Leyden, 1690) he de- found preferable to select the earliest and single scribes a new theory of light, which has since kinds for such purposes, as they always do betbeen more fully developed under the name of ter than the double sorts. A good hyacinth, the undulatory theory. The ingenuity of this according to the florist's idea, is one having a theory does not appear so much in the general strong, tall, and erect stem, supporting numerview, as in his application of it to explain the ous flowers in such a manner that the whole equality of the angles of incidence and reflec- may have a compact pyramidal form, with the tion, and the constant ratio subsisting between crown or uppermost flower perfectly erect; the the sines of the angles of incidence and of re- flowers should be large and perfectly double, fraction, and also the phenomena of double re- appearing to the eye rather convex in the cenfraction. His investigations on double refrac- tre; the colors should be clear and bright, tion led him to the important discovery of the whether plain red, white, or blue, or variously polarization of light. His writings were very intermixed and diversified. Strong bright colnumerous, and were most of them contributions ors are in general preferred. The usual colors to the royal society of London, and the academy of the hyacinth are blue, both pale and dark, of sciences in Paris. The most complete edi- red, rosy, crimson, straw-colored or yellowish, tion of his works is that of 's Gravesande (Ley- called golden, and pure white. There is as den, 1724; Amsterdam, 1728).
great a difference in the readiness with which HYACINTH (hyacinthus orientalis, Linn.), they flower as there is in the beauty, grace, a flower of numerous varieties, and all of great or even splendor of their blossoms. In cultibeauty and fragrance. The hyacinth is of orien- vating the several varieties, it is well to contal origin. To the Dutch is conceded the merit sult the different floricultural treatises in which of improving its qualities; and probably they their several merits are set forth. were first acquainted with it in the beginning HYACINTHUS, in Greek mythology, son of of the 16th century. Abont 1700 some 7 or 8 the Spartan king Amyclas and Diomede, or of varieties were known in England. Miller in Pierus and Clio, or of Ebalus and Eurotas. He 1720 says that the Haarlem florists had above was a boy of great beauty and the favorite of 2,000 varieties, and their bulbs formed a most Apollo, but was also beloved by Zephyrus, who valuable branch of commerce. The hyacinth from jealousy caused his death as he was playgrows readily from the seeds; they are sown in ing with Apollo, by blowing the quoit of the
god against his head. Apollo changed him into yours, and digs up when possible the dead bodies the flower hyacinth, upon whose leaves appear of man and beast; from this last undisputed the Greek exclamation of woe, AI, AI, or the habit, the hyæna has been regarded as a hor. letter Y, beginning his name ('Yakıvdos). rible and mysterious creature, and is the sub
HYADES, in Greek mythology, nymphs va- ject of many superstitious fears and beliefs riously described as being from 2 to 7 in num- among the Semitic races. Its teeth are so pow. ber, and bearing 18 names. According to some erful that they can crack the bones of an ox authorities, Jupiter placed them among
the stars with ease, and their grip is tenacious to the last in honor of their care of the infant Bacchus; degree; were its speed great and its courage while others say it was to reward them for equal to its strength, it would be among the their long mourning for their brother Hyas, most dangerous of the carnivora; it sometimes who had been killed by a wild boar.
burrows in the earth or hides in caverns, but HYÆNA, a digitigrade carnivorous mammal, generally passes the day in the desert, insenmost numerous in Africa, but found also in sible to the scorching son. The spotted hyæna southern and middle Asia, where the genus has (H. crocuta, Erxl.) is the most dog-like of tho probably spread while following the track of genus; it is about 4 feet long from nose to armies and caravans. Zoologists are not agreed base of tail, the latter measuring about 13 as to the position of this animal; the older inches, and the head about 12; the height at authors place it in the feline family, with the shoulders is 24 feet; the general color is a which it agrees in the single truo molar on dingy whitish gray, with small round brown each side of both jaws, and in the single tuber- spots, the muzzle as far as the eyes and lower culate tooth on each side of the upper jaw only; limbs sooty, and the tail dark; the mane is Waterhouse regarded it as a small divergent rather short. It is found in South Africa, and group of viverrina or civet cats; Linnæus on the coasts of Senegal and Guinea, and with ranked it in his genus canis ; and Hamilton the next species is generally called wolf by the Smith puts it in juxtaposition to the dogs. It Datch colonists. It is fierce but cowardly
, and seems to be an osculant type, united on the one will sometimes approach camps and make se hand to the dogs by the genus lycaon, and on vere gashes on the limbs and faces of persons the other to the civets by the genus proteles asleep; it is said sometimes to drag off chil(aard-wolf); its general aspect is decidedly ca- dren, which from its strength it could easily do; nine, as also are most of its habits. The dental from the resemblance of its voice to a human formula, according to Owen, is: incisors , ca- laugh, it has received the name of the laughing nines, premolars, *, and molars 1:1, 34 in hyæna; it rarely burrows, but occupies the all. The disposition of the hyæna is fierce and retreats of other animals, prowling about at cowardly, and its habits revolting; it is able to night. The striped hyæna (H. vulgaris, Desm., withstand any temperatures and privations, or H. striata, Zimm.), a rather larger animal
, is revels in the foulest air, and gorges on the found in Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia, and Perfilthiest substances when living prey fails; of sia; the head is wider, the muzzle faller
, and powerful form, thick skin, and strong jaws and the eyes further from the nose, than in the teeth, the bands of hyænas fear not the lion preceding species; the hair is coarse and thick, and tiger, and will attack even man in the night of a dirty gray color, with transverse dark time. Its appearance is very repulsive; the stripes on the sides and limbs; there is a stiff head is large and truncated, the neck short and mane along the back; the habits are the same stout, the body thick and short, high at the as those of the spotted hyæna. There are some shoulders and declining rapidly toward the tail, varieties of smaller size, and one with a skin a long stiff mane from the nape to the rump; almost naked, in the Nubian deserts. The and a short tail; the gait is clumsy, the voice brown hyæna, or strand wolf of the Dutch harsh and frightful, the expression of the face colonists (H. brunnea, Thunb.), is only 4 feet malignant, and its body offensive from its car- long to the end of the tail, and a little over rion food and the strong odor of its anal pouch. feet high at the shoulders; the hair is long and The feet are all 4-toed, with strong non-retrac- shaggy, of a dirty yellow color, with tawny tints tile claws fitted for digging, the dorsals and the on the back and irregular stripes on the sides; pairs of ribs 15 or 16, and the lumbar vertebræ it is less in size than the other species, and less 4 or 5; the tibia and fibula are much shorter destructive to the cattle of the colonists. The than the radius and ulna; the tongue is covered hyænas act very much the part of the wolf of with horny papillæ, the irides elliptical above northern climates, being equally fierce, cowardly and circular below, the erect ears long and except at night and when in packs, and annoy: pointed, and mammæ 4. The prevailing coloring to the herdsman by their destruction of is a dismal ochrey gray, with dark stripes and sheep and oxen.—There are in Africa certain spots. The hyæna is among mammals what the dog-like animals, the wilde honden of the Dutch, vulture is among birds, the scavenger of the and constituting the genns lycaon (Brooks), wilderness, the woods, and the shore, and use- which seem to connect the dogs with the hymful in this way in disposing of carcasses which nas, and which are believed by Hamilton Smith otherwise would pollute the air; often it attacks to be partly the progenitors of the mastiff races; cattle and disabled animals, prowls in the rear the head is short and truncated, the mouth of the larger carnivora, whose leavings it de. broad, the teeth strong and dog-like; the ears erect and large; neck long, body short, the Paterno, where an altar has been discovered limbs slender and highest before; tail short, dedicated to Venus Victrix Hyblensis. II. Hy hanging down, and inflexible ; 4 toes on all the BLA Minor, which stood so near Megara that feet; pupils round; mamma 8 or 10. They the two cities were often confounded, was likehunt in packs, being swift, active, hardy, with wise of Siculian origin. It was chiefly celebrated excellent scent and acute sight; they do not for the honey produced in its vicinity. burrow. They are found in Africa south of the HYBRID, the offspring produced by the union great desert, and in Arabia and as far as the of two distinct species of animals or plants. It Indus in Asia. The hunting hyæna (lycaon was taught by Buffon, Hunter, and other natuvenaticus, Burch.) of the Cape is about as tallralists of the last century, and is still maintainas a large greyhound, with long legs; the colored by many, that such offspring are incapable is ochrey, white on the breast, with spots of the of producing their kind, and therefore it is consame edged with black on the neck, shoulders, cluded that hybridity is a test of specific char. loins, and croup, with wavy black streaks on the acter. This supposed connection of hybridity sides ; the muzzle and cheeks black, the color with specific character has led those who adopt passing up on the nape and down on the throat. it to the firm belief in the reality and distinctIt hunts in packs both by day and night, fre- ness of species, while others think that the facts quently destroying sheep, and sometimes sur- show that the present varieties of vegetable and prising cattle, biting off their tails; it is consid- animal life were derived from comparatively ered untamable. The painted hyæna (L. pictus, few original types. In birds hybrids are very Temm.) is by many thought to be a mere va- numerous, especially in the gallinaceous tribes. riety of the last; it is about 3 feet long, the tail In plants they are said to be so common, that 1 foot more, and 14 feet high at the shoulders; some botanists maintain that botanical species the colors are much the same as in the preceding are only a higher and more permanent type of animal; it hunts also in packs, surprising ante- varieties, and retain only the genera to designate lopes, and attacking when hard pressed for food the characters which have usually been attribcattle and even man; Rüppel says it looks much uted to species. Notwithstanding the occurrence less like a hyæna and more like a dog than the of prolific hybrids, occasionally even in a state L. venaticus.-In anterior geological epochs the of nature for a generation or two, it must be adhyænas were not confined to tropical Africa and mitted that hybridity is by far the most common Asia, nor to the old world. They appeared in among domesticated animals and in those unnatEurope toward the end of the tertiary age, but urally brought together by human art, and that were most numerous during the diluvial period, the capacity for fertile hybridity is in proportion and were found in England, Belgium, and Ger- to the aptitude of animals for domestication. many; there were about half a dozen species, The great source of confusion in estimating the numerous in individuals, and of a size sometimes value of arguments drawn from these phenomsuperior to the living animal. In the Kirkdale ena is the habit of regarding hybridity as a unit, and other caverns of Europe 3 species are found, whereas there are degrees in the series. Dr. of which the best known is the H. spelæa Morton makes 4 such degrees : 1, that in which (Goldf.). In Asia they were numerous in the the hybrids never reproduce, the mixed offspring Himalaya region, of which the most remarkable ceasing with the first cross, as in most domestiis the I. Sivalensis (Cantl. and Falc.). In the cated birds; 2, that in which the hybrids, incaverns of Brazil M. Lund has found abundant capable of reproduction inter se, multiply by remains of a hyæna which he calls H, neogæa, union with the parent stocks, as in the ox fammixed with the bones of rodents, peccaries, me- ily; 3, that in which animals of distinct species galonyx, and other American types, seeming to produce a progeny prolific inter se, as the wolf show that the geographical distribution of ani- and dog, and other canines; 4, that which ocmals in the modern faune is in no way connect- curs between closely allied species, as among ed with their ancient distribution. The bones mankind and the common domestic animals. of the caverns bear unmistakable marks of the After all, there is no such thing as perfect hy; teeth of hyænas, even if the remains of the lat- bridity, as this seems contrary to the general ter did not prove their existence; and this ani- law of nature; the comparatively few excepmat seems to have been the principal consumer tions to this law are generally produced by huof the great proboscidians and ruminants of the man intervention both in animals and in plants,
and are mostly confined to external modificaHYBLĂ, the name of several cities of ancient tions, the reproductive system not being so imSicily, the most considerable of which were the pressed as to perpetuate the mongrel breed for following: 1. HYBLA MAJOR, situated on the an indefinite period; were it otherwise, there southern declivity of Mt. Etna, near the river would be no such thing as order and distinct Simæthus. It was founded by the Siculi, and specific forms either in the vegetable or animal was one of those which Ducetius, a chief of world. Even in the most favorable cases among that people, sought to unite into a confederacy domestic animals, constant attention and freagainst the Greeks and Carthaginians. In the quent crossing with the original species are netime of Cicero, Hybla Major was an opulent cessary to perpetuate the hybrids, and to keep municipium, but in that of Pausanias it was a them from lapsing into one or the other of the poor decayed place. Its site was probably at primitive stocks. Too much importance has
been attached to these phenomena both as re- and soon after was appointed regius professor gards man and the lower mammalia, and the of Hebrew. He was interpreter of oriental lanextent of the argument that can be drawn guages to the court during the reigns of Charles from them is, “that the occurrence of proli- II., James II., and William III. He understood fic offspring between the different races shows Hebrew, Syriac, Persian, Arabic, Malay, Armethat there is a near affinity between the spo- nian, and Chinese. The most important of his cies." The mania for unnatural crosses in mam- works is Veterum Persarum et Medorum Relimals and birds at present prevailing ought to gionis Historia (Oxford, 1700; best ed. 1760). be turned to the profit of science, in elucidating A complete edition of his other writings apthe origin of our domestic animals. There are peared at Oxford in 1767. probably few naturalists now who would main- HYDE DE NEUVILLE, JEAN GUILLAUME, tain thắt the varieties of cattle, sheep, goats, baron, a French politician of English descent, dogs, fowls, &c., are derived from a single wild born at La Charité-sur-Loire, Jan. 24, 1776, original modified by man's care or abuse into died in Paris, May 28, 1857. He was one of the present numerous breeds. As there is no the most active and daring agents of the Bournecessity for such a single derivation, since we bons after the death of Louis XVI., and mingled find several wild species equally entitled to be in nearly all the intrigues for the subversion of considered the original, the general belief seems the revolutionary governments. After the 18th to be that our domesticated animals have been Brumaire, in an interview with Bonaparte, he produced by the crossing, natural or forced, of tried to persuade him to restore the Bourbons. several more or less nearly allied species; in He was charged by Fouché with being an acother words, that they are complicated hybrid complice in the infernal machine plot, but inraces, crossed and recrossed with each other, dignantly and successfully cleared himself from with the wild originals, and with allied species, the accusation. He subsequently removed to through the care of man, until the primitivé the United States, settled in the vicinity of stocks can be no longer ascertained with cer- New York, became acquainted there with Gen. tainty. These phenomena of partial hybridity, Moreau, then an exile, and is said to have been therefore, afford no proof that any one species instrumental in persuading hir to return to of animals is the parent of the domesticated Europe. Early in 1814 he himself returned to races. One of the most interesting questions France, and was welcomed by the Bourbons, which has been made to turn upon the phenom- who had just been reinstated on the throne. Ho ena of hybridity is that of the unity of the was engaged in all the negotiations and transhuman race, the varieties of which, more or less actions which took place during 1814 and 1815, prolific inter se, are therefore asserted to belong and on the second restoration was elected by to one and the same species. Those who would his native department a deputy to the chambre study this subject intimately are referred introuvable, where he was an uncompromising to the writings of Dr. S. G. Morton of Phila- advocate of the most reactionary measures. In delphia, especially to his paper in the “ Ameri- 1816 he was appointed minister plenipotentiary can Journal of Science and Arts” for 1847, and to the United States, and held that office until to his letters to the Rev. Dr. Bachman in the 1821, when, after being created a baron, he was Charleston “ Medical Journal and Review” for recalled to France. Being ambassador at Lis1850–51, in which reference is made to the bon in 1824, he rescued and restored to power principal authorities on both sides of the ques- the old king John VI., whom his son Don tion. See also Prichard's “Natural History of Miguel had imprisoned. Thenceforth he gradMan" (4th ed. 2 vols., London, 1855), and the ually estranged himself from the ultra-royalist work of O. Darwin on the “Origin of Species" party. In 1828 he entered the semi-liberal (London, 1859).
Martignac cabinet as minister of the navy, HYDÁTIDS. See ENTOZOA, vol. vii. p. 225. made several improvements in the colonial
HYDE, an E. co. of N. d., bordering on system, enforced measures against the AfriPamlico sound, and drained by Pango river; can slave trade, and favored the independence area, 830 sq. m.; pop. in 1850, 7,636, of whom of Greece. On the breaking out of the revo2,627 were slaves. It has a level surface, a lution of 1830, he asserted the claims of the large part of which is occupied by pine, cypress, duke of Bordeaux to the throne in the chamber and cedar swamps. The products of the pine of deputies, and resigned his seat on Louis are the staples of export. The agricultural Philippe being selected. From that period he productions in 1850 were 14,876 bushels of devoted himself mainly to agriculture. wheat, 332,525 of Indian corn, and 12,879 of HYDER ALI KHAN, sultan of Mysore, an oats. There were 10 churches. Capital, Swan Indian prince and general, born in Dinavelli, Quarter.
Mysore, in 1718, died Dec. 7, 1782. He was of HYDE, EDWARD. See CLARENDON.
Arabian descent, and son of a petty chief. EnHYDE, THOMAS, an English divine and orien- tering the service of the rajah of Mysore in talist, born in Billingsley, Shropshire, June 29, 1749, he rose in the course of 10 years to be 1636, died in Oxford, Jan. 18, 1703. He studied commander of the forces, and, having thus the at Cambridge and Oxford, and became head li- power in his own hands, set aside the rajah with brarian of the Bodleian library. He succeeded å pension of 3 lacs of rupees, and took possession Pococke in 1691 as Laudian professor of Arabic, of the sovereignty. The East India company,