« 이전계속 »
each other till the setting of the sun, at which time the enemy retreated, and we kept the ground till the next morning in a very cold night.
"Upon Friday the 8, in the morning, there was some little skirmishing betwixt some small parties of horse, wherein the advantage that was, fell upon our side : three or four were killed on either side; we took divers prisoners, by whom we understood that many of theirs were
memorial of the Scottish camp may be gathered from the following extract from the rolls of the manor of Houghton, in the Halmote Court Office, Durham, relating to the Uighways and Private Ways over the copyhold lands in the township of
"At a Halmote Court [of Nathaniel Lord Crewe, Lord Bishop of Durham], held at Houghton-le-Spring, the 7th day of May, 27 Charles II. , before John Jefferson, Esq., steward, the jurors for the said township [Bishopwearraouth], present, [were] John Shepperdson, Junr., Thomas Atkinson, John Atkinson, John T7nthank," who, in addition to the usual business of the court, made "a Note or List of all the King's Highways within the said township," and, after describing those leading from Ryhope, Tunstall, Durham, and Newcastle (by the Mill Lane or Hylton Road), go on to describe :—
5th. Another [king's highway], leading from any of the abovesaid [king's high] ways [after their junction near Bishopwearmouth church], by the blewstone in Sunderland Loaning, by the fforts, by the prick hill, close by the side of Mr. Walter Ettrick's stone wall at Sunderland Lee end, and close by the Lee ends, all the way to Leadgatc Lane in Sunderland."
The king's highway, above described, is now the High Street of Bishopwearmouth, from the Church Bank on the west to Sans Street on the east. It would appear that a road partially or wholly existed upon its route, in or previous to the year 1675, known as " Sunderland Loaning," which passed through the site of the Scottish camp, between " Panne Loaning" [Lane], and Sunniside, "by the fforts," or redoubts, which had been erected by the Scotch, to protect their camp from the attack of the royalists on its three land sides—its most vulnerable points. On the north or river side, the position of the Scotch was naturally strong, overlooking from the steep and craggy bank of the Wear, the shoal named the "Pann Sand," which rendered it impossible for ships to approach to attack the camp, and made only navigable for keck or lighters in spring tides. The ground on the north, or Monkwearmouth-Shore side of the river, was then low and flat, previous to the formation of the ballast hills, upon which Howick Street, Charles Street, &c. &c. ore built, which left the Scotch unassailable and beyond the range of the artillery of that day.
wounded. Our commanded muskettiers and horse advanced, and gained the ground where the enemy stood the day preceding. The enemy still retired, and, as appeared, with a purpose to retire altogether; for they fired the neerest villages, and retired under the smoke thereof. Our commanded men advanced nearer the height, the enemy giving ground all the time. We had resolved to fall upon their rere; but there came suddenly a great storm of snow, which continued for an hour, so that we could not see the enemy: and before we could discover them again, it began to snow again, and continued snowing till night, which opportunity the enemy made use of, and marched away in great haste to Durham.
"We understand since from very good hands, that through the extremetie of the weather these two nights (the enemy lay in fields, and there hastened march to Durham), they have suffered great losse, many of their men and horse dying, but more run away. We hear they have lost of their horse 800, besides the losse of their foot; we sustained some losse, but blessed be God, no wayes considerable.
"This day the army is marching towards Durham, ready to do as occasion shall offer', leaving two regiments at Sunderland, for the securitie of that place.
"Our army hath been in very great straits, for want of victuall and provisions. The enemy hath wasted and spoyled all the countrey, and driven all away before them. And five Barques sent from Scotland to us, with provisions are lost, three of them perished, and two of them were driven into the Tyne by extremity of weather, and seized on by the enemy; so that sometimes the whole army hath been ready to starve, having neither meat nor drink: we never have above twenty and four hours provisions for them. But these impediments and difficulties, or what may hereafter fall out, we are fully confident by God's assistance, shall never abate in the least sort: Our constant resolutions and endeavours for promoting so good a cause, as the vindication of these kingdoms from Popery and Tyranny, and the establishment of a thorough Reformation of Religion, which will be the surest and firmest foundation of a just and safe peace; a recompense for all our sufferings, and the best means of a more happy and neer conjunction of both kingdoms, which shall ever be the earnest desire and endeavour of
"Your very loving Friend and Servant.* "From our Quarters at
"Sunderland, 12 March, 1644."
The writer of this interesting communication, who appears to have been connected with the Scottish army, penned another letter which we shall now lay before our readers.
"Since my last, of the 12th, to my best observation and remembrance, the motions and successes of this army have been these ;—
"On the 13th, for the enlargement of our quarters, and to straighten the enemy, wee drew towards Durham; but
• The late proceeding* of the Scottish Army, certifying their patting otcr Tyne; with the particulars. Together with their possession of Sunderland, and their advance after the enemy, who is fled to Durham. Sent by an expresse, from Hit Exctlleney tht Lord Oenerall Lesley his Quarters, and dated at Sunderland, March 12. London, Printed for Robert Bostock and Samuel Gellibrand, dwelling in Fault Churchyard. March 21, 1644. Numb. 4.
after wee had tarried there so long as our horse provisions lasted, not being willing to remove further, till Sunderland, a place of so great consequence to us, were better fortified. We returned thither, and quartered the army on the north side of the river of Wear, towards Newcastle, at the Shields; in this march wee saw no enemy.
"On the 15th, at night, a party was commanded out to assault the fort upon the south side Tyne, over against Tinemouth Castle, which they did, but with no successe, though with little lossc. After we had considered of this repulse two or three dayes, and fasted on the nineteenth, the fort was againe assaulted by another party, for the encouragement of which the Generall went with them in person; and on the 20th, being Wednesday, in the morning, we took it, with the losse of nine men, the hurt of more. In it wee found five peeces of iron ordnance, seven barrels of powder, 70 muskets: the men escaped in the dark to the water side, where boats received them, only the lieutenant and foure or 5 more were taken prisoners. This fort was commanded by one Captaine Chapman, an inhabitant of the South Shields. I went that day to see the fort; my own judgement in such cSses is nothing worth, but others thought it a difficult peece, and I confesse I wondered much to see it taken on that manner.
"The same day lievtenant-colonell Ballantine brought away a troop of horse from Chester, which he there wholly surprised, and took the guards last, they were to the number of fourty. On the 22, understanding there were some ships laden with coales and salt in the river Tyne, about the Shields, we sent a party, who, with the help of some keel-men and seamen, drew the ships to this side; so that for the present they are under the power of this army, which hath the south fort Shields.
"All this time we were in great difficulty what to doe without horse, our foot being reasonably well suppb'ed by sea; if our horse stayed they must starve, if they went away without our foot, the enemy being so near with an army so strong in horse, it was hazardous when wee should meet, if our foot went with them it was to lose the advantage of their supply by sea, the land not affording provisions.
"The enemy decides this debate, and on the 23 of this instant, drew up their army from Durham, and thereabout, towards Chester; and on the 24, being the Lord's day, drew up on the north side of Wear, at a place called Hylton, two miles and a halfe from Sunderland, the same distance as when they faced us before, only this is on the north side Wear, the other on the south. We accordingly drew up on a hill east from them, towards the sea. Our canon were at Sunderland, our head quarter; but by the help of the seamen lying in the haven, wee conveyed one great peece over the water, who themselves drew it up to the field where it was to be planted: the tide failed for carrying the rest at that time, some small field peeces wee had. After the armies had faced each other most part of that day, toward night about five a clock, the cannon began to play, which they bestowed freely, though to little purpose; and with all the commanded foot fell to it to drive one another from their hedges, and continued shooting till eleven at night, in which time we gained some ground, some barrels of gunpowder, and ball and match. Wee lost few men, had more