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we think they surpass in appearance every other series that we have seen. Each part contains eight plates. The general plain is to give a plate of figures in outline on the left and on the right a plate with the outlines beautifully shaded on tinted paper. The figures of the seven parts are human figures, figures of quadrupeds, and trees, given in whole or in part. The studies will certainly interest the sketch clubs now organized in many parts of the country. A WORK ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION, in which the science of
the language is made tributary to the Art of Expression. A Course of Practical Lessons carefully graded, and adapted to every-day use in the school-room. By Alonzo Reed, A. M., and Brainard Kellogg, A. M. New York: Clark and Maynard, Publishers, 5 Barclay Street. 1878. Pages 264.
The title of this work conveys a fair idea of its scope. It contains much valuable matter. Teachers who are trying to solve the problem of the relation of technical grammar to habits of correct speech should not fail to read the instructive preface and then examine the book which attempts to carry out the authors' views. This book contains the system of diagrams which was so marked a feature of the authors' previous work entitled “Graded Lessons in English." The outside title of this book is “Higher Lessons in English.” As we feel unable in a short space to describe the plan of the work we are compelled to refer teachers to the book itself. The introduction price delivered is 50 cts. and exchange price 36 cents. A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, including some important
facts mostly omitted in the smaller histories. Designed for general reading and for academies. By Josiah W. Leeds, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1877. Pages 468.
Wars, battles, kings, queens, presidents, etc., have never been to us the most entertaining characters in history. But two or three, if any, of the presidents of the United States deserve as large a place in the true history of the country as Benjamin Franklin. Shakespeare, Milton, and Sir Isaac Newton, add greater lustre to English history than any of its kings or queens. We commend Mr. Leeds's book for the thought underlying its preparation. It might be advantageously read by teachers to their schools as an addition to the ordinary histories. We have found several interesting topics discussed that are not even alluded to in ordinary school histories. The Temperance question is discussed and reference made to the so-called Crusade movement that originated in Ohio in 1873. AMERICAN HISTORY FOR SCHOOLS: accompanied with numerous illustra
tions from original designs, and colored maps. By G. P. Quackenbos, LL. D. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1877. Pages 330.
This book, the author says, was prepared to meet calls for a history of our country intermediate between his larger and his Elementary History of the United States. The work is entirely new and freshly compiled and is different from, and independent of, the manuals just named. The History is brought down to the present year including the election of Rutherford B. Hayes to the presidency. Among the excellent illustrations are those of the relics of the Mound Builders and Indian Picture Writing. The author retains, without comment, the exploded story of Pocahontas saving the life of Captain John Smith, and incorrectly gives General Harmar's name as Harmer. A MANUAL OF ELOCution for Class and Private Instruction. By M. Jose
phine Warren, late Teacher of Elocution in Vassar College. Revised and Enlarged. Philadelphia: W. S. Fortescue & Co., No. 811 Arch Street. 1877. Pages 118.
Mrs. Warren being the niece of the late Prof. Wm. Russell, the elocutionist, and having received instructions from him in his favorite science, has appropriately dedicated her book to him. Our readers will recognize Mrs. Warren as one of our contributors and those at Put-in-Bay last sum. mer at the Ohio Teachers' Association will remember her reading of the Declaration of American Independence on the evening of the 4th of July. All we need to say of Mrs. Warren's book is that it contains within its few pages a great many excellent exercises and judicious remarks. All teachers of reading should possess the book. The publishers do not employ any agents and will doubtless mail it to any teacher who may send the price, whatever that may be. THE COMPLETE ARITHMETIC, combining Oral and Written Exercises in a
Natural and Logical System of Instruction. By Albert N. Raub, A. M., Principal of the Central Pennsylvania State Normal School. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 822 Chestnut Street. 1877. Pages 333. Introduction price 50 cents.
The publishers of Raub's Arithmetics claim that they are the cheapest books in the market. The chief features of the Complete Arithmetic is the combination of oral and written exercises, the conciseness and clearness of the explanations, solutions, and analysis, the grading of problems, and many special rules. The work presents a neat appearance being well printed. It must be ranked among the best books of its kind. The au. thor, however, fails, like most of his predecessors, to define number correctly. THOUGHT AND EXPRESSION, or the Child's First Book in Written Language.
By Samuel S. Greene, LL. D., author of Greene's Analysis and English Grammar. Philadelphia; Cowperthwait and Co. 1877. Pages 111.
The object of this neat little book is to teach children to write under the impulse of thought, just as they talk under the impulse of thought. The mode of accomplishing this is given in a six-page introduction and three pages of suggestions to teachers. Directions and suggestions are continued throughout the book. Primary teachers will be interested in the examination of this book which is intended for the youngest class of pupils in our public schools. MANUAL OF PENMANSHIP adapted to The Haworth Copy-Slip System. Intended for the Assistance of Teachers who are not unwilling to try to be what the pupils need. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co. Indianapolis: Jesse D. Carmichael. 1874. Pages 70.
With this book we have neatly bound Miss M. Haworth’s Copy Slips, one set for primary work and the other for intermediate work. The Manual is intended for the teachers. To teachers in our public schools who are required to teach penmanship the suggestions and illustrations given in the Manual cannot fail to be exceedingly useful.
(Concluded.) Perhaps I have given sufficient attention to the part of my subject which refers to the parent and may now return with profit to the teacher. You will bear me witness that I have not spared the parent and will expect me to deal with equal faithfulness with the teacher.
Dayton having provided for her schools with wise liberality, common justice demands that the teachers shall do their part conscientiously and laboriously. I have heard addresses to teachers so ideal and impracticable in their requirements as to repress rather than stimulate effort. No one could hope to attain to such a standard. The average teacher is a fair specimen of average humanity and subject to all its frailties. I suppose very few of you would teach simply from a sense of duty, or a love for the profession. Such teachers possess the spirit of the missionary or the martyr, and are the high ust type and worthy of all honor. There are not many Mary Lyons in the world. The large majority of girl teachers never attain such heights of devotion to their calling, and are not to be condemned that they do not. There is no reason why teaching, like any other profession, should not be chosen for a livelihood. It does not follow that it is to be performed in a perfunctory spirit, and as little thought and labor given to it as possible. The meanest occupation may be dignified by the spirit in which the work is done. George Herbert says a right spirit
“Makes drudgery divine ;
Carlyle makes the sparks which ascend from the blacksmith's anvil, who does honest work, praise and prayer. Neither sweeping nor hammering might be chosen for themselves, but the spirit in which they are done dignifies and ennobles them. How eminently true this may be of the teacher's calling. We do not ask you to live above the motives and feelings of ordinary mortals, but only to do your work thoroughly and well. It may be that you would not prove the better teachers if you were too ethereal. You might not sympathize sufficiently with the frailties of your scholars. Wordsworth, wishing to pay his wife the highest compliment, said she was
A creature not too bright or good
For human nature's daily food.”
“A perfect woman, nobly planned
To have felt sore temptation and to have overcome it is the best preparation for the discharge of any of the duties of life. But, granting all we have said, there is a true and noble sense in which if you would succeed you must give your heart and soul to your profession. If you see only so much bread and butter, or so many yards of silk or ribbon, or a new bonnet in it, you will and ought to prove a failure. Teaching now is not what it was a few years ago. Then a primary teacher might sit in a lounging attitude, and, with about as much thought as an oyster, point out in the primer the letters of the alphabet to her class. Now how changed! Contrast the ceaseless activity of mind and body required of a primary teacher in our schools.
The same is true in every grade. I can recollect attending a school where the chief duty of the teacher seemed to be to see that the boys kept their slates well covered with figures. We would be called upon to march in front of the teacher and exhibit slates. I have known a slate full of carefully-prepared fig
ures do duty for several days. How long would such a teacher be tolerated in our schools now ? and yet this one I refer to taught in Dayton for several years. It was before the establishment of public schools.
QUALIFICATIONS OF A GOOD TEACHER.
With the change in the methods of instruction has come the necessity of a higher order of qualification on the part of the teacher. What are the qualifications necessary to constitute a
. good teacher? Permit one, who, although not a teacher, has had large opportunities for observing teachers, to point out a few particulars. You have been told substantially the same things many times in the Normal School and at Institutes, but probably they may impress you more if you hear them from one who stands outside of the profession, and may in some measure express the views of parents and patrons. As much the largest part of our teachers are ladies, my remarks are primarily addressed to them, but in their general scope and spirit are meant to apply to all.
I tread on somewhat delicate ground in my first remark. It may be unnecessary to say to any of you that the first qualification of a teacher is neatness of person and neatness in all the appointments of the school-room. Wesley, the founder of Methodism, whose scrupulous neatness of attire is always mentioned as characteristic by his biographers, thought this injunction of sufficient importance to be inserted in a solemn charge to the ministry under his care, giving utterance to the familiar phrase, which has passed into a proverb, “Cleanliness is next to godliness." There is an indescribable air about some school-rooms which impresses you pleasantly the moment you enter them, while the reverse is true of others. It would be vain for me to attempt to describe minutely what I mean, but there is not one of you who does not understand it perfectly. A tasteful and becoming dress inspires respect for the teacher on the part of the scholars, and a nicely-kept room, decorated with inexpensive articles, furnishes an example of neatness and good taste which may be carried into.many untidy homes where it is sadly needed. By neatness I do not mean expensive dressing. Nothing could be more inappropriate in a schoolroom than costly finery. A clean, nicely-fitting calico meets all the requirements. I have seen silk and velvet worn in a way that was anything but attractive.