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same cuts had been used. Lobel asserts that a translation of the “Pemptades” had been made by a Dr. Priest, at the expence of Mr. Norton; but the translator dying soon after, the manuscript was used by Gerarde, without acknowledgment. The intelligent reader of the Herbal will observe that most of the remarks relative to the places in which certain plants are found, their common uses, &c. belong to the original work, and refer to the country in which Dodonæus wrote, not to England. Gerarde is also accused of having been no Latin scholar, and of having made many mistakes in the additional matter which he translated from the works of Clusius, Lobel, &c. He also certainly misapplied many of the cuts. Yet he had the great merit of a practical knowledge of plants, with unbounded zeal, and indefatigable perseverance, and contributed greatly to bring forward the knowledge of plants in England, and his name will be remembered by bota* nists with esteem, when the utility of his Herbal is superseded. A second edition of Gerarde's Herbal was published by Dr. Thomas Johnson, in 1636, who, like many other editors, censured his author with great freedom, and undoubtedly made many essential corrections. He was a man of far more learning than Gerarde, although by no means so good a botanist."

GERRARDS. See GARRARD.

GERBAIS (John), a learned French ecclesiastic, was born in 1629, at a village in the diocese of Rheims. He was admitted a doctor of the Sorbonne in 1661, chosen professor of rhetoric at the royal college in 1662, and was afterwards principal of the college at Rheims, where, by his will, he founded two scholarships. He died April 14, 1699, leaving several works in Latin and French; the principal are, a treatise “ De Causis Majoribus," 1691, 4to, in which he maintains that episcopal causes ought to be first judged by the metropolitan, and the bishops in his province. Innocent XI. condemned this work in 1680: A treatise on the authority of kings over marriages, 1690, 4to; three letters “ Sur le pecule des Religieux,” 1698, 12mo; a translation of the treatise by Panormus on the council of Basil, svo; “ Lettre sur la Comedie,” 12mo; “ Lettre sur les Dorures et le Luxe des Habits des Femmes," 12mo, &c. All the works of this author

Pulteney's Sketches of Botany. ---Rees's Cyelopædia.

discover lively wit, great strength and solidity of reasoning, with much penetration and deep learning. He was chosen by the French clergy to publish the edition of “Rules” respecting the Regulars, with M. Hallier's notes, 1665, 4to."

GERBELIUS (Nicolas), an eminent German lawyer, was a native of Pforzeim. He was a professor of law at Strasburg, where he died very old, Jan. 20, 1560. He was greatly distinguished and respected in his day. Thuanus calls him, “ Virum optimum, & pariter doctrina ac morum suavitate excellentem.” His principal work is an excellent description of Greece, under the title of “ Isagoge in tabulam Græciæ Nicolai Sophiani,” Basil, 1550, folio. There are besides of Gerbelius, 1. “ Vita Joh. Cuspi. niani.” 2. “ De Anabaptistorum ortu & progressu ;" a curious work. He published also a New Testament, in 1521, 4to, an extremely rare edition, printed at Haguenau.'

GERBERON (GABRIEL), a famous writer in favour of Jansenism, was born at Saint Calais, in the French province of Maine, in 1628, and was first of the oratory, and then became a Benedictine in the congregation of St. Maur, in 1649. He there taught theology for some years with considerable success, but being too free in his opinions in favour of the Jansenists, was ordered to be :.rrested by Louis XIV. in 1682, at the abbey of Corbie. He contrived, however, to escape into Holland, but the air of that country disagreeing with him, he changed his situation for the Low Countries. In 1703 he was taken into custody by the bishop of Mechlin, and being condemned for errors on the doctrine of grace, suffered imprisonment at Amiens, and in the castle of Vincennes. No sufferings could shake his zeal for what he thought the truth, and in 1710 he was given up to the superiors of bis own order, who sent bim to the abbey of St. Denis, where he died in 1711. He was author of many works on the subjects of controversy then agitated, particularly a general History of Jansenism, 3 vols. 12mo, Amsterdam, 1703, for which he was called a violent Jansenist. His other principal works were, editions of Marius Mercator, St. Anselm, and Baïus; the Apology of Rupert, abbot of Tuy, respecting the Eucharist, in Latin, 8vo; “ Le veritable Penitent, ou Apologie

1 Niceron, vol. XIV.-Moreri. Dupin. 2 Freberi Theatrum. Melchior Adain in vitis Jurisconsult. Saxii Onom.

de la Penitence," 12mo, against P. Hazard, a jesuit ; “La verité Catholique victorieuse, sur la Predestination et la Grace efficase;" “ Traité historique sur la Grace;?' “ Lettres à M. Bossuet, Eveque de Meaux ;" “ La confiance Chrétienne;"' « Le Chrétien désabusé;" “ La Regle des Meurs contre les fausses Maximes de la Morale corrompue,” 12mo; “ La Défense de l'Eglise Romaine ;' and “ Avis salutaires de la Sainte Vierge à ses Dévots indiscrets." This last is a translation of the “ Monita Salutaria" of Adam Windelfels, a German lawyer. Many others are enumerated by Moreri.

He is said to have been impetuous in character and style, but his virtues were also great, his manners severe, and his piety exemplary. A considerable detail of the life of Gerberon is given in the literary history of the congregation of St. Maur, published in 1770, 4to.

GERBERTUS. See SILVESTER II.

GERBIER (SIR BALTHASAR), a painter in miniature, was born at Antwerp in 1592. He was employed by Charles I. but is far more conspicuous as having been engaged, in conjunction with Rubens, to negociate a treaty with Spain ;, and for having been for a time British resident at Brussels. His being in the suite of Buckingham in Spain was the means of this elevation ; for wbich he does not appear to have been duly qualified. He was somewhat acquainted with architecture, and was employed by lord Craven to give designs for Hempsted-hall, which has since been burnt. Being neglected by the court, he in 1648 appeared as an author, and founder of an academy at Bethnal-green; and in 1649 published his first lecture on geography. This was followed by others, and by various pamphlets respecting quackish schemes and projeets, with which his head appears to have been full. He afterwards went to Cayenne, and settled with his family at Surinam ; where, by order of the Dutch, he'was seized and sent back to Holland, from the jealousy of that government, which regarded him since bis naturalization in England as an agent of the king. On the restoration of Charles II. he returned to England, and prepared triumphal arches for his honour. Here he practised various means of living for some years, with no great respect or profit, and at last died in 1667, having passed his latter days in all the expe

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dients of qaackery. Lord Orford has bestowed a long article upon sir Balthasar, but has not much exalted his merit as a man or an artist.'

GERBILLON (JOHN FRANCIS), one of the Jesuit missionaries in China, and author of some historical observations on great Tartary, and accounts of some of his travels, inserted in Du Halde's History of China, was born in 1654, became a Jesuit in 1670, was sent to China in 1685, and arrived at Pekin in 1688. He obtained the highest favour with the emperor, for whom he wrote “ Elements of Geometry,” from Euclid and Archimedes; and a practical and speculative geometry, which were splendidly published at Pekin in the Chinese and Tartarian languages. The emperor permitted him to preach, and to appoint preachers throughout his vast dominions, but was always desirous to have him about his person. He died at Pekin in 1707, superior general of all the missions in China. He wrote an account of his journey to Siam, which has not been published.

GERDIL (HYACINTH SIGISMOND), a Roman cardinal, and a metaphysician of very considerable talents, was born at Samoens, in one of the northern districts of the Piedmontese dominions, in 1718. He was first instructed by an uncle, who afterwards placed him in the royal college at Anneci. In 1732 he entered the Barnabite order, and as soon as his divinity studies were finished, removed to Bologna, where he so recommended himself to Benedict XIV. then archbishop of that city, as to be employed by him in making extracts, translating passages and collecting hints for the treatise on canonization which that pontif published some years afterwards. Iu 1742 he became professor of philosophy in the convent of Macerata, and in 1747 published at Turin his best metaphysical work, a “ Treatise on the Immortality of the Soul,” which originated in this expression of Locke, that " we shall never know whether God has not communicated the power of thinking to matter." Gerdil, in opposition to this opinion, which it is well known occasioned the charge of irreligion against Locke, maintains that “ the immateriality of the soul can be demonstrated from the same principles by which Locke argues the existence and immateriality of the

1 Walpole's Anecdotes.--Pilkington-Lysons's Environs, vol. II. 2 Mujeri. -Dict. Hist.

was

Supreme Being." Those, however, who gave father Gere dil credit for his success in this argument, were less pleased with finding that in his next work, published at Turin in 1748, a " Treatise on the nature and origin of Ideas,'! he maintained the opinions of Malebranche against those of Locke; and this his biographer considers as a retrograde step in metaphysics.

The reputation of these two works, whatever may now be thought of them, procured him the professorship of philosophy in the university of Turin in 1750, and he also appointed a fellow of the royal academy which was instituted at that time. Many excellent memoirs from his pen are printed in the first five volumes of its transactions, published in 1759. In 1757 he published what was thought the most useful of all his works, the “ Introduction to the Study of Religion," against the infidel writers of his day. The merit of this work induced the pope Benedict XIV. to recommend him to his Sardinian majesty, to be tutor to the prince royal, afterwards the late (abdicated) king of Sardinia. For the use of his royal pupil he wrote an excellent treatise on duels; and during the time he was employed in the court of Turin, published three works in confutation of some paradoxes of as many eminent French writers, Melon, Montesquieủ, and Rousseau. He confuted Melon in his doctrine, that luxury contributes to the prosperity of nations; Montesquieu, in his principle that monarchic governments can subsist without virtue; and Rousseau, in the whole of his system of education, exhibited in the Emile. This last appears to be the best. Rousseau bimself acknowledged that it was the only book written against him which he thought worthy of being read to the end, a compliment, however, as much to himself as to Gerdil, and containing more vanity than truth. This work was translated into English, and published at London in 1764, under the title “ Reflections on Education; relative both to theory and practice," &c. 2 vols. 12mo. Gerdil afterwards diminished in some degree his general reputation by publishing a work on the phenomena of capillary tubes, in which he combated the doctrine of attraction. On this occasion the late celebrated astronomer La Lande said, “ Gerdil is learned in many other branches of science; and his reputation may safely dispense with this work."

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