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poses. A smile upon the face is often but a mask, worn occasionally, and in company, to prevent a suspicion of what is passing in the heart. 'I add thy name, O sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams.' The war being finished, the soldiers returned home. He obtained a two years' leave of absence. James, what have you done with your slate? Eagles' nests are built in high trees. They spiked all the ship's guns. Joan of Arc's execution took place at Rouen.

ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives are words which qualify nouns that is, which show what sort of beings or things they are; as, an old man, a young woman, a pretty cottage.

In English, adjectives undergo no alteration in form to express a difference of gender or number; we say, with equal propriety, an old man, an old woman, an old house; old men, old women, old houses.

Adjectives have three degrees of comparisonthe positive, the comparative, and the superlative.

The positive degree is used when we assert that a certain quality belongs to some noun; as, 'the table is long:' or when we assert that one of two beings or things has the same degree of quality as another; as, this table is as long as that book-case.'

The comparative degree is used when we assert that one being or thing has more of a certain quality than another; as, this table is longer than that side-board.'

The superlative degree is used when we assert that one (or more) out of a number of beings or things has most of a certain quality; as, 'this is the longest table (of them all).'

RULES FOR THE FORMATION OF THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREES.

I. The simple adjective itself is in the positive degree; as, high, tall.

II. When the adjective is a monosyllable, add er to it to form the comparative, and est to form the superlative degree; as,

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N.B. When the adjective ends in e silent, this e is left out in forming the comparative and superlative degrees; as, wise, wis-er, wis-est ; nice, nic-er, nic-est.

III. When the adjective is a word of more than one syllable, the comparative is formed by putting the sign more,' and the superlative, by putting the sign most,' before the positive; as, Pos. elegant. COMP. more elegant. SUPERL. most elegant.

N.B. Adjectives of two syllables, and ending in y preceded by a consonant, form their comparatives and superlatives by changing the y final

into ier and iest; as, lively, livelier, liveliest ; heavy, heavier, heaviest.

The following adjectives, though dissyllables, may form their comparatives and superlatives by adding er and est to the positive:

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Supply adjectives, in their proper degree, in the blank

The way was

winter.

a much

spaces.

than we had expected. It was a

night. This is the night we have had this It was the sight I ever witnessed. He is man than his brother. She gave him the tap with her fan. The serpent was the of the field. Nothing can be. This is the night I ever spent. What a mien ! The Thames

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beast

of

The minstrel was

man, but the

river in Ireland.

mountain in Europe. She is

In comparing these adjectives, we should avoid the repetition of a syllable; thus, do not say bitterer, or honestest.

2 Avoid idler as the comparative of the adjective idle, to prevent confounding it with the noun idler (one who idles).

much

than her sister. His behaviour on this octhan usual. The exhibition was

casion was much

last night than the one given on Tuesday. That

man is the

who has the

man in the village.

wants. He is the

IRREGULAR COMPARISONS.

Many adjectives in common use have irregular comparatives and superlatives; such are,

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Supply irregular adjectives, in their proper degrees, in the blank spaces.

Which is

James has — industry than his brother. It is not to hurry. He sat. to his mother. the of the two brothers? This is a very.

1 'Worse' and 'worst' are derived from 'wear.' Foremost (in place); first (in time or order).

exer

Further' means more in advance; 'farther,' at a greater

distance.

4 'Later' and 'latest' (in time); 'latter' and 'last' (in order). 5 'Much' is derived from mo (an old word, signifying a heap or quantity), by adding 'like.' Thus mo-like becomes 'much,' as so-like, such, and who-like (Scotch whilk), which.' 'Much' denotes quantity or bulk; many,' number.

'Next' is a contraction for 'nighest.'

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7 'Elder' and 'eldest' are applied only to members of the same family.

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He

family. She was the — writer in the school.

could not endure the

who stand

fray. In

She has not as

opposition to his will. They

in the

in the battle are not always days they managed things differently. sense as her cousin. John is

in

- than

his studies than myself. His condition is now considerations prevented him from giving trouble in this business.

ever.

himself any

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clared with his

breath. He ate

any of his companions.

ON THE USE OF ADJECTIVES..

This he de

food than

Adjectives are used either as attributes, or as predicates.

They are attributes when placed close to the nouns which they qualify, as: 'He is a good man.’ They are predicates when they express what is declared of some person or thing; as, 'the man is good.'

EXERCISE.

Copy out the following sentences, marking all the adjectives; the attributes with an A, and the predicates with a P.

A strong horse is useful. The poor man returned to The difference is not great. He grows

his cottage.

sleepy. What a beautiful day!

troublesome.

They have become

You have grown tall.

He is an ignorant

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