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y made from

by a naval court martial does not proceed immediately Chapte
from the Crown, and the communication is only made from *
the Lords of the Admiralty (see p. 118), no address is

necessary in answer to this indirect form of message.
Op royal The matters upon which the royal pleasure is usually
pleasure,
&c., belng signified need no address in answer, as immediate compli-
signified.

ance is given by the house; and the recommendation and
consent of the Crown, as already explained, are only signified
as introductory to proceedings in Parliament, or essential

to their progress. Addresses. These being the several forms of acknowledging communi- Addresses

cations proceeding from the Crown, it now becomes necessary orders
to describe those which originate with Parliament. It is by regulations,

y see p. 544.
addresses that the resolutions of Parliament are ordinarily
communicated to the Crown. These are sometimes in answer
to royal speeches or messages, but are more frequently in
regard to other matters, upon which either house is desirous

of making known its opinions to the Crown.
Joint ad Addresses are sometimes agreed upon by both houses,

and jointly presented to the Crown, but are more generally
confined to each house singly. When some event of
unusual importance ? makes it desirable to present a joint
address, the Lords or Commons, as the case may be, agree
to a form of address, and, having left a blank for the in-
sertion of the title of the other house, communicate it,
formerly at a conference, but now by message, and desire
their concurrence. The blank is filled up by the other Joint ad.

dresses, house, and a message is returned, acquainting the house corrupt with their concurrence, and that the blank has been filled on

ou clections, up. Such addresses are presented either by both houses see p. 661. in a body, or by two peers and four members of the House of Commons; 4 and they have been presented also

dresses

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1 87 C. J. 421; 89 ib. 325; outrage upon the Queen, 1840, 95 ib. 422; outrage upon the Queen, 1842, 97 ib. 324.

. Address, attempt against her Majesty's life, 6th March, 1882, 137 ib. 88.

3 87 ib. 424; 72 L. J. 393; 74 ib.

279.

• 85 C. J. 652; 112 ib. 423 ; 114 ib. 373; 137 ib. 94, &c. A joint address having been agreed to, 2nd Sept. 1880, when the Queen was at Bal. moral, her Majesty dispensed with its formal presentation, see 112 L. J. 391 ; 135 C. J. 428.

addresses.

Chapter by committees of both houses ; 1 by a joint committee of
XVII. Lords and Commons, and by the lord chancellor and the

Speaker of the House of Commons: 8 but the Lords always
learn bis Majesty's pleasure, and communicate to the
Commons, by message, the time at which he has ap-
pointed to be attended.

The addresses of the Commons in answer to the royal Separate
speech at the commencement of the session (see p. 175),
were formerly moved as a resolution unprefaced by the
preliminary words “Most Gracious Sovereign-We, Your
Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in
Parliament assembled, beg leave to offer,” &c., whereby
the resolutions are addressed to the sovereign; and the
resolution was referred to a committee for due preparation.
According to present usage addresses are now moved in
due form for presentation to his Majesty; and this practice
will be adopted on all other occasions when addresses are
presented to the Sovereign, in accordance with the precedent

of the address on the war with Russia of session 1854.4 Addresses Sometimes addresses are agreed to upon the report of for public money. p.

committees of the whole house, not only in relation to 570.

matters involving public expenditure, but concerning other
public affairs. Addresses, or resolutions for addresses, are
ordered to be presented by the whole house ; 6 by the lords
with white staves, or by privy councillors, or members of
the royal household ; 8 and, in some peculiar cases, by
members specially nominated.

The subjects upon which addresses are presented are too Their subvaried to admit of enumeration. They have comprised every

11 C. J. 877.
3 2 ib. 462.
: 23rd Dec. 1708, 16 ib. 54.

* Address on the war with Russia, 31st March, 1854, 109 ib. 169; 132 H. D. 3 s. 307. See, however, the form of the motion for the address of congratulation to the Queen on the completion of the sixtieth year of her reign, 21st June, 1897, 152

C. J. 299.

5 State of the nation, 22nd Dec. 1783, 39 ib. 848. 855 ; defence of the kingdom, 20th June, 1803, 58 ib. 528, &c.

92 ib. 492; 113 ib. 31; 116 ib. 16; 129 L. J. 255 ; 152 C. J. 299.

· 129 L. J. 6.
8 159 C. J. 226.
, 10 ib. 295; 67 ib. 391.

matter of foreign? or domestic policy; the administration Chapter of justice ;: the confidence of Parliament in the ministers of XVIII. the Crown ; 4 the expression of congratulation or condolence (which are agreed to nem. con.);5 and, in short, representations upon all points connected with the government and welfare of the country. But they ought not to be presented in relation to any bill depending in either house of Parliament.6

1 78 C. J. 278; 82 ib. 118; 88 ib. 471; assassination of President Lincoln, 1865, 120 ib. 229.

? Removal of a judge, 89 ib. 235; appointment of a royal commission with power to examine witnesses on oath, 143 ib. 46. As to the adminis. tration of an oath by a royal commission, see 2 Todd's Parliamentary Government in England (new edition, 1892) 99; 147 Parl. Deb. 4 s. 1341.

3 85 C. J. 472.
4 7 ib. 325.

5 105 ib. 508; 108 ib. 371 ; 113 ib. 31; 120 ib. 344; 122 ib. 70; 123 ib. 142. 309. Death of Grand Duchess of Hesse (Princess Alice), 16th Dec. 1878. Assassination of the Emperor of Russia, 15th March, 1881. When this address was answered, a letter from the Russian ambassador to Earl Granville was communicated, by her Majesty's command, forward. ing a telegraphic message from the Emperor of Russia, in acknowledg. ment of the address, 136 C. J. 141. Death of the Duke of Albany, 139 ib. 149. Death of Frederick William German emperor, 143 ib. 293. The sympathy of the house was ex. pressed on the death of the Prince Consort, on the death of Prince Albert Victor, and on the death of Prince Henry Maurice of Batten. berg, in the address in answer to the royal speech, 117 ib. 7; 147 ib. 10; 151 ib. 13. The death of William, German emperor, was announced to the house, 9th March, 1888, by the first lord of the treasury, 323 H. D. 3 s. 706. Mr. Speaker read to the house, 10th April, 1888, a communication that he had received through the

secretary of state for foreign affairs, from the chancellor of the German empire, that the Imperial German Parliament had unanimously resolved that the veneration for their deceased monarch, and participation in the grief of the German people expressed by the House of Commons, had called forth the deepest sympathy and gratitude throughout Germany, 143 C. J. 142. Marriage of the Duke of York, 14th July, 1893, 148 ib. 434. Commemoration of the completion of the sixtieth year of her Majesty's reign, 21st June, 1897, agreed to, on division, 152 ib. 299. Assassination of the President of the French Republic, 26th June, 1894, 149 ib. 246. Assassination of the King of Italy, 31st July, 1900, 155 ib. 366. Death of the Duke of SaxeCoburg and Gotha, Duke of Edinburgh, 2nd August, 1900, 155 ib. 380. To the King on the death of Queen Victoria and his accession to the throne, 25th January, 1901, 156 ib. 6. Death of the German Empress Frederick, 7th August, 1901, 156 ib. 378. On the occasion of an explosion in the French Chamber of Deputies, the Speaker was instructed to communicate the sympathy of the house to the President of the Chamber, 11th Dec. 1893, 148 ib. 621, 19 Parl. Deb. 4 s. 1050, 1178, 1617. For messages from foreign countries of thanks, congratulation, and sympathy conveyed to the Speaker and communicated by him to the house, see 148 C. J.628; 152 ib. 301 ; 153 ib. 216. 224. 230. 275; 156 ib. 5. 6. 7. 16. 48; 160 ib. 301.

• 12 L. J. 72. 81. 88; 8 C. J. 670; 1 Grey's Deb. 5.

Chapter
XVIII.

dresses,

When a joint address is to be presented by both houses, Mode of the lord chancellor and the House of Lords, and the Speaker Pr and the House of Commons, proceed in state to the palace at the time appointed. The Speaker's state coach and the carriages of the members of the House of Commons, are entitled, by privilege or custom, to approach the palace through the central Mall in St. James's Park,

On reaching the palace, the two houses assemble in a Joint adchamber adjoining the throne room, and when his Majesty is prepared to receive them, the doors are thrown open, and the lord chancellor and the Speaker advance side by side, followed by the members of the two houses respectively, and are conducted towards the throne by the lord chamberlain. The lord chancellor reads the address, and presents it to his Majesty, on his knee, to which his Majesty returns an answer, and both houses retire from the royal presence. When addresses are presented separately, by either house, Separate

addresses. the forms observed are similar to those already described, adu except that addresses of the Commons are then read by their Speaker. In presenting the address, the mover of the address in the Lords is on the right hand of the chancellor, and the seconder on his left: while the mover and seconder of the address, in the Commons, are on the left hand of the Speaker. When the lord chancellor or Speaker has read the address, he presents it to his Majesty, kneeling upon one knee. The lords attend his Majesty in levée dress : Dress of but the members of the House of Commons can assert their meem privilege of freedom of access to the throne, by accompanying the Speaker in their ordinary attire.?

When addresses have been presented by the whole house, Answers to the lord chancellor in one house, and the Speaker in the a other, report the answer of his Majesty ; but when they have been presented in the ordinary way, the answer is reported generally, in the Lords, by the lord chamberlain, in levée dress, with his white staff; and in the Commons, by one of

and embers.

addresses.

1 The Speaker is always on the left band of the chancellor.

2 50 Parl. Deb. 4 s. 456. They are not permitted to enter the royal

presence with sticks or umbrellas, see 2 Hatsell, 390, n.; 3 Lord Col. chester's Diary, 604-607.

er's Did), 390, n. ; 3 umbrellas,

communi. cated.

the royal household, who appears at the bar, in uniform, and, Chapter

on being called by the Speaker, reads his Majesty's answer.1. Resolutions Another mode of communication with the Crown, less

direct and formal than an address, has been occasionally
adopted; when resolutions of the house, and resolutions
and evidence taken before a committee, have been ordered
to be laid before the sovereign. In such cases the resolu-
tions have been presented in the same manner as addresses,

and answers have sometimes been returned. *
Messages It is to the reigning sovereign, or regent, alone that
to the
royal

addresses are presented by Parliament; but messages are family. frequently sent by both houses to members of the royal

family, to congratulate them upon their nuptials, or other
auspicious events ; 5 or to condole with them on family
bereavements.6 Resolutions have also been ordered to be
laid before members of the royal family. Certain members
are always nominated by the house to attend those illus-
trious personages with the messages or resolutions; one of
whom afterwards acquaints the house (in the Lords, in his
place, or at the table ; and, in the Commons, at the bar)

with the answers which were returned.?
Communi. Communications are also made to both houses by members

he of the royal family, which are either delivered by members royal

in their places, or are conveyed to the house by letters family.

addressed to the Speaker.9

cations from the

1 The proceedings of the house C. J. 149; to the German empress, have sometimes been interrupted to 143 ib. 293 ; to the Duchess of Saxereceive the sovereign's answer, 108 Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of C. J. 438; 134 ib. 23.

Edinburgh, 155 ib. 380. ? 37 ib. 330; 39 ib. 884; 40 ib. : 53 L. J. 369; 72 ib. 53; 95 O.J. 1157; 60 ib. 206 ; 67 ib. 462; 78 ib. 95; 105 ib. 539; 52 H. D. 3 s. 343. 316, &c.

In the case of the messages of con3 90 ib. 534.

dolence to the German Empress in * 39 ib. 885; 60 ib. 211.

1888 and to the Duchess of Saxe572 L. J.53; 73 C. J. 424; 95 ib. 88; Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Edin40 L. J. 584; 74 ib. 6; 148 C. J. 434. burgh in 1900, the Speaker was

6 53 L. J. 367; 75 C. J. 480; 92 ib. directed to communicate the mes493 (the Queen Dowager); 105 ib. sages to her Majesty's ministers 508. To the Duchess of Edinburgh, resident at their courts for presentaon the assassination of the Emperor tion, 143 C. J. 293; 155 ib. 380. of Russia, by both houses, 15th : 58 ib. 211 ; 75 ib. 288. March, 1881, 259 H. D. 3 s. 1066. • 64 ib. 86; 68 ib. 253; 69 ib. 324. To the Duchess of Albany, 1884, 139433.

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