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Blaine. from disability; but I believe, in no single instance, since the
act of May, 1872, have disabilities been taken from any man unless on his respectful petition to Congress asking that they should be removed; and I believe, that in no instance, escept one, has such a petition beeu refused. I have had occasion, by conferences with the Departments of Navy and War, and by reference to some other records, to be able to state to the House, with more accuracy than has been already stated, the number of gentlemen who are still under disabilities. Those who were officers of the United States army, educated
at the expense of the Goverument at West Point, and who There yet
joined the rebellion, and are still under disabilities, are estiremains. mated at the War Department at 325. The number of such
persons in the navy are 293, and those coming under the other heads, members of the Thirty-sixth and Thirty-seventh Congresses, judges, heads of departments, and foreign ministers, I am not able to give the number exactly, but the whole number of persons now under disability in the South is about 750. (Speech of Mr. Blaine, on bis amendment to exclude Jefferson Davis from general amuesty, January,
1876.) What are SECTION 4. The validity of the public debt of the the restric. tions as to United States, authorized by law, including debts of the pub incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for lic debi?
services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, sball not be questioned. But neither the United States por any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slavo; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.
SECTION 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
ARTICLE XV. What is the SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United restriction
States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the ing?
United States, or by any State, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
as to vot
SECTION 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 513. “SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED.”
Al- What is the though negative in form, in substance this article confers a pretation of positive right which did not exist before. The right shall this amend. not be denied; it shall be enjoyed, and the party shall be ment? exempt from the disability of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, as respects the right to vote. In terms it has a general application to all, but from its history it was principally intended to confer upon the colored race the right to citizenship. (The Slaughter-House Case, 16 Wall., 81.) The United States v. Cruikshank, 1 Woods, 321.
This amendment gives no new right to regulate elections, except to enforce this inhibition. It relates only to discriminations on aceount of race, color, or previous condition of servitude and is a prohibition against making such discriminations. The enforcement act, in so far as it is general and universal in its application, is unconstitutional. Id.
The amendment does not confer the right of suffrage upon Does it conany one. It prevents the States or the United States, how- fer the
right of ever, from giving preference, in this particular, to one citi
suffrage! zen of the United States over another, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Before its adoption this could be done. It was as much within the power of a State to exclude citizens of the United States from voting on account of race, &c., as it was on account of age, property, or education. Now it is not. If citizens of one race, having certain qualifications, are permitted by law to vote, those of another having the same qualifications must be. Previous to this amendment there was no constitutional guaranty against this discrimination. Now there is. It follows that the amendment has invested the citizen of the United States with a new constitutional right which is within the protecting power of Congress. That right is exemption from discrimination in the exercise of the elective franchise, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. This, linder the express provisions of the second section of the amendment, Congress may enforce by “appropriate legislation.” United States v. Reese, (October Term, 1875,) 2 Otto, 000.
A statute which creates a new offense under this act From should be clear and explicit. That in existence fails of its whence is object, (16 Stat., 140.) Id. The right of suffrage is not a
right of necessary attribute of national citizenship, but an exemp- suffrage : tion from discrimination in the exercise of that right on account of race, &c., is. The right to vote in the States comes from the States, but the right of exemption from the prohibited discrimination comes from the United States. The first has not been granted or secured by the Constitution of the United States, but the last has been, United States v. Cruik
nk, (October Term, 1875,) 2 Otto, 000.
The texts of the Constitution are arranged analytically and alpha
betically. The Articles, Sections, and Clauses are shown both as
1 8 5 24, 78
House of Congress may compel the attendance of absent
i 8 i 25, 84
Not republican government to render judgment against,
principle, n. 258.
n. 162. Necessary not used in the sense of, n. 128, p. 139.
United States, shall, without the consent of Congress,
effect, n. 177.
expenditures of all public money shall be published from
1 97 81, 151
informed of the nature and cause of the accusation.
118, 274; and of the right tondmit new States, n. 229. The
lutionary results of, n. 286.
Art 8Cc. cL.
PP Congress shall, by law, declare what officer shail then art as President, and such officer shall ac! accordingly until the disability be removed, or a President shall be electeil. 1 5 84, 169
the Vice-Presid who have acted as President, n. 172. The act of Congress regulating who shall
act, n. 172.
be viven in ench State to the public acts, records, and
88, 219 Full faith and credit defined, n. 218. The law of Con. gress for proving these acts, n. 219. p. 218. Must be under
the Great Seal, Id. Copied from the Confederation. p. 10. ATS of Congress. To regulate time and manner of electing
senators, n. 30. To fix a standard of weights and measures,
The several reconstruction acts. n. 276.
Take effect from their approval by the President, n. 66. ADAM, ANDREW, of Pennsylvania Signed the Articles of Con
federation, p. 21.
First Vice-President of U.S., n. 37. Second President, n.
person, n. 157.
7; and the Articles of Confederation, p. 21. ADAMS, THOMAs, of Virginia, Signed the Articles of Confodera
tion, p. 21. ADJOURN from day to day. A smaller number than a majority of
each house of Congress may adjourn from day to day. 1 3 1 25,8 ADJOURN. Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall,
vithout the consent of the other, adjourn for more than
1 5 4 26, S8 ADJOURNMENT of the Congress of the Confederation not longer than
six months, Art. IX. p. 16.
within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have
1 7 % 27, 91 The President must receive the bill ten entire days
before, or it will not become a law, n. 69.
concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives
28, 98 ADJOURNMENT. In case of disagreement between the two houses
of Congress with respect to the time of adjournment, the
Dec. of Ind. p. 8.
extend to all cuses of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. 8 2 1 87, 184
Defined; extent of jurisdiction, has been enlarged to na 'igatlo waters, n. 208.