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Jagor, Feodor: description of natives, 108; predicts American control, 54.
Japan: colonial ambitions of, 36; early relations with Philippines, 281,
Jaudenes, General Firmin: Spanish governor-general, 308; surrenders Manila,

312.
Judges: generally Spaniards, 246; qualifications of, 246; regulation of con-

duct, 243.
Judicial power: originally in governor-general and alcaldes-mayores, 238,

239; the audiencia, 239-243; inferior courts, 243–246.
Judicial system: see Courts; during Spanish régime, 243; under military

government, 430; reorganized by commission, 517, 518.
Justice, administration of, unsatisfactory, 246–248.

note.

Kalingas, a wild people, 92.
Katipunan: a revolutionary society, 191 ; organizes insurrection of 1896, 192;

its character, 191, 192.
Keller, Dr., cited, 2, 18, 31, 32, 33.
Kings, Spanish, unsuccessful efforts to protect natives, 156.
Kipling, Rudyard, writes the White Man's Burden in America, 370.
Ladrone Islands, discovered by Magellan, 143.
Language: see DIALECTS; use of Spanish in courts, 518.
Laws, sources of, 232.
Laws of the Indias, 232, 233, 236.
Lawyers, unpopular with colonial authorities, 179, 180.
Legaspi, Miguel Lopez de: expedition to Philippines, 146, 147; first governor,

147; reaches Cebu, 148; captures Manila, 150; his death and character,

151.
Legislation, codes and courts, see Chapter IX.
Leroy-Beaulieu, influence of Moorish wars on Spanish character, 149 and
Lewis, Sir George Cornwall: definition of colony, 2; involves expulsion of

natives, 3.
Limahong, Chinese pirate, invades Philippines, 151-153.
Location of towns, fear of Moros, 71.
Lotteries, revenue from, 263.
McKinley, William, President: originally opposed to holding Achipelago,

362; studies public sentiment, 364, 365; his control of situations, 330,
365, 366; original instructions to Peace Commissioners, 350; negotia-
tions with Cambon, 321-329; appoints Peace Commissioners, 329; posi-
tion as to colonial debts, 338; as to conquest, 342; directs demand for

entire Archipelago, 342; effect of reelection, 511.
Mabini, Apolinario: the "brains of the insurrection," concedes legality of

American title, 455; head of Aguinaldo's cabinet, 449, 477; favors war,
448; address to commission, 507; banished to Guam, 513; defeats Arel-

lano's plan for protectorate, 477 note.
MacArthur, Major-General Arthur: commands third expedition, 305; at

battle of Manila, 312.
Magellan, Ferdinand: discoverer of the Philippines, 137; description of, 142;

loss of royal favor, 141; naturalized Spaniard, 142; contract with the
king, 143; idea that demarcation line extended around the world, 140,
142; sails from Seville, 143; reaches Cebu, 144; his death on Mactan

Island, 144.
Malolos Congress, last meeting of, favors peace, 476.
Manila: captured by Legaspi and organized as a city, 150; captured by Brit-

ish, 164–168; the dishonored ransom bills, 168; captured by Americans,

311-318.
Manila : battle of, surrender arranged for, 308; capitulation, 313–318; Fili-

pino troops not allowed to participate, 315.

Manila Bay: naval battle of, 290_295; means of defense, 290, 294, 295; rela-

tive strength of fleets, 299; plan of battle, 296; a brilliant victory, 299;

losses, 299; news reaches Washington, 300.
Mapa, Victorina, justice Supreme Court, 517.
Marksmanship, at battle of Manila Bay, 296 and note.
Mas, Sinibaldo de: descriptions of conditions in 1842, 175–179; recommenda-

tions, 179.
Masonic societies, as revolutionary agencies, 189, 190.
Matta, Don Manuel de la: confidential report on conditions in 1843, 179;

recommends radical reforms, 180.
Maura law, 230.
Mayon, Mount, 72.
Merritt, Major-General Wesley: coinmand at capture of Manila, 305; his

instructions, 308 note; cooperation with Dewey, 308; first military gov-

ernor, 422, 426; goes to Paris, 426.
Military occupation : see Chapter XVI; to ratification of treaty, of Manila,

422, 423; authority under, 423; personnel of military government, 424,
425; General F. V. Greene in charge of finances, 424 429; legal difficul-
ties, 429, 434; the courts, 430, 431; trade and commerce, 431; with
southern islands, 432; tariff regulations, 432; the prisons, 433, 439;
embargoed estates, 435; military prisoners, 436; Aguinaldo's Spanish
prisoners, 437; regulation of Chinese, 438, 439; troops sent to Iloilo,
440; negotiations for peace, 448; Filipinos favor war, 450, 451; the

attack on Manila, 452.
Milner, Lord, welfare of subject people, 3.

Minerals, 77..

Minister of Ultramar, 211.
Mirandaola, Andres de, description of Filipinos, 102.
Missionaries: Spanish, accompany Legaspi, 147; early activities, 148; at

Manila, 151; gave character to conquest, 154; rapid increase in number,

154, 158; invade China and Japan, 154, 155.
Mohammedan: early missionaries in islands, 149; established at Manila be-

fore arrival of Legaspi, 149; religion of the Moros, 115.
Mommsen's law, 363.
Monastic orders: see Friars; commercial activities of, 171; the obras pias,

172; control of Banco Español Filipina, 172; became unpopular during
close of last century, 183; abuse of natives, 183, 184; the claims of, 218;

number of friars, 219.
Monopolies, revenue from, 263.
Montojo, Admiral: commands Spanish fleet, 289; preparations, goes to Subig,

293; abandons Manila and goes to Cavite, 295; surrenders to Dewey,

298.
Morga, Antonio de: early magistrate, description of conditions in 1606, 159;

description of natives, 105.
Moro raids: factor in Philippine history, costly expeditions against Moros,

171; continued until age of steam, 171; initiated by Sande's expedition,
Moros: Mohammedan tribes of south, so named by Spaniards, 115; never

conquered by Spaniards, 171; a special problem, 114; slowly improving,
114, 115, 134; missionary work among, 115; the separate tribes, 116,
118, 119; the Sultan of Jolo, 116; a warlike people, 118; their weapons,
118, 119; running amok, 118; the language, 119; habits and customs,
119, 120, 127; their religion, 125-127; tribal government, 123; slavery,
124, 125; education among, 125; occupations, 128-130; industries,
Moro exchanges, 129, 130; the datu, 115, 130-132; their code of laws,

125, 131 ; administration of justice, 133.
Moses, Bernard: member of commission, secretary of public instruction, 496.
Mountains, height of, 72.
Municipal code, General Order Number 43, board to draft new, 519, 520.

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Nationality, growth of sentiment, 3, 4, 5, 48, 49.
Natives: treatment of in colonies, 1, 2; native policy, 2, 3, 36; in early colonies,

36; during Middle Ages, 37; improvement of conditions, 3; change of
views, 3; spirit of humanity, 37, 38; obligations toward, 3; Lord Mil-
nor's statement, trust relation, 3 note, 38; political training, 4; ignored
by Spaniards, 11; conversion of Indians, 37; just Spanish laws, 37;
attitude toward of English, French and Germans, 52; American policy,

55-60, 487, 488; embodied in Instructions to Commission, 497, 498.
Naval power: of Spain and United States, 290; European views, 290, 291;

Montojo's fleet, 290; Dewey's fleet, 292, 293.
Negritos: the original inhabitants, 86; various names, 87; their character-

istics, 88; a vanishing race, 89.
Negros, Island of: the native Republic, 471; organization of civil government,

471; the Negros constitution, 472 and note.
New Era: see Chapter VII; direct steamers from Spain in 1852, opening of

Suez Canal in 1869, 182, 183; restlessness of people, 183.
Novisima Recopilación, a collection of laws, 232, 236.
Officials, Spanish, general character of, 161.
Opium, tax on, 262.
Otis, Major-General E. S.: becomes military governor, 426; letter to Agui-

naldo, 427; charge of military operations until May 5, 1900, nature of
duties, 480, 481; his character, 481-489; succeeded by General Mac-

Arthur, 480; member first commission, 450.
Papal bulls, the division of the world, 138–140.
Parish priests, see Friars, and ECCLESIASTICAL SYSTEM.
Partidos, a collection of laws, 236, 237.
Paterno, Pedro A., negotiates pact of Biak-na-bató, 199.
Peace Commission : membership of, 329, 330; high character of, 329.
Peace Protocol, see TREATY OF Paris; provided for possession of Manila, 321.
Peninsular laws, how extended to Philippines, 233.
People: native, classification, 86, 87; non-Christians and Filipinos, 80, 86; the

aborigines, Negritos, 86, 87; all others are of Malay origin, 81, 89;
classification by Blumentritt and Jesuits, 86; Negritos, 86, 89; the
Moros, 90; (see Chapter IV, 114-134); the wild tribes, 90-100; the

Filipinos, 100, 113.
Pershing, Brigadier-General John J., governor Moro Province, 114, 125.
Personal status: classification of residents, 270; exclusion of foreigners,

271; status of natives, treated as children, 272; the mestizos, 270;

slaves, 272.
Philip II, sends Legaspi expedition to Philippines, 146.
Philippine Archipelago: its location and extent, 63, 64; its physical character-

istics, 65; rivers, 65, 66; health resort at Baguio, 66-68; the under-
ground river, 63-70; location of cities, 71; mountainous character, 72;
volcanoes, 73, 74; earthquakes, 73; sinuous coast line, 73; animal life
74_76; the flora, 76; mineral wealth, 77; fish and fishing, 77, 78; tem-

perature, 78, 79; climate, 79.
Philippine Commission: appointment of members, 496; instructions to, 497–

504; arrives in Manila, 504; friction with army, 488, 489; issues state-
ment, 506; legislation by, 514; visits provinces, 520–524; organizes local

governments, 520; defective powers of, Spooner Amendment, 524, 525.
Philippine insurgent records, 381 and note.
Phænicians: a colonizing people, 5; mere traders, 5.
Pigafetta, Venetian traveler, description of Filipinos, 104.
Polavieja, General Camilio, governor-general, his treachery toward Rizal, 194.
Policy: early Spanish, religious character of conquest, 155; proprietary gov-

ernor, 155; temptations to exploit natives, 156; protection of natives by
missionaries, 156.

Policy of expansion: see Chapter XIV, 359; of United States, 362; develop-

ment of, 362; acquisition of Philippines, a question of policy, 360;
conflicting views, 360–362; Mommsen's law, 363; opposed by con-
tinental nations, 368; English views, 368, 369; Kipling's White Man's
Burden, 370; McKinley's attitude, 360; policy adopted deliberately, 366;
empire and democracy, 366, 367; the opposition negative, 371; Senator
Hoar's position, 371; contentions of Anti-Imperialists, 372; of expan-
sionists, 373; controlling factors, 374 376; altruism, 376; becomes a
party question, 376, 377; W. J. Bryan's attitude, 378 and note; ratifica-

tion of treaty, 378; by Spain, 379; future left undertermined, 378.
Population, at time of conquest, 277.
Portugal; importance in trade expansion, 12; founded few permanent colo-

nies, 13; treatment of Dutch trade, 13.
Pratt, E. Spencer, consul-general at Singapore, 384.
Prelation, of laws, 236.
Primo de Rivera, governor-general, favors reforms from above, 189.
Principles: at foundation of the American government, 497; no exploitation,

498; the well being of the native people, 499; established for their bene-

fit, 499.
Procedure: civil, 244; criminal, 247 note; new Code of, 518.
Proclamation : of General Merritt, 424; a public statement advised by Dewey,

442; the “beneficent assimilation" proclamation, 423-446; Otis' changes,

445; Aguinaldo's responses, 446; by Schurman Commission, 474.
Propagandists, young Filipinos abroad, 188.
Provincial Code, enactment of, 520.

Racial differences: East is East and West is West; theory of inherent racial

differences, 81-85; the Chinese, 82; essential unity, 83; different out-

look on life, different point of view, 84, 85.
Raffles, Sir Stamford, British ruler of Java, 14.
Ransom bills, given British, dishonor of, by Spain, 168.
Ratification, Treaty of Paris, 378, 379.
Reform movement, 187.
Representative government, in tropical colonies, 5, 489.
Representation, in Cortes, 172, 173.
Reseña Verídica, a publication over Aguinaldo's name, 405.
Residencia, its nature and value, 216–218.
Residents, few European during Spanish times, 182, 271.
Revenue: in Spanish times, raised by direct and indirect taxes, trade and

monopolies, 249, 262; stamps, papal bulls and indulgences, 262; sale of
opium, 262, 263; lotteries, profits on trade, 263; the tobacco monopoly,

264–266; receipts and disbursements, 266-269; mismanaged, 191.
Rivers: their character, 65; torrential rains, 66.
Rizal, José: the Filipino hero, 188; taught the necessity for education, his

novels, 188, 189; their effect, 189; opposed to use of force, 197; organ-
izes the Liga Filipina, 189; connection with Masonic societies, 190 ;
returns to Manila and is exiled to Dapitan, 190; disapproved plans of
Katipunan, 191; granted permission to go to Cuba, 194; arrested and
sent back, 194; his trial and execution, 195–198; his monument, 198;

President Roosevelt's estimate of, 189.
Rojo, Archbishop, surrenders Manila to British, 165, 166.
Roman colonies: object of, 7; municipia and colonie, 7; military colonies, 7;

Roman colonial officers, 7, 8; little change in local laws, 8, 9; revenues,
8; citizenship, 9; provincial governments, 9; policy generally con-

demned, 9.
Roosevelt, Theodore: orders to Dewey, 292; naval marksmanship, 296; esti-

mate of Rizal, 189.
Root, Elihu, Secretary of War, devises system of government for Philippines,
St. Lazarus, original name of Archipelago, 143.
Salazar: first archbishop, 156, 159; "the Las Casas of the Philippines," 156;

489.

sends envoy to Spain, 157; induces reorganization of service, 157, 158;

visits Spain, 158.*
Salcedo, Juan de, the Cortez of the Philippines, saves Manila from capture,

151.
Schurman Commission: members, 450; to study situation, 450; efforts to

secure peace, 473; conference with insurgent commissioners, 474, 475;

policy defeated by Luna, 477.
Schurman, Jacob C., chairman first commission, 450.
Slavery: among primitive Filipinos, 272; classes of slaves, 272, 273; forbid-

den by Spanish law, 274; existed in disguised forms, 274; even after
American occupation, controversy about, 274 note; Moro slavery, 124,
125; encomiendas, a form of slavery, 275-277; the Bates treaty, 469,

470.

Smith, James F., Brigadier-General Volunteers, governor of Negros, 470.
Soudan, nature of its government, 52 and note.
Spain: discovery of Philippines, 143; controversy with Portugal, 140, 142,

143, 145, 146; regards Philippines as in the west, 146; relinquishes her
claim to Moluccas, 146; regardless thereof, sends Villalabos to Min-
danao, 146; qualifications for colonization, 10; military spirit, 11; in-
fluence of religion, 11; easy conquests, 11; power of Church, 12; pas-
sion for saving souls, 12; system of trade monopoly, 12, 271, 284; im-

pression made on natives, 12; just laws for Indians, 37.
Spanish-American War: declared and Dewey notified, 292; could not be

localized, 293.
Spanish government in Philippines: 211, 214; see Chapters VIII, IX, X, XI;

the royal control, 232; the minister of ultramar, Consaje de Filipinas,
211; the governor-general, his powers, 212, 213; the Board of Authori-
ties and Council of Administration, 213, 214; control over finances, 214;
the provinces, 227; abuses in, 228; divided into pueblos and barangays,
local officials, 229; election methods, 230; the Maura law of 1893, 230;
Spanish cities, 231; table showing organization, 231; system a dead

weight on people, 284.
Sultan of Sulu, treaty with, 468, 469.
Taal volcano, 73.
Taft, William H.: president Philippine Commission, 496; statement of policy,

58; original views as to annexation, 361; work at Manila, 507; state-
ment to Mabini, 507; organizes tour of islands, 520; becomes civil gove

ernor, July 4, 1901.
Tagalogs, most numerous of the Filipino groups, 100.
Tariff regulations: during Spanish régime, 258; during military occupation,

432, 433; applicable to ports occupied, 443.
Taxation: the Spanish system, 249; direct taxes, the tribute, 250-252; abol-

ished in 1884, the cedula personal, 252-254; income received as rent,
the urbana tax, 254–256; the industrial tax, 256; rates for, 256, 257;
indirect taxes, customs duties, 258; classification and rates, 258–262;

licenses and stamps, 262; trade monopolies, 262–265.
Temperature, average from 1885-1912, 78, 79.
Theories: of colonization, 1-4; American theory, 4; involves training natives

for self-government, 4; aspirations for nationality, 4, 5.
Theories of government, literary, 211.
Tingians, a wild tribe, 92.
Titles of nobility, promised by Aguinaldo, 451.
Tobacco, the monopoly, 264, 265.
Tordesillas, Treaty of, 140.
Torres, Florentino: one of Aguinaldo's peace commissioners, 448; justice

Supreme Court, 517.

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