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I found not Cassio's kisses on her lips:

I think iny wife be honest, and think she is not , He that is robb’d, not wanting what is stoler., I think that thou art just, and think thou art not; Let him not know it, and he's not robb'd at all. I'll have some proof: Her name, that was as fresh lago, I am sorry to hear this.

As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd and black Oth. I had been happy, if the general camp, As mine own face. If there be cords, or knives, Pioneers' and all, had tasted her sweet body, Poison, or fire, or suffocating streams, So I had nothing known: 0, now, for ever, I'll not endure it._'Would, 'I were satisfied! Farewell the tranquil mind! farewell content ! Iago. I see, sir, you are eaten up with passion Farewell the plumed troop, and the big wars, I do repent me, that I put it to you. That make ambition virtue! O, farewell !?

You would be satisfied! Farewell the neighing steed, and the shrill trump, Oth.

Would ? nay, I will. The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife, 3 | lago. And may: but, how? how satisfied my The royal banner; and all quality,

lord ? Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war !4 Would you, the supervisor, grossly gape on? And, 0, you mortal engines, whose rude throats Behold her tupp'd ? The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit, Oth. " Death and damnation! 0! Farewell! Othello's occupation's gone!

Iago. It were a tedious difficulty, I think, Tago. Is it possible !--My lord,

To bring them to that prospect: Damn them, then Oth. Villain, be sure thou prove my love a If ever mortal eyes do see them bolster, whore ;

More than their own! What then? how then? Be sure of it; give me the ocular proof;

What shall I say? Where's satisfaction? [Taking him by the Throat. It is impossible you should see this, Or, by the worth of mine eternal soul, 5

Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys Thou hadst been better have been born a dog, As salt as wolves in pride, and fools as gross Than answer my wak'd wrath.

As ignorance made drunk. But yet, I say, Iagan

Is it come to this? If imputation, and strong circumstances, Oth. Make me to see it; or (at the least) so Which lead directly to the door of truth, prove it,

Will give you satisfaction, you may have it. That the probation bear no hinge, nor loop,

Oth. Give me a living reason she's disloyal. To hang a doubt on: or, wo upon thy life!

Iago. I do not like the office : Iago. My noble lord,

But, sith I am enter'd in this cause so far, Oth. If thou dost slander her, and torture me, Prick'd to it by foolish honesty and love, Never pray more: abandon all remorse ; 6

I will go on. I lay with Cassio lately;
On horror's head horrors accumulate :

And, being troubled with a raging tooth,
Do deeds to make heaven weep, all earth amaz'd. I could not sleep.
For nothing canst thou to damnation add,

There are a kind of men so loose of soul,
Greater than that.

That in their sleeps will mutter their affairs ; Iago.

O, grace, O, heaven, defend me! One of this kind is Cassio : Are you a man? have you a soul, or sense ? In sleep I heard him say,- Sweet Desdemona, God be wi' you; take mine office.--0, wretched fool, Let us be wary, let us hide our loves! That liv'st to make thine honesty a vice!

And then, sir, would he gripe and wring my handa O, monstrous world! Take note, take note. O world, Cry --O, sweet creature and then kiss me hard, To be direct and honest, is not safe.

As if he pluck'd up kisses by the roots, I thank you for this profit; and, from hence, That grew upon my lips: then laid his leg I'll love no friend, since love breeds such offence. Over my thigh, and sigh'd, and kiss'd; and then

Oth. Nay, stay :-Thou should'st be honest. Cried, -Cursed fate, that gave thee to the Moor!

Iago. I should be wise ; for honesty's a fool, Oth. O, monstrous! monstrous ! And loses that it works for.


Nay, this was but his dream. Oth. By the world,

Oih. But this denoted a foregone conclusion;10

'Tis a shrewd doubt, though it be but a dream." 1 The vilest of the camp. Pioneers were generally degraded soldiers. According to the old ordinances of 1510, in which Henry VIII. was an actor, Holinshed war, a soldier who lost any part of his arms by negli-mentions the entry of a drum and fife, apparelled in gence or play, was to be distnissed with punishment, or white damaske and grene bonnettes ;' and at the Inner to be made some abject pioneer."

Temple celebration of Christmas (described by Leigh 2 There are some points of resemblance btween this in his Accidence of Armory, 1576,) We entered the speech and the following lines in a poem of George prince his hall, where anon we heard the noise of drum Peele's. "A Farewell to the Famous and Fortunate and fife.' It will hardly be necessary to state that this Generals of our English Forces, Sir John Norris and note is abridged from one by Thomas Warton, whose Sir Francis Drake, 1589 :

passion for the spirit-stirring instruments to which it Change love for armes; gyrt to your blades, my boyes : relates is upon record. The remainder of his note is an Your rests and muskets take, take helme and targe, attempt to derive the word whiffler from viffleur, a And let god Mars his trumpet make you mirth,

fiferbut it is probable that it had another origin. The roaring cannon, and the brazen trumpe,

4 Davenant in his Albovine, and Fletcher in his The angry-sounding drum, the whistling fife,

Prophetess, have each of them imitated this passage of The shriekes of men, the princelie courser's ney." Othello.

3 In mentioning the fife joined to the drum, Shak. 5 The quarto of 1522 reads, 'man's eternal soul.' speare, as usual, paints from life; those instruments, Perhaps an opposition was designed between man accompanying each other, being used in his age by the land dog. English soldiery. The fife, however, as a martial in.: 6 j. e. all tenderness of nature, all pity; the sense in strument, was afterwards entirely discontinued among which remorse is most frequently used by Shakspeare our troops for many years ; but at length revived in the 7 A similar image is found in Marlowe's Lusios war before the last by the British guards under order of Dominion; where the Moor says: the duke of Cumberland, when they were encamped

- Cardinal, this disgrace before Maestricht in 1747, and thence soon adopted into

Shall dye thy soul as inky as my face.' other English regiments of infantry. They took it 8 So in Pericles :from the allies with whom they served. This instru. If fires be hot, knives sharp, or waters deep, ment accompanying the drum is of considerable an. Untied I still my virgin knot will keep. eiquity in the European armies, particularly the Ger- 9 A living reason is a reason founded on fact anu man. In a curious picture, painted 152., in the Ashmo. experience, not on surmise and conjecture; a reason lean Museum at Oxford, representing iné siege of Pavia that convinces the understanding as perfectly as if the by the French King, we see. fifes and drums. In the fact were exhibited to the life. diary of King Henry's siege of Bolloigne, 1514, (Rymer, 10 Some foregone conclusion is some former el. Foed. xv. p. 53,) mention is made of drommes and perience. Conclusion is used for experiment or Iria. rifieurs marching at the head of the king's army. The in several other places of these plays drain and fife were also much used at shows and pro. 11 The old quarto gives this line to lago, oa well as ressions. All stately masque on Shrove Tuesday, the two which follow ; in the folio it is given to Orrello.





Lago. And this may help to thicken other proofs, Not with vain thanks, but with acceptance boun That do demonstrate thinly.

teous, Oth.

I'll tear her all to pieces. And will upon the instant put thee to't : Tago. Nay, but be wise: yet we see nothing Within these three days let me hear thee say, done;'

That Cassio's not alive. She may be honest yet. Tell me but this,

Iago. My friend is dead ; 'tis done, at your res Have you not sometimes seen a handkerchief, 1. quest: Spotted with strawberries, in your wife's hand ? But let her live. 'Olh. I gave her such a'one; 'twas my first gift. Oth. Damn her, lewd minx ; 0, damn her!

lago. I know not that: but such a handkerchief, Come, go with me apart; I will withdraw, (I am sure it was your wife's,) did I to-day To furnish me with some 'swift means of death See Cassio wipe his beard with.

For the fair devil. Now art thou my lieutenant. Oth.

If it be that,- | Iago. I am your own for ever.
Iago. If it be that, or any that was hers,
It speaks against her with the other proofs.

SCENE IV. The same. Enter DESDEMONA, Oth. O, that the slave had forty thousand lives;

Emilia, and Clown. One is too poor, too weak for my revenge!

Des. Do you know, sirrah, where lieutenant Now do I see 'tis true?.-Look here, lago; Cassio lies?" All my fond love thus do I blow to heaven :3 | Clo. I dare not say, he lies any where. "Tis gone.

Des. Why, man? Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow4 cell ! | Clo. He is a soldier; and for me to say a soldier Yield up, 0, love, thy crown, and hearted throne, lies is stabbing. To tyrannous hate! swell, bosom, with thy fraught';! Des. Go to; Where lodges he? For 'tis of aspics' tongues!

Clo. To tell you where he lodges, is to tell you Iago. Pray, be content.

where I lie 12 Oth.

O, blood, lago, blood! | Des. Can any thing be made of this ? lago. Patience, I say; your mind, perhaps, may Clo. I know not where he lodges ; and for me to

devise a lodging, and say--he lies here, or he lies Oth. Never, Iago. Like to the Pontic sea,"

there, were to lie in my own throat.. Whose icy current and compulsive course

| Des. Can you inquire him out, and be edified by Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on To the Propontic and the Hellespont;

Clo. I will catechize the world for him; that is, Even so my bloody thoughts, with violent pace, make questions, and by them answer.13 Shall ne'er look back, ne'er ebb to humble love, 1 Des. Seek him, bid him come hither: tell him. Till that a capable and wide revenge

have moved my lord in his behalf, and hope, all will Swallow them up.-Now, by yond' marble heaven, 9 be well. In the due reverence of a sacred vow [Kneels. Clo. To do this, is within the compass of man's I here engage my words.

wit; and therefore I will attempt the doing it. Iago. Do not rise yet.

(Exit. Kneels. Des. Where should I lose that handkerchief, Witness, you ever-burning lights above !

Emilia? You elements that clip us round about!

Emil. I know not, madam. Witness, that here lago doth give up

Des. Believe me, I had rather have lost my purse The execution?o of his wit, hands, heart,

Full of cruzadoes. 14 And, but my noble Moor To wrong'd Othello's service ! let him cómmand, Is true of mind, and made of no such baseness And to obey shall be in me remorse,

As jealous creatures are, it were enough What bloody work soever.

To put him to ill thinking. Oth.

I greet thy love,

prehensive. Nashe, in his Pierce Pennilesse, 1592, em. 1 lago says, 'Yet we see nothing done;' as an oblique ploys the word in the same manner :-" Then belike, and secret mock f what Othello had before said, -Give quoth I, you make this word, Dæmon, a capable name, me the ocular proof.

of gods, of men, of devils." 2 The quarte reads, Now do I see tis tune.' ! 9 This expression occurs in Soliman and Perseda, 3 So in Marowe's Lust's Dominion :

1599:--lre these your fears ? thus blow them into air.'

Now by the marble face of the welkin,' &c Tms was per japs caught from Horace:

So in Marston's Antonio and Mellida, 1602 :
*Tr dam protervis in mare Creticum

And pleas'd the marble heavens.'
Por are ventis.'

10 The first quarto reads excellency. By execution 4 Hollou , which has been stigmatized by Warburton Shakspeare meant employment or exercise. So in as a poor unmeaning epithet, gives the idea of what Love's Labour's Lost:Milton calls

Full of comparisons and wounding tlouts,
the void profound

Which you on all estates will execute.'
Of unessential night.'

And in Troilus and Cressida :-
Or the inane profundum of Lucretius. It is used indeed

In fellest manner execute your arms.' in Milton himself. Paradise Lost, b. i. v. 314 :

11 Shakspeare always uses remorse for pity or com. He call'd so loud, that all the hollow deep miseration. Let him command whatever bloody busi. Of hell resounded.

ness, and in me it shall be an act not of cruelty but of 5 The heart on which thou wast enthroned. So in pity or commiseration to obey him.' The quarto reads, Twelfth Night :

What bloody business ever.' * It gives a very echo to the seat

| 12 This and the following speech are wanting in the Where love is thron'd.'

first quarto. See Romeo and Juliet, Act v. Sc. 1, ab init.

13 i. e. and by them, when answered, form my own 6 j.e. swell, because the fraught thou art charged answer to you. The quaintness of the answer is in with is of poison.

character. 7 From the word Like to marble heaven, inclusively, 14 Cruzadoes were not current, as it should scem, at is not found in the quarto 16:22. Pope thinks that it Venice, though they certainly were in England, in the would be better omitted, as an unnatural excursion in time of Shakspeare; who has here again departed from this place. Shakspeare probably derived his know. the strict propriety of national costume. It appears from Jodge upon this subject from the second book and ninety. Rider's Dictionary that there were three sorts of cruza. severch chapter of Pliny's Natural History, 1601 :- does: one with a long cross, one with a short cross, and

And the sea Pontus evermore floweth and runneth out the great cruzado of Portugal. They were of gold, and into Propontis ; but the sea never retireth backe againe weighed from two pennyweights six grains, to two pen. within Pontus. Mr. Edwards conceived this simile nyweights sixteen grains, and differed in value from might allude to Sir Philip Sidney's device, whose im. six shillings and eightpence to nine shillings. The press Camden, in his Remains, says, was the Caspian sovereigns who struck these coins were. Emanuel and sca, with this motto, Sine refluxu.

This son John of Portugal. Mr. Douce has given tha 8 Capable seems to be here used for capucious, com. I figure of them in his Illustrations of Shakspeare.

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Emil. Is he not jealous?

1 Des. Is it possible? Des. Who, he ? I think, the sun, where he was Oth. 'Tis irue: there's magic in the web of it. bern,

A sibyl, that had number'd in the world Drew all such humours from him.

The sun to make two hundred compasses, Emil.

Look, where le cuini's. In her prophetic fury sew'd the work ;
Des. I will not leave him now, till Cassio i The worms were hallow'd, that did breed the silk,
Be call’d to him.--How is't with you, my lord ? And it was dyed in mummy, 4 which the skilful

Conserv'd of maidens' hearts.5

Indeed! is's true's Oth. Well, my good lady.—[ Aside.] 0, haril- Oth. Most veritable; therefore look to'r well. ness to dissemble !

Des. Then 'would to heaven, that I had never How do you, Desdeinuria ?

seen it. Des.

Weil, my good lurr. i Oth. Ha! wherefore ? : Oti. Give me your hand : This hand is moist, Des. Why do you speak so startingly and rash? my lady.

Oth. Is't lost ? 'is't gone? speak, is it out of the Des. It yet has felt no age, nor known no sorrow.

way? Oth. This argues fruitfulness, and liberal heart; Des. Heaven bless us ! Hot, hot, and moist; This hand of yours requires Oth.

Say you? A sequester from liberty, fasting and prayer, Des. It is not lost; But what an if it were ? Much castigation, exercise devout;

Oth. Ha! For here's a young and sweating devil here,

Des. I say it is not lost. That commonly rebels. 'Tis a good hand,


Fetch't, let mo see it, A frank one.

Des. Why, so I can, sir, but I will not now; Des. You may, indeed, say so;

This is a trick, to put me from my suit; For 'twas that hand that gave away my heart. I pray, let Cassio be receiv'd again. Oth. A liberal hand: The hearts of old, gave 'Oth. Fetch me that handkerchief: my mind mis hands;

gives. But our new heraldry is-hands, not hearts.

Des. Come, come ; Des. I cannot speak of this. Come, now, your You'll never meet a more sufficient man. promise.

Oth. The handkerchief, Oth. What promise, chuck ?


I pray, talk me of Cassio. Des. I have sent to bid Cassio come speak with Oth. The handkerchief, you.


A man that, all his time,
Oth. I have a salt and sullen? rheum offends me ; Hath founded his good fortune on your love;
Lend me thy handkerchief.

Shar'd dangers with you;
Here, my lord. Oth.

The handkerchief,
Oth. That which I gave you.


In sooth, Des.

I have it not about me. You are to blame. Oth. Not?


Away! [Exit OTHELLO, Des. No, indeed, my lord.


Is not this man jealous Oth.

That is a fault: Des. I ne'er saw this before. That handkerchief

Sure, there's some wonder in this handkerchief Did an Egyptian to my rother give ;

I am most unhappy in the loss of it. She was a charmer.3 and could almust read.. Emil. 'Tis not a year or two shows us a man: The thoughts of people : size toid lier, while she | They are all but stomachs, and we all but food; kept it,

They eat us hungerly, and when they are full, 'Twould make her amiotic, and subdue riy father They belch us. Look you! Cassio, and my husband. Entirely to her love; but if she lost it,

Enter Iago and Cass10. Or made a gi?t of it, my father's eye

Should hold he: Icaill and his spirits should hunt lago. There is no other way; 'tis she must do't; · After new farcies: Sné, dying, gave it me;

| And, lo, the happiness! go, and importune her. And bid me, when my fate would have me wive,

Des. How now, good Cassio? what's the nowy To give it her. I did so: and take heed of't, ..

with you? Make it a darlirg like ycur precious eye;

Cas. Madam, my former suit: I do boscoch you,

That, by your virtuous means, I may again
To lose or giv:'t sway, were such perdition,
As notaing esse could ratch.

Exist, and be a member of his love,
Whom I, with all the duty' of my heart,

gion to the new order of baronets, created by James I. in 2 The folio reads 'sorry.' Rider explains suile're 1611. Sir William Blackstone supports him in this sup. acerbus, Latin. position, and has pointed out a similar allusion in The 3 A charmer, for an enchunter, is of common occur. Merry Wives of Windsor. But if the play was written rence in the Psalms. So in Perkins's Discourse cg in 1602, 2s Malone presumes, this is a sufficient refuta. Witchcraft, 1610:- By witches we understand not

word hearts the poet meani to allude to the gallantry of jugglers, all wizards, commonly called wise men and che reign of Elizabeth, in which men distinguished them. wise women,' &c. selves by their stezi; and that by hands those courtiers 4 The balsamic liquor running from mummies was were pointed at, are served her inglorious successor by formerly celebrated for its anti-epileptic virtues. We ineir gold. This is too fanciful to require an answer. are now wise enough to know that the qualities as. Steevens observes, that the absurdity of making Othello cribed to it are all imaginary; yet this fanciful medicine so familiar with British heraldry, the utter want of held a place in the druggists' shops till lately. It was consistency as well as policy in any sneer of Shakspeare much coveted by painters, as a transparent brown coat the badge of honours instituted by a prince whom he lour that threw a warmth into the shadows of a picture, was solicitous to tlatter, ard at whose court this very 5 The quarto reads with the skilful conserves, ' &c. piece was acted in 1613, are strong arguments against So in The Microcosmos of John Davies of Hereford, the propriety of Warburton's explanation.'

40. 1605 : Lid various parts of our poet's works he has alluded Mummy made of the mere hart of love." to the custoin of plighting troth by the union of hands. 6 This and the following short speech are omitted in Join Tha Tempest:-

all the ancient editions but the first quarto. The singu"Mir. My husband then ?

lar phraseology, talk me of Cassio,' is illustrated in e Fier. Ay, with a heart as willing

note on The Taming of the Shrew, Act i. Sc. 2. As bondage e'er of freedom. Here's my i and. 7 The folio reads the office of my heart :' the vio:ds Mir. And mine, with my heart in it."

were, however, synonymous. . Thus Baret: Dutie, · The hearts of old, (says Othello,) dictated the union uffice, dutie of behaviour in honestie and reason: ofi of hands, which formerly were joined with the hearts cium.' So in Antony and Cleopatra :mit the parties in them; but in our inodern marriages

his goodly eyes now turn heerd: ülme ate uniel, without hearts.'

The office and devotio of their view,' &c

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