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order of the house, it is open to grave objections. It was Chapter
therefore ordered, 20th March, 1871, that papers are to
“be laid upon the table in such a form as to ensure a Unprinted

papers, see speedy delivery thereof to members ; ”1 and this order was p. 543

communicated to the several public departments. Papers to When accounts and papers are presented, they are ordered

to lie upon the table, when an order has been made, that the table.

the paper be taken into consideration on a future day; and
on the consideration thereof a motion has been founded.?
If necessary, the papers are ordered to be printed, or are re-
ferred to committees, or abstracts are ordered to be made
and printed. Sometimes papers of a former session are
ordered to be printed or reprinted.

Papers printed by order of the Lords are, on application, tion of

distributed gratuitously to members of the House of Com-
papers.
Lords. mons, and to other persons with orders from peers. They
Commons. are also accessible to the public by sale. The Commons

have more fully applied the principle of sale, as the best
mode of distribution to the public. Each member, under
the regulations now in force, can, on application, receive
a copy of every paper printed by the house : but he is not
entitled to more than one copy, without obtaining an order
from the Speaker. Certain reports and papers, viz. reports
of royal commissions and of select committees, and all
papers relating to the estimates, are distributed to every

member as a matter of course, without application."
ry to The Vote Office is charged with the delivery of printed
members papers to members of the house, who should leave their
Vote Office. addresses at the office, in order that papers may be for-

warded to them, either during the session or in the recess.

To facilitate the distribution of parliamentary papers, Transmission by they are sent through the post-office, to all places in the post. 1 126 C. J. 96.

at the Vote Office. ? 125 ib. 8. 27.

5 In sessions 1888, 1889, 1890, and 3 Reports of Printed Papers com- 1894, select committees were apmittee, 1835 (61. 392); 90 ib. 544. pointed in the Commons, “ to super

• This rule is not strictly enforced, intend the form, and to regulate as regards bills and estimates before the distribution of parliamentary the house, which may generally be papers," 143 ib. 485 ; 144 ib. 20; 145 obtained by members, on application ib. 64; 149 ib. 52.

Deli

Chapter United Kingdom, at a rate of postage not exceeding one half-
XI.

penny for every two ounces in weight, whether prepaid or
not, provided they be sent without a cover, or with a cover
open at the sides, and without any writing or marks upon
them. The members of both houses are also entitled,
during a session, to send, free of postage, all Acts of
Parliament, bills, minutes, and votes, by writing their
names upon covers provided for that purpose, in the
proper offices.
By these various regulations, the papers laid before Par- Arrange-

ment of
liament are effectually published and distributed, and each parlia-
paper is distinguished by a sessional number at the foot of mantary
the page, and by the date at which the order for printing is
made; and they are classified and arranged in volumes at
the end of each session.

Papers which are not printed are open to the inspection Unprinted of members in the library of the house. In some cases, papers of a local or private character have been ordered to be printed at the expense of the parties if they think fit.1 In other cases, they have been ordered to be returned to a public department. Sometimes part of a return only has been ordered to be printed. The orders of a former session, that a return do lie upon the table, and be printed, have been discharged; and papers have been withdrawn that have been laid upon the table.

Administrative orders and regulations relating to prisons, Orders and p. 217, n, l. education, charities, endowed schools, and other matters are more befor presented to both houses, in pursuance of Acts of Parlia- Parlia

ment. ment, which come into operation, unless disapproved of by either house, within a certain number of days. These days

papers,

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1 101 C. J. 990 ; 113 ib. 42. 363; 115 ib. 505 ; 116 ib. 125.

? 100 ib. 880; 125 ib. 80. 3 124 ib. 209; 125 ib. 70.

• 128 ib. 10; 134 ib. 18; 135 ib. 232; 160 ib. 21.

s By statute 34 & 35 Vict c. 63, s. 2, a copy of any application for a charter for the foundation of a college or university referred for

consideration and report to a committee of the privy council shall, with a copy of the charter applied for, be laid before both houses of Parliament for a period of not less than thirty days before any such report shall be submitted to his Majesty. See also Education Act, 1902, 2 Edward VII., c. 42 8. 11 (8).

are calculated, in the absence of any statutory direction to Chapter the contrary, not according to the days on which the House of Commons actually sits, but of days during the session of Parliament. Unless it be otherwise expressly enacted by statute,: this period must be comprised in the same session,4 a prorogation or dissolution being conclusive of such proceedings or business pending at the time (see p. 44). If such a paper be laid in dummy (see p. 541) the time during which proceedings under the statute might be taken has been held by the Speaker to run from the day upon which a full, though not necessarily a printed, copy of the paper was available for members.

The method by which either house of Parliament sig. nifies its disapproval, or proposes an alteration, of these orders and regulations should, unless otherwise directed by statute, be the presentation of an address to his Majesty. Procedure

Disapproval thereof.

on an

P. 452.

i See 40 & 41 Vict. c. 57, s. 69; 2 Edward VII. c. 42, s. 11 (8), &c.

· Letter from the Clerk of the house to the secretary of the Home Office, 23rd March, 1866 (No. 36720

address, see Vict. c. 48, s. 50.

See Speaker's ruling (Educational Endowments, Scotland), 28th Feb. 1887, 311 H. D. 3 s. 852.

569 Parl. Deb, 4 s. 627. 647; 96 ib. 1007.

45).

i See University Act, 40 & 41

Chapter
XXII.

CHAPTER XXII.

PARLIAMENT, AND CHARGES UPON PEOPLE.

Table of Contents, see Introduction.

Part I. The Crown.
Part II. The House of Lords (p. 573).
Part III. The House of Commons (p. 586).
Part IV. Procedure in the Committees of Supply,

and Ways and Means, &c. (p. 603).

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p. 573.

Part I.- THE SOVEREIGN, being the executive power, is charged Control of THE

the Crown CROWN. with the management of all the revenue of the state, and with over public all payments for the public service. The Crown, therefore, en

COTO, ture and acting with the advice of its responsible ministers, makes revenue. known to the Commons, the pecuniary necessities of the government; the Commons, in return, grant such aids or supplies as are required to satisfy these demands; and they

provide by taxes, and by the appropriation of other sources The posi- of the public income, the ways and means to meet the suption of the

plies which they have granted. Thus the Crown demands
garding money, the Commons grant it, and the Lords assent to the
priblic
money, see grant: but the Commons do not vote money unless it be

required by the Crown; nor do they impose or augment
taxes, unless such taxation be necessary for the public
service, as declared by the Crown through its constitutional
advisers (see p. 564).

The demand by the Crown for grants of aid and supply Demand for the service of each financial year is made in the speech

s for supply from the throne at the opening of Parliament. The sove- opening

of each reign addresses the Commons, demands the annual supply financial for the public service, and acquaints them that estimates

will be laid before them of the amount that will be required. Proceed. The form in which the Commons vote those supplies is conings in

sequently a resolution that each sum“ be granted to his

Majesty;" nor is a grant of supply, even when endowed see p. 614, with the force of law, available for use until the sovereign

year.

committee

of supply,

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V

W

Y

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O ceipts. see

estimates.

The royal puts it at the disposal of the treasury by a royal order under Chapter order (supply the sign manual." grants). Other demands for a supply from the sovereign may also part 1.

System rebe made during the progress of the session by messages gårding desiring pecuniary aid, by a demand for a vote of credit (p. 554), or by the presentation of an estimate.

0.3, p. 591. Presenta- Presentation of the annual estimates.-In accordance with tion of the annual the royal direction, estimates are laid before the House of

Commons, stating the specific grants of money which will,
during the current year, be required for the army, navy, and
civil services; and by resolution, 19th February, 1821, the
house directs that whenever Parliament assembles before
Christmas, the estimates for the naval and military services
should be presented before the 15th day of January then
next following, if Parliament be then sitting; and that such
estimates should be presented within ten days after the
opening of the committee of supply, when Parliament does
not assemble till after Christmas. The directions given
by this resolution are observed, as far as possible, by the

army, navy, and civil service departments.
Estimates Until 1854, estimates were not presented in respect of
revenue de- the revenue departments. Prior to that year, the charges
nts. of collecting the revenue were deducted by each depart-

ment from the gross sums collected. This practice, which
withdrew the full produce of the taxes, and the cost of
collection, from the immediate control of Parliament, was
condemned by a resolution of the house, 30th May, 1848 ;
and, pursuant to an Act passed in the year 1854, the whole
of the net revenue derived from taxation is paid into the
exchequer, and the cost of the revenue departments is
included among the annual estimates.3

The rule that estimates of public expenditure cannot
be presented to Parliament, save by royal command, was
formerly set aside in the case of the charge for the dis-
embodied militia. The Commons there took the initiative:
the estimate was prepared by a committee, and was

for the

partments

Militia estimates.

1 Public Income, &c., Parl. Paper
[366], sess. 1869, part ii. p. 651.

; 76 C. J. 87.
3 103 ib. 580 ; 109 ib. 467.

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