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'Tis the west is the goal of the sun's daily race! the palace, I passed again through the same 'Tis the west that first shows you the moon's bazar, and there I saw my own portrait and silver face !'
the portraits of my companions, painted
on sheets of paper and exposed on the The dirhems of the west are but little
walls. We all stopped to examine the it ones, 'tis true; but then you get more nesses, and everybody found that of his for them !" (Just as in the good old neighbor to be excellent! ... Indeed days of another dear Land of the West'; the thing is carried so far that, if by chance where, if the pound was but twentypence, a foreigner commits any action that obliges the pint anyhow was two quarts :)
him to fly from China, they send his porre His travels, however, were not yet
into the outlying provinces to assist the
search for him, and whenever the original over ; he traversed Andalusia and Granada, and penetrated to the heart of Negro
of the portrait is discovered, they apprehend
the man." land, before he finally settled. He died in 1377–78, aged seventy-three.
The next extract illustrates strikingi Ibn Batuta has drawn his own character
the manner in which the freemasonry of in an accumulation of slight touches
common religion facilitated the wanderings through the long history of his wanderings;
of the Mahometans over the world. The but to do justice to the result in a few
traveller is staying at the city of Kanjanfi, lines would require the hand of Chaucer,
apparently Kianchanfu, in Kiangsi, where and something perhaps of his freedom of
dom of as usual, he is hospitably received by ins speech. Not wanting in acuteness nor co-religionists : in humane feeling: full of vital energy “One day, when I was in the house a and enjoyment of life ; infinite in curiosity;
Zahiruddin al Kurlani (the sheikh of the Ma
hometans in this city), there arrived a grex daring, restless, impulsive, sensual, incon
boat, which was stated to be that of one o siderate, and extravagant; superstitious in
the most highly-respected doctors of the lar his regard for the saints of his religion, among the Mussulmans of those parts. They and plying devout observances, especially asked leave to introduce this personage 13 when in difficulties; doubtless an agree. me, and accordingly he was announced 3 able companion, for we always find him 'Our master, Kiwámuddin the Ceutan.'* | welcomed at first, but clinging like one of
was surprised at the appellation ; and what the Ceylon leeches which he describes,
he had entered, and after exchanging the
usual salutations we had begun to converse when he found a full-blooded subject, and
together, it struck me that I knew the mai hence too apt to disgust his patrons, and
So I began to look at him earnestly, and be to turn to intrigues against them. Such said, You look as if you knew me.' 'Fros are the impressions which one reader at what country are you?' I asked. "Free least has gathered from the surface of Ceuta.' 'And I am from Tangier!' So be his narrative.
recommenced his salutations, moved to tears We shall now quote one or two passa
at the meeting, till I caught the infectica ges as examples of his narrative." The
myself. I then asked him, . Have you ever
been in India ?' 'Yes,' he said, I have been following extract shows how the Chinese
at Delhi, the capital.' When he said that, 1 so long ago, though without the aid of recollected about him, and said, Surely for photography, had anticipated a modern are Al-Bushri ?' “Yes, I am. He had com expedient of the detective police :
to Delhi with his maternal uncle, Abu'l Kase
of Murcia. ..... I had told the Sultan 3 "As regards painting, no nation, whether India about him, and he had given him 3.001 of Christians or others, can come up to the dinárs, and desired to keep him at Dell Chinese ; their talent for this art is some. He refused to stay, however, for he was bent thing quite extraordinary. I may mention, on going to China, and in that country Es among astonishing illustrations of this talent had acquired much reputation and a grea of theirs which I have witnessed myself, viz., deal of wealth. He told me that he had somit that whenever I have happened to visit one fifty male slaves and as many female ; 2% of their cities, and to return to it after awhile,
indeed, he gave me two of each, with many I have always found my own likeness and other presents. Some vears later. I met this those of my companions painted on the man's brother in Negroland. What an enor walls, or exhibited in the bazars. On one mous distance lay between those two ! occasion that I visited the emperor's own city, in going to the imperial palace with
This meeting, in the heart of China, a my comrades, I passed through the bazar of the two Moors from the adjoining town the painters; we were all dressed after the fashion Irúk. In the evening, on leaving * ie, of Ceuta, opposite Gibraltar.
of Tangier and Ceuta, has a parallel in show us some of your wonders!' Upon this hat famous, but we fear mythical, story he took a wooden ball with several holes in of the capture of the Grand Vizier on the
it, through which long thongs were passed, Black Sea by Marshal Keith, then in the
and laying hold of one of these, slung it'into
the air. It went so high that we lost sight Russian service. The venerable Turk's
of it altogether. (It was the hottest season ook of recognition drew from the marshal
of the year, and we were outside in the midhe same question that Al-Bushri addressed dle of the palace court.) There now remaino Ibn Batuta, and the answer came forth ed only a short end of a thong in the conjurn broad Fifeshire dialect—“Eh man ! ay; er's hand, and he desired one of the boys | mind you weel, for my father was the
who assisted him to lay hold of it and mount. pellman of Kirkaldy!”
He did so, climbing by the thong, and we
lost sight of him. The conjurer then called Like all the travellers of that age, Ibn
to him three times, but getting no answer, Batuta seems to lack words to describe he snatched up a knife, as if in a great rage, he magnitude and glories of the city of laid hold of the thong, and disappeared in Kinsai, or Hangcheufu. He represents his turn! By-and-by he threw down one of nimself as received with great honor there,' the boy's hands, then a foot, then the other both by the Mahometan colony and by hand and the other foot, then the trunk, and, he officials of the Mongol government.
last of all, the head! Lastly, he came down
himself, puffing and blowing, and with his The following, last of our extracts, refers
clothes all bloody, kissed the ground before o this :
the Amir, and said something to him in Chi“The Amir Kustai (the Viceroy of the Pro- nese. . The Amir gave some order in reply, vince) is the greatest lord in China. He and our friend then took the lad's limbs, laid offered us hospitality at his palace, and gave
them together in their places, and gave a is an entertainment at which the dignitaries kick, when, presto! there was the boy, who of the city were present. He had got Mahom got up and stood before us! All this astonetan cooks to kill the cattle and cook the ished me beyond measure, and I had an dishes for us, and this lord, great as he was, attack of palpitation. ..... They gave me carved the meats and helped us with his own a cordial, however, which cured the attack. hands! We were his guests for three days,
The Kazi of Khansi, Af karuddin by name, and one day he sent his son to escort us on
was sitting next to me, and quoth he, Wala trip on the canal. We got into one barge, lah ! 'tis my opinion there has been neither whilst the young lord got into another, taking going up nor coming down, neither marring singers and musicians along with him. The nor mending ; 'tis all hocus-pocus!*** singers sang songs in Chinese, Arabic, and
With this marvellous story of prestidiPersian. The lord's son was a great admirer of the Persian songs, and there was one of
gitation, and the learned Kazi's comment them sung by them which he caused to be
on it, we must close these extracts. repeated several times, so that I got it by The subject is large--China, indeed, in heart from their singing. This song had a any point of view is a large subject-and pretty cadence in it, and thus it went: it has been difficult to compress without “My heart given up to emotions
running to dry bones. But we trust even Was v'erwhelmed in waves like the ocean's, this fragmentary view of one phase of the But, betaking me to my devotions,
history of communication with the Chinese My troubles were gone from me!'*
may have preserved some small flavor of Crowds of people in boats were on the canal. that interest which has always attached to The sails were all of bright colors, the people that remote and peculiar nation. The carried parasols of silk, and the boats them
n- ancients felt this in the dim legends which selves were gorgeously painted. They skir- crossed the length of Asia about the Seres
crossed the length of Asia about the Seres mished with one another, and pelted each other with lemons and oranges. In the after
dwelling in secluded peace and plenty on noon we went back to pass the evening at
the shores of the Eastern Ocean ; mediæthe Amir's palace, where the musicians came val Christendom was strangely fascinated again and sang very fine songs.
by the stories which these travellers, of “That same night a juggler, who was one whom we have been speaking, brought of the Great Kaan's slaves, made his appear home-of the vast population, riches, and ance, and the Amir said to him, “Come and
orderly civilization of this newly-revealed * We may note that the pretty cadence" of the lines which Ibn Batuta gives in the Persian is + Omitting the marvellous disappearance in the precisely that of
air, this trick is still a favorite in China. See “We won't go home till morning,
Doolittle's “Social Life of the Chinese,” London Till daylight doth appear!"
ed., 1868, p. 543.
land of Cathay; the re-discovery of the seems to be breaking up. It has often country as China by the Portuguese kin- broken up before, and been again united; dled a fresh curiosity which three centuries it has often been conquered, and has of partial knowledge scarcely abated. either thrown off the yoke or absorbed its Familiarity of late years has in some de- conquerors. But they derived what civil gree wrought its proverbial result ; but ization they had from the land which they among all the clouds of change that are invaded. The internal combustions that thickening on the world's horizon, some are now heaving the soil come in contac. are surely big with great events for this with a new and alien element of western hive of four hundred millions, for whom origin. Who can guess what shall come also Christ died. The empire, which has of that chemistry ? a history as old as the oldest of Chaldæa,
British Quarterly Review.
HUGH MILLER frankly avowed in his later years ago, to put their trust in the theory works that the view which he originally of a chaotic state of the planet immediate held as to the scientific interpretation of ly before the commencement of the tzthe first chapter of the Book of Genesis man period, and to allege that the Scrihad been modified. He had believed, ture had folded up all reference to prewith Chalmers and Buckland, that the ceding geological ages, in the words "I six days were natural days of twenty-four the beginning God created the heavens hours each ; that the operations performed and the earth.” The authority of Cuvier in them had reference to the world as in- was then supreme in the world of science habited by man ; that a “great chaotic and Cuvier held that “not much earlie: gap" separated the “latest of the geologic than 5,000 or 6,000 years ago" the suages” from the human period; and that face of the globe underwent a sudden Scripture contained no account whatever and subversive catastrophe. But no theo of those myriads of ages during which the logian who now maintains this hypothesis several geological formations came into can place his theology on a level with o the state in which we now find them. As scientific acquirement of the day. D.. his geological knowledge extended, and Kurtz is the only theologian of any standing in particular when he engaged in close who is known to us as still holding the vier personal inspection of the Tertiary and of Chalmers; and if we were asked how : Post-tertiary formations, he perceived that person accurately acquainted with geologthe hypothesis of a chaotic period, divid- cal science might best obtain a conceptio ing the present from the past, in the his- of the untenability of the theory of a re tory of our planet, was untenable. “No cent chaos, we should advise him to read blank chaotic gap of death and darkness," Dr. Kurtz's defence of the hypothesis thus he announces the result of his in- The German divine repeatedly specite vestigations, “separated the creation to 6,000 years as the period during which which man belongs from that of the old man and the existing order of terrestria extinct elephant, hippopotamus, and hyæ- beings have occupied our planet. "Acna; for familiar animals, such as the red cording to the Scriptures," he says, "the deer, the roe, the fox, the wild cat, and present order of things has existed for the badger, lived throughout the period nearly 6,000 years." He has a theory of which connected their times with our own; his own on the subject of fossils. «Txe and so I have been compelled to hold types buried in the rocks were 'not des that the days of creation were not natural, tined to continue perpetually, or else have but prophetic days, and stretched far not attained their destination.” They back into the by-gone eternity."
were mere transient phenomena. It It was legitimate for theologians, sixty would be difficult to put into language a
proposition more inconsistent with geolog. * (1) Life and Letters of Hugh Miller, by Peter
ical fact. The species of the Siluriar Bayne, M.A.
mollusca have changed, but mollusca di (2) Works of Hugh Miller,
Silurian type abound at this hour. En.
ence amounting almost to absolute de- in which the word “beginning" can be monstration identifies the globigerina of applied to the condition presented by the he Atlantic mud of to-day with the globig- surface of the earth at any period nearly rina of the Cretaceous system ; and Sir so recent as 6,000 years ago. Charles Lyell calculates that the Cretaceous According to the theory of Mosaic geolsystem came to an end 80,000,000 years ogy ultimately adopted by Hugh Miller, igo. Pronouncing the types of the past the “beginning” spoken of in the first vanescent, Dr.Kurtz pronounces the types verse of the Bible corresponds to that of the present permanent. The creatures period when the planet, wrapt in primeval alled into existence on the six days of fires, was about to enter upon the series Genesis, which last he holds to have been of changes which is inscribed in the geolognatural days, “were intended to continue, ic record. The chaos, dark and formless, ind not to perish, and their families were which preceded the dawn of organic existnot to be petrified in strata, but each indivi- ence upon earth, was no temporary inunlual was to decay in the ordinary manner, dation, no miraculous catastrophe, but an o that their bones have mostly passed away actual state of things of which the evivithout leaving any trace.” This is a pure dence still exists in the rocks. Strictly magination. There is no reason to be- speaking, indeed, the term “chaos" has ieve that the petrifactive agencies are no scientific meaning Science is ac. ess active at present than they were, in quainted with no period in tine, no localivy-gone geological epochs. The essen- ty in space, where there has been a genial and irreconcilable discrepancy, how- eral suspension of law; and it may be ver, between the views of Dr. Kurtz and worthy of remark that, although Scripture he conclusions of geology, consists in his speaks of the original state of things as issumption of a universal deluge, sweeping without form and void, there is no hint .way all life, and leaving the surface of the that it was beyond control of Divine and · vorld a tabula rasa, immediately before natural ordinance. Relatively to man, he appearance of man. He speaks of however, and to those changes in the "a flood, which destroyed and prevented structure and organisms of the planet
ll life, and after the removal of which which the geologist chronicles, the fiery he present state of the earth, with its vesture, in which advocates of the Age lants, animals, and man, was immediately theory of reconciliation between Genesis estored.” With marvellous simplicity he and geology allege the earth to have been leclares that "the only thing” he “de- at one time enveloped, constitutes an innands,” “and which no geological theory terruption to all research, a commencean or will deny," is that “the globe was ment of all that can be called scientific overed with water" before the appearance discovery. If it could be shown that the of man " and the present plants and ani. first chapter of Genesis contains an intelnals." There is no geologist deserving ligible and accurate account of the he name at present alive who would ad- changes which have taken place in the nit this proposition ; and we suppose that crust of the earth from the time when
large majority of living geologists would form first rose out of formlessness, and naintain that the earth has certainly not light sprang from darkness, to the time een covered with water since the time of when man began to build his cities and hose forests whose remains are preserved till his fields, no candid judge would reor us in Devonian strata. To name one fuse to admit that the problem presented mong many proofs, the state of the fauna by the chapter had been satisfactorily if the Atlantic islands, Madeira and the solved, and that the chapter itself formed Desertas, demonstrates that the earth has a sublimely appropriate vestibule to the tot been enveloped by the ocean for a temple of Revelation. veriod compared with which Dr. Kurtz's Let us state Miller's conception of the 1,000 years dwindle into insignificance. meaning and scientific purport of the first Seology pronounces as decisively against chapter of Genesis in his own words :he occurrence of a universal chaos upon
" What may be termed,” we quote from arth 6,000 years ago as against the ac
the Testimony of the Rocks, “the three geoumulation of all the strata of the earth's
logic days—the third, fifth, and sixth-may rust in six natural days. There is no be held to have extended over those carbonense recognizable by geological science iferous periods during which the great plants
were created-over those Oolitic and Cre- were sea-monsters and birds; and a sixth taceous periods during which the great sea- day, in which huge mammals crowded the monsters and birds were created and over stage of existence, and man appeared those Tertiary periods during which the great fa terrestrial mammals were created. For the
Each of these days is, of course, supposed intervening, or fourth day, we have that wide to have occupied an indefinite number of space represented by the Permian and Trias- years. sic periods, which, less conspicuous in their It is obviously the principle or method floras than the periods that went immediately of this scheme of reconciliation between before, and less conspicuous in their faunas Genesis and geology to look for points in than the periods that came immediately the Mosaic narrative which correspond after, were marked by the decline and ulti
with the facts revealed by geology. The mate extinction of the Palæozoic forms, and the first partially developed beginnings of
words in the Scriptural account are few; the secondary ones. And for the first and are they so express, vivid, and charactersecond days there remains the great Azoic istic that they epitomize, as in a Divine period, during which the immensely develop- telegram, the geological history of millions ed gneisses, mica-schists, and primary clay- of years ? A consummate artist looks slates were deposited, and the two extended upon a face and throws a few strokes, periods represented by the Silurian and Old quick as lightning, upon his canvas. The Red Sandstone systems. These, taken to
countenance seems to live. Revealings gether, exhaust the geological scale, and may be named in their order as, first, the
of character, which we might have requirAzoic day or period ; second, the Silurian, or
ed years to trace, flash on us from the Old Red Sandstone day, or period; third, eye, and chronicles of passion are written the Carboniferous day, or period; fourth, the in a speck of crimson on the lip. The Permian or Triassic day, or period ; and portrait is only a' sketch ; weeks or sixth, the Tertiary day, or period.”
months might be spent in elaborating its · It is important to observe that Miller color, and perfecting its gradations of here expressly fits into his scheme the light and shade ; but not the less, on this work of each of the six days. In another account, does it accurately correspond passage he remarks that it is specifically with the original, and show the man to his task, as a geologist, to account for the those who knew him. The advocates of operations of the third, fifth, and sixth the Age theory of Mosaic geology maindays, and this circumstance has occa- tain that, few as are the touches in the sioned the mistake, which has crept into pictured history of the world in the first so respectable a work as Smith's “Dic- chapter of Genesis, the geologist can retionary of the Bible," that he did not pro- cognize them as unmistakably true to fess to explain the creative proceedings the facts of the past. The correspond of the first, second, and fourth days. In ence alleged to exist has been illustrated the passage we have quoted he assigns to in yet another fashion. Look upon a each successive day its distinctive charac- mountainous horizon, in the far distance, ter and work. The entire scheme, then, on a clear day, and you perceive a delimay be thrown into a single sentence. A cate film of blue or pearly grey, relieved beginning of formlessness and fire, in- against the sky. The outline of that film, definite in duration; a first and second faint though it be, is, for every kind of day not discriminated by Miller from each mountain range, more or less characterisother, during which light, though created, tic. The horizon line of the primaries did not reach the surface of our planet, will be serrated, peaked, and jagged. but gradually struggled through the thick The horizon line of the metamorphic enveloping canopy of steam rising from a hills, though fantastic, will have more of boiling ocean; a third day, in which an curve and undulation. The horizon of enormous development of vegetable life the tertiaries will be in long sweeps, and took place, a development due in part to tenderly modulated, far-stretching lines. the warm and humid atmosphere, which Those minute jags and points of the prino clear sunbeam could as yet penetrate; maries are dizzy precipices and towering a fourth day, marked by the emergence peaks. The glacier is creeping on under of sun, moon, and stars in unclouded that filmy blue; the avalanchie is thunsplendor, but by no striking phenomena of dering in that intense silence. Rivers organic life; a fifth day, in which the most that will channel continents and separate imposing features in the creative procession nation from nation bound along in foam